Skip to main content

Full text of "The Cottage physician : best known methods of treatment in all diseases, accidents and emergencies of the home"

See other formats


' y 









Cottage Physician. 



Diseases, Accidents ^ Emergencies ofJLe Home, 


The Ablest Physicians in the Leading Schools of Medicine : 





President of tlie J^oyal Nledical Council, London.. 


Of the A.merlcan. Institute of Honaoeopathy, Boston. 

Assisted by other able Physicians and Surgeons of America and Europe. 

Complete )^a9d BooK of /T\e(diGal l^Q0u;Ied<3e for tl^e j^ome. 

00 ILLU: 






j;^\^t^ 3/!/^ 

Copyright, 1892, by 

Springfield, Mass. 

--y^^' 'w^ 

All Rights Reserved. 


at tlie following' j)ric;e.s : 

Cloth, Plain, $2.00 

Lkvant, Sii.k Finish, ;5.2.") 

Pkusian Seal, 4.00 

If persons desiring a copy of this great work will address Ww. publisher; 
an auent will call. 


The object of The Cottage Physician is fourfold : 1, to 
prevent sickness ; 2, to promote health ; 3, to diminish human 
suffering ; 4, to lessen the expense of maintaining the blessing 
of health in the home. 

Every individual has a right to know all about himself, 
which is now made possible through the wonderful advancement 
and recent discoveries in medical science. 

Of all departments of knowledge, none is of greater impor- 
tance than that which relates to the preservation of human life 
and the alleviation of pain and suffering. 

It is admitted by all, that preventive medicine is far better 
than curative medicine. 

Technical names and medical phrases have been studiously 
avoided or carefully interpreted, and the entire work stripped 
of that cloud of mystery which characterizes other books of simi- 
lar nature. 

This volume will be found so broad in its scope of infor- 
mation, so simple in language, so clear in expression, and so 
comprehensive that even those of very limited knowledge will 
find it a never-failing guide in promoting health, curing disease, 
and in the emergencies of the home. 

The ol)ject of the work is in no sense intended to detract 
from the dignity of the profession nor to take the pliysician's 
place, but, if properly used, will render his work more success- 
ful, thus his visits less frequent, and health more abundant. 



Chapter 1. page. 

Physiology for the Home, 9 

Chapter 2. 
How to Maintain Good Health, 74 

Chapter 3. 
Detecting Approaching Disease, 88 

Chapter 4. 
Diseases. Remedies and Treatment, 95 

Chapter 5. 
Womanhood, Motherhood. Counsel and Treatment, . . . 20G 

Chapter 6. 
Children, Care, Diseases and Treatment, 301 

Chapter 7. 
Contagious Diseases of Children, 334 

Chapter 8. •<? 

Care and Preservation of the Teeth, 351 

Chapter 9. .' 

How to Disguise Unpleasant Taste of Medicine, ..... 354 

Chapter 10. 

Homoeopathic Remedies and Treatment, 358 

Chapter 11. 
Key to Homoeopathic Prescriptions 393 

Chapter 12. 

Properties and Action of Homoeopathic Remedies, .... 895 

Chapter 13. 
Medicinal Plants. When to Gather, How to Use, .... 402 



Chapter 14. page. 
Botanical Treatment. Home Made Remedies, 432 

Chapter 15. 
Favorite Family Prescriptions, 447 

Chapter 16. 
Accidents and Injuries. Domestic Surgery, . 452 

■ Chapter 17. 
Physical Culture and its Power over Disease, 504 

Chapter 18. 
Hydropathic Treatment. Water a Healing Remedy, ... 505 

Chapter 19. 
Electricity. Properties and Healing Power, 507 

Chapter 20. 
Properties of Medicine Classified, 513 

Chapter 21. 
Medicines Classified According to Effects, 514 

Chapter 22. 
Latin Names of Remedies, Translated into English, ... 518 

Chapter 23. 
Antidotes for Remedies. How to Neutralize Overdoses, . 519 

Chapter 24. 
Disinfectants. How to Destroy Germs of Disease, .... 528 

Chapter 25. 
Poisons and their Antidotes, 530 

Chapter 26. 
Patent Medicine Recipes, 631 

Chapter 27. 

Select Family Liniments. Pain Relieving Remedies, . . 637 

Chapter 28. 
Choice Healing Ointments, 538 

Chapter 29. 
World Famed Family Cements, 638 


Chapter 30. pAtii:. 

Famous Medicated Pads, 539 

CuArTER 31. 

Noted Mineral Waters Possessing Healing Virtues, ... 540 


Side Talks with Young Men and Young Women, .... 541 

Chapter .33. 
Husband and Wife. Golden Counsel, 566 

Chapter 34 
Old Age. Care, Diseases, and Treatment, 584 

Chapter 35. 
Food for Infants, 588 

Chapter 36. 
Food for the Sick-Room, 589 

Chapter 37. 
Medical Dictionary. Doctors' Phrases Explained, . . . 596 

Chapter ,38. 
Diseases Classified According to Symptoms, 615 

Chapter 39. 
Clinical Thermometer. Sure Indicator of Serious Illness, 617 

Chapter 40. 
Phrenology Illustrated, 620 

Chapter 41. 
Toilet Remedies, ,. . . 622 

Chapter 42. 
Prescription Register, 623 

Chapter 43. 
Household Memoranda, 6;30 



a. External Jug- 
ular Vein. 

i. Deltoid Mus- 

c. Pectoral Mus- 

cle — Suratus 

d. Latissunus 

M u s c 1 e , or 

e. Transversalis 


/". Crest of Ilium 

£:. Sartorius Mus- 

//. ThyroidGland 

2. Trachea, o r 

7c. Right Ventri- 
cle of Heart. 

/. Right Auricle 
of Heart. 

711. Left Auricle. 

«. Outline of Per- 
icardium, or 
Sac of Heart. 

o. Left Lung. 

/. Right Lung. 


?-. Cardiac Orifice 
of Stomach. 

s. Kidneys. 

/. Urctus. 

II. Bladder. 



y. First Ribs. 
z. SubclavianAr- 

tery, (ri«ht 

and left J 

1 Apex of Heart. 

2 Lumbar Glands 

3. Lett Ventricle 
of Heart. 

4. Coronary Ar- 

5. Superior Vena 
Cava. (Vein.) 

6. Arch of Aorta 

7. Left Pulmona- 
ry Artery. 

8. Right — Vena 
Cava, or In- 

Left — Vena 
Cava, or In- 

10. Subclavian 

11. Interna! Jug- 
ular Vein. 

12. Left Common 

13. Brachial Ar- 

14. Pulmonary 

15. Descending 

16. Infer, or Vena 

17. Renal Vein. 

18. Right— Com- 
mon IliacVcin. 

19. Left, Common 
Iliac Artery. 

20. Femoral Ar- 
tery and Vein. 

21. HepaticVeins 






















a. Externa] Jug- 
ular Vein. 

I. Deltoid Mus- 

c. Pectoral Mus- 

cle — Suratus 

d. Latissunus 

M u s c 1 e , or 

e. Transversalis 

/. Crest of Ilium 

g. Sartorius Mus- 

/;. ThyroidGland 

/. Trachea, o r 

k. Right Ventri- 
cle of Heart. 

/. Right Auricle 
of Heart. 

in. Left Auricle. 

?/.Outline of Per- 
icardium, or 
Sac of Heart. 

0. Left Lung. 

/. Right Lung. 

?•. Cardiac Orifice 

of Stomach. 
s. Kidneys. 
t. Uretus. 
V. Bladder. 

y. First Ribs. 

z. SubclavianAr- 
tcry, (right 
and left,) 






















5 uj 


z r 





:i: or 





< It. 


























a. External Jug- 
ular Vein. 

h. Dc-lloid Mus- 

c. Pccloral Mus- 

cle — Suratus 

d. Latissunus 

M u s cl e , or 

c. Transversalis 

/. Crest of Ilium 

g. Sartorius Mus- 

7i. ThyroidGland 

i. Trachea, o r 

k. Right Ventri- 
cle of Heart. 

/. Right Auricle 
of Heart. 

?/?. Left Auricle. 

?i.Outline of Per- 
icardium, or 
Sac of Heart. 

0. Left Lung. 

/. Right Lung. 


7-. Cardiac Orifice 
of Stomach. 

.!■. Kidneys. 

/. Uretus. 

n. Bladder. 

y. First Ribs. 

z. SubclavianAr- 
icry, (right 
and leftj 

Physiology for the Home. 


The Head, — The head is the upper or crowning part o1 
the human frame. It consists of the skull, or cranium, and the 
face — the former being, as it were, a case for the brain. It is 
composed of eight bones, connected together by sutures, oi 
joinings, some having toothed or serrated margins, which fit 
into each other — some overlapping and others interlacing — a 
structure marvelous at once for its strength and lightness. 
Between the interior and exterior wall of the frontal or fore- 
head bone are what are called the frontal sinuses, two hollow 
chambers, which cause those bulgings above the upper edges 
of the orbits; and in the hollows beneath them lie, sheltered 
and protected, the eyes. Behind each ear there is also a bony 
prominence to which the powerful muscles are affixed, which 
are distinctly seen in the neck, Avhoso lower ends are fixed to 
the top of the breast bones. These are intended to guard the 
entrance to the internal ear, which is placed wliolly within the 
hollow of the temporal bones. At the base of the skull is a 
round hole of considerable size, through which the spinal cord, 
or marrow, passes from the vertebnB to the brain. On either 
side of this hole are two smooth prominences, called condyles, 
which rest upon the tops of the uppermost vertebras, and allow 
of a nodding motion to the head. Owing to the frequent 
modification by confluence, or joining together, of the human 
bones, it is difficult at all times to specify the exact number in 
any given part, and this is more especially the case in that part 
which "\ve are now considering. 




FIG. 3. 

PIG. 2. 


1, the frontal portion of the frontal hone ; 
2, the powition of the nasal prominence, 
the hollow within which Is shown, the 
cartilage which supports and forms the 
nose being mostly removed ; 3, over the 
orljit refers to the supra-orbital ridge; 
4, the optic foramen ; 5 and 6, the sphe- 
noidal and the sidieno-maxillary fissures; 
7, Lachrymal fossa in the lachrymal bone, 
where the nasal duct commences; 4, 5, 6, 
and 7 refer to parts within the orbit ; 8, tlie 
opfuiiiigof the anterior nares, divided into 
two parts by the vomer, on which the 
cyi)hcr is placed; 9, the infra-orbital 
foramen; 10, malar bone; 11, symphosis 
of lower jaw; 12, mental foramen; 13, 
ramus of lower jaw; 14, jiarletal bone; 
15, coronal suture; 16, lemijoral bone; 
17, Hi)uanious suture; 18, upper part of 
the great ala of the si)honoid bone; 19, 
coiniiieucemcnt of the temporal ridge; 
20, zygoniaof the temporal bone, assisting 
If) form the zygomatic arcli; 21, mastoid 


a is the cerebrum or brain proper, occupying 
the upper part of the cranium, and divided 
into two hemispheres, each of which is sub- 
divided into an anterior, middle, and posterior 
lobe ; 6 c, between those lobes, are fissures or 
boundaries termed clefts or snici, which pene- 
trate to the depth of about an inch. The two 
hemispheres of the cerebellum or little brain, 
which occupies the lower or back part of the 
cranium, are marked d. They 'differ in form 
and arrangement from the superior portion, 
being composed of flattened Inmhin: or layers; 
e is the mnlulla ohlonpala, very much the smallest 
portion of the mass, which jiasses out of the 
cavity of the cranluin into that of the vertebral 
canal, being a continuation of the spinal cord, 
of which the whole brain may bo considered 
as an e.\i)anslon; g, l,f, n, mark the shape and 
position of certain cerebral nerves; h, olfactory 


The Brain. — The human brain, the average 
weight of which is three pounds in the male, and 
four or five ounces less in the female, is divided 
into three distinct parts, called the cerebrum, 
cerebellum, and medulla oblongata. Of the mem- 
braneous coverings which enclose that soft, pulpy, 
organic mass, two have been called mater (mother), 
from the old notion that they gave rise to all the 
other membranes of the body; these are the pia 
mafer and dura mater — the former is a very delicate 
tissue, covered in every part with minute blood- 
vessels, which are, in fact, the nutrient arteries of 
the brain, before entering which they divide and 
subdivide upon the external surface to an extreme 
degree of minuteness, so as to prevent the blood 
entering upon the tender cerebral substance in too 
forcible a manner. The dura mater is a much 
stronger and coarser membrane, which lines the 
inner portion of the skull, and forms an external 
covering for the brain and its appendages. It 
gives off several elongations, Avhich are called 
processes, and which descend between certain 
portions of the brainj that termed the superior 
longitudinal process is the most remarkable, on 
account of its size — it extends from the fore to the 
back part of the skull, between the latter halves 
of the cerebellum, and, on account of its shape, is 
called falx cerebri, meaning scythe-like. 

Under the microscope, the cerebral substance 
is found to be composed of pulp containing both 
cells and tubes ; the outer portion of it is termed 
cineritious, on account of its brownish-grey color ; 
by some it is termed cortical, from cortex — bark — 
because it forms, as it were, the first coat of the 
mass; by others, glandular or secretory, on the 
supposition that it is of the nature of a gland 
Avhose office is that of secretion. It consists of 
fine cellular membrane, sustaining and connecting 
a complete net-work of small blood-vessels. Larger 
in quantity, and firmer in consistence, is the inner 
substance termed white or medullary ; it is said to 
consist of minute fibres, woven together like plaited 
straw. In man the brain is much larger than in 
that of the inferior animals — that of an ox scarcely 




Fia. 5. 

weighs a pound. It is in the human brain chiefly that those 
great inequalities of surface exist — those "developments" on 
which phrenologists build their theories ; they are not found in 
the hare or rabbit, nor in the Rodentia generally; they are 

neither so bold nor 
so deep in the ox as 
in the horse, nor so 
much so in the horse 
as in the dog, seem- 
ing to increase or 
diminish very much 
with the ratio of in- 
telligence, as does 
also the bulk of the 
brain; in fishes it is 
very small, and in the 
invertebrate animals 
diminishing to mere 
nervous ganglions. It 
is curious to observe 
that while in the 
chaffinch, or robin, 
among birds, it ap- 
proaches to the pro- 
portionate size of 
that of the human 
being; in the goose it bears a very much smaller proportion to 
the bulk of the body. 

The Nose is the organ of smell in vertebrated animals; 
and, in the three highest classes, is connected with the respira- 
tory function. In man, the nose, anatomically considered, 
consists of two largo cavities, called nostrils, a right and a left, 
formed by the bones of the face, and separated' from each other 
by a perpendicular flat partition, called the septum narium. 

Each nostril is divided by the spongy bone into chambers, 
termed the superior, middle, and inferior meatus. The upper 
wall of the nose is pierced by numerous foramina, through 
which enter the filaments of the olfactory, or nerve of smell. 

Besides smell, the nose has ordinary sensation, like other 
parts of the face, depending on filaments of the trifacial or fifth 
pair of cerebral nerves. The external prominent part of the 
nose, which gives character to the feature, is composed of 
several cartilages connected to the bones and to each other by 
strong fibrous tissue, sufficiently firm to preserve the shape of 


a, b, c, the cerebrum; d, the cerebellum or little brain; 
V, /, spinal marrow; g, pons varolii; h, , cranial bones; 
k, oi)tio thalamus; m, frontal sinus; p, hard palate; g, the 
larjnx; z, mouth of Eustachian tube. 



the organ, and so elastic and flexible as to permit the expansion 
and contraction of the nostrils in respiration. The nose is not 
only the organ of smelling, bnt serves also as the chief passage 
of the air into the Inngs, and has a considerable influence upon 
the voice. 

FIG. 6. FIG. 7. 

FIG. 8. 


1, part Of upper jaw-bone: 2, nose bone; 3, 1, pyramidal muscle of the nose; 2, mus- 

upper side cartilage; 4, lower do.; 5, cellular cle to lift the side cartilages; 3, com- 
tissue. pressor of the nose : 4, front dilator of the 

nostril ; .5, small compressorof the nostril; 
7, muscle to pull down the side cartilages. 

The Nerves. — These are cord-like substances arising from 
the brain or spinal marrow, and distributed to every part of 
the system. They are of two kinds — one white and opaque in 
appearance, and presenting, under the 
microscope, a tubular or fibrous struc- 
ture, and the other of a reddish-grey 
color, semi-transparent, and consist- 
ing of cells or vesicles filled with 
granular matter; these latter kind of 
nerves are but sparingly distributed 
in proportion to the former, and ap- 
pear to form the apparatus by which 
the nervous force or energy is gene- 
rated, to be conducted through the 
tubular substance to the points of action ; we may shortly state' 
then, of these two kinds of nerves, that one gives feeling and 
the other motion; and of the whole nervous system of the 
human body, that it is composed of the brain and cranial 




HG. 9. 


1, nerve of the lobe of the nose; 2, olfactory lobe; 3, nerves of 
the septum ; i, nerve of the palate. 
FIG. 10. 


Fig. 10 ropre.'ienls the mesial surface of a longitudinal 
section of the bruin. 1. Inner surface of left licmiMphiTo. 
2. Divlileil centre of the cerebellum, showiiit; tll(^ arlxir 
vital, a. Medulla oblongata, i. Corpus caliosum. 5. 
Fornl.x. G. Ouoof tlic cruraof tlie Ic)rnlx. 7. Onooftho 
corpora ailjlcaiilia, pea-sliapod bodies between the crura 
cerebri. H. Septum iucieuni. 9. Velum InttTiJosltum. 
10. S<!(;lion of the niiildle commlHSuro in the third ventri- 
cle. 11. Hi^ction of the anterior commissure. 12. Section 
of the posterior conniiisHure. 13. Corijora Quadrigemina. 
14. Pineal gland. 15. Aquedui-i of Sylvius. IG. Fourth 
venirii'le. 17. Pons varolii, tlirougli which are seen pass- 
ing the diverging llbnis of the corpora pyramidalla. 
18. Crus cerebri of the l(^ft Hide; the third nerve arising 
from It, 19. TulK^r clnereiini, from wlik-h projects the 
Infundlbulum, having llie pitultury gland apijemled to 
lt,H extremity. 20. Om; of tluMiptlc, nerves, 21. Tlie left 
Olfactory nervo terminating nnloriorly In a rounded bulb. 

nerves; the spi- 
nal cord, and spi- 
nal nerves, and 
the sympathetic 
nerves. Of the 
structure of the 
brain we have 
already spoken ; 
of the spinal cord 
or marrow we 
may briefly say, 
that it is com- 
posed of a whitish 
substance simi- 
lar to that of the 
brain, and is cov- 
ered with a 
sheath or mem- 
brane, which ex- 
tends from the 
former organ 
through the 
whole length of the 
spinal column. In 
Fig. 12 we have a 
representation of the 
spinal cord, surround- 
ed by its sheath, 
marked by the letters 
E E, the cord itself 
being represented by 
A ; B is a spinal nerve, 
formed by the union 
of the motor root (C) 
and the sensitive root 
(D) where the knot or 
ganglion is seen. 

The sympathetic 
nerve consists of a 
series of these ganglia 
or knots, which extend 
down each side of the 
spinal column, forming 
a kind of chain througli- 
out its whole length,. 



FIG. 11. 

communicating to both the cranial and spinal nerves, and dis- 
tributing branches to all the internal organs. 

These nerves, then, are un- 
doubtedly the organs of feeling 
and sensation of every kind — 
through them the mind operates 
upon the body. The intelligent 
mind, whose seat is in the brain, 
wills that a certain action shall 
be performed, and instantly 
through the main channel of 
communication, the spinal cord, 
the message flies, branching off 
here or there, according to the 
direction in which the work is to 
be done, and setting in motion 
the muscles Avhicli perform it. 

Fig. 15 will give a good idea 
of the way in which the nerves 
spread and ramify throughout 
the body; it represents a back 
view of the brain and spinal cord. 
The spine is the great main 
channel of nervous sensation, 


1, the cerebrum ; 2, the cerebellum, with 
its foliated portion, sometimes termed 
arbor vit£B; 3 is the medulla oblongata 
(oblong marrow), which forms the top of 
the spinal cord, which is represented by 
4 and 5; the first pair, or nerves of smell, 
are marked by 6 ; the second pair, or nerves 
of sight, by 7 and 8; the third, fourth, and 
T , , . . , , , i 1 sixth pairs, which pass to the muscles of 

and tne principal support to the the eye, 9,10, 12; the afth pair, nerves of 
bnnv frnnip- tliw i« nnp nf thp taste, which are also the sensitive nerves 
uuny llcime, iniS is one 01 llie of the teeth, 11 ; the seventh pair, passing 

most important parts of the 
human structure : it is sometimes 

to the muscles of the face, 13; the eighth 
pair, nerves of hearing, 14; the ninth, 
tenth, eleventh, and twelfth pairs, which 
pass to the tongue, larynx, and neck, 15, 
16, 18, 19 ; and 20 indicates two of the spinal 
nerves, which latter are arranged in thirty- 
two pairs, each arising by two roots, the 
one called the anterior or motor root, and 
the other the posterior or sensitive root. 

FIG. 12. 

called the vertebral column, be- 
ing composed of a number of 
vertebras, or short, single bones, 
so named from their peculiar con- 
struction, the term coming from the Latin verto, to turn — these 

bones turning upon each other 
in such a manner as to give flexi- 
bility to the spine, which is the 
first developed portion of the 
skeleton in man, and the centre 
around which all the other parts 
are produced. "In its earliest 
formation," says Wilson, "it is a 
simple cartilaginous cylinder, 
surrounding and protecting the primitive trace of the nervous 
s^'stem ; but as it advances in growth and organization, it 



FIG. 13. 


becomes divided into distinct pieces, which constitute verte- 

By the aid of Fig. 16 the peculiarities of construction will 
be best understood. The upper vertebra of the cervical region 
— termed the atlas, because it is the immediate 
support of the head — differs somewhat from 
this in shape; so also does the second, called 
the axis, and the seventh or last, termed 

In the lumbar vertebrae are the largest 
pieces of the whole column ; here the body is 
large and broad, and thicker before than be- 
hind ; the pedicles very strong, and the lamince 
short, thick, and broad, as is also the spinous 

Fig. 19 represents the coccyx (Greek for 
cuckoo), so-called from its fancied resemblance 
to a cuckoo's beak ; it forms the caudal termi- 
GANGLioN OF A sYMPA- uatiou or tall of the vertebral column. 

THETic NEEVE. j)|(j| |J-^q 'bodies of tlic vertcbrge rest immedi- 

ately upon each other, there would be a rigid column which 
could not be bent in any direction without displacement of the 
bones; but, to provide against this, they are separated from 
each other by very elastic "intervertebral cartilages," which 
yield to every motion of the body, and prevent that shock to 
the brain which must occur at every step taken, Avere not some 
such provision made. Then, again, the vertebras thus beauti- 
fully fitted into each other, and resting upon soft, yielding 
cushions, are braced together by a series of ligaments of dif- 
ferent kinds, which, while they allow of all necessary motions, 
yet restrain it from going too for. By means of these and the 
muscles, which are mostly attached in a longitudinal direction, 
!ind chiefly to the posterior portions of the vertebree, the equili- 
brium of the spine, and the motions of the body generally, are 

Each vertebra having a triangular opening corresponding 
ill i)osition with the rest, there runs through the whole of the 
column a canal, which is filled with the nerve substance and 
membranes, composing what is called the spinal cord, that 
communicates with the brain through an opening in the base of 
the skull. 

It is scarcely necessary for us here to go more deeply into 
the structure of the nervous fibres and cells, else might we 
state many curious and interesting facts concerning this part 



of the animal economy. Some idea of their nature and the 
beauty of their arrangement may be seen by the accompanying 
diagrams. Like tlie veins and arteries, they spring from great 
main channels, which may be compared to the stem and arms 

FIG. 15. 

FIG. 14. 

Fig. 14 represents the micro- 
scopic elements of the nervous 
structure. 1, Mode of termina- 
tion of white nerve-fibres In 
loops; three of these loops are 
simple, the fourth is convoluted. 
The latter is found in situations 
where a high degree of sensation 
exists. 2, A white nerve-fibre 
from the brain, showing the 
varicose or knotty appearance 
produced by traction or pres- 
sure. 3, A wliite nerve-fibre en- 
larged to show Its structure, a 
tubular envelope and a con- 
tained substance — neurilemma 
and neuriue. 4, A nerve-cell 
showing its capsule and granu- 
lar contents. 5, Its nucleus con- 
taining a nucleolus. 6, A nerve- 
cell, from which several proces- 
ses are given off; it contains 
also a nucleated nucleus. 


1, the cerebrum. 2, cerebellum. 3, 
spinal cord. 4, nerves of the face. 5, 
the brachial plexus or union of nerves. 
6, 7, 8, 9, nerves of the arm. 10, those 
that pass under the ribs. 11, lumbar 
plexus. 12, sacral plexus. 13, 11, 15, 16, 
nerves of the lower limbs. 

of a tree, and branch out from thence in every direction, divid- 
ing and subdividing into the most minute ramifications — so 
that you cannot so much as prick any part of the surface of 
the body but pain is felt, a sure evidence that a nerve has 
been touched ; nay, so much as a breeze cannot blow upon the 
body, nor the wing of an insect touch it, but the nerves 
give information thereof to the brain, and the mind is made 
aware of the cause, and takes its measures accordingly. Deli- 



cate strings are these nerves of an instrument of exquisite 
sensibility — so delicate as to be sometimes invisible to the un- 
assisted vision, that in many parts we are only made aware of 
their presence by the effects which they produce. They take 
cognizance of the slightest sound, the faintest ray of light, the 
least change in the constitution of the air we breathe, and of 
the food we eat; they are the vigilant sentinels ever watching 
PiQie. to guard the body from danger; the 

., --. .,^ constant ministers to its pleasure and 
delight ; often they are attacked and 
abused, their fine sensibilities deadened 
and perverted, so that they become 
subject to disease, and avenge the in- 
jury done them by a train of the direst 
sufferings to which humanity is liable. 

FIG. 17, 



1 Is tho body, concave In the mjddle, and rising on each 
side into a sharj) rlilgo. 2, the lamina of which there is 
one on each side, commencing at posterior part of the 
body by a pedicle (3), and expanding and arching back- 
ward to moot tho other, the two enclosing a foramen or 
opening thi'ough which tho spinal cord passes. 4 is the 
bifid spinous process; and 5 tho bifid transverse process: 
those are both intended for the attacliment of muscles; 
it is tho .succession of tho former projecting along the 
middle lino of tho back, which has given rise to tho com- 
mon name of the vortobral column— tho spiuo. G marks 
a vertebral foramen— there is a corresponding one on tlie 
other side, and through these pass tho vertcbrul artery 
and vein, and plexus of nerves. 7 and 8 are the superior 
and Inferior articular processes, tho first looking upward 
and backward, tho last downward and forward; of these 
there are four in each vertebra; they are designed to 
articulate with tlie vertebra above and below. 



riG. 18. 


°,tlie body. 2 2, articular facets for 
the heads of the ribs. 3, pedicle, i and 
5, superior and inferior intervertebral 
notch. G, tho spinous process. 7 is the 
extremity of the transverse process, 
marked by an articular surface, for the 
extremity of a rib. 8 and 9, tho two 
superior and two inferior verticular 


1, 2, 3, and 4 are the four pieces of 
bone composing it. 5 5, the transverse 
processes of the front pieces. 6, arti- 
cular surface for the extremity of the 
sacrum, which is tlie triangular bone 
comijosed of five false vertebra, form- 
ing the base of the column. 7 7, tho 
cornua or horns which articulate wltU 
the sacral cornua, 

FIG. 20. 


A very highly magnified view of tho terminal loops of tho seilsitlve nerves as they rise 
a the rows of papilla, giving sensibility to all parts of the body. 


FIG. 21. 

I. Frontal branch of the fifth nervo of the brain which bestows sensation alone. II. Su- 
perior maxillary, or that branch of the fiftli nerve wli ich supplies the upper jaw, and which, 
like the last, arising from the sensitive root, bestows sensation alone. III. Mental or in- 
ferior maxillary Vjranch of the fifth nerve. This also comes from the sont^itivo root. It la 
called mental, because it is involved in that expression which indicates the emotions of the 
mind. IV. Temporal branchesof thosame fifth nerve. They are distributed on the tejnplos, 
and are for sensation. V. The only branch of the fifth nerve which arises from the smaller 
or motor root, .and assists In the motion of those muscles which are employed In mastication 
or chewing. VI, VII, VIII, IX. These are spinal nerves— the first of the series which como 
out between the vei-tebra, in the whole length of the spine, to supply the body gen('rally 
with motion aiul sensation. A. The facial nerve. It is situated in the front of the ear, and 
Is the motor nerve of ttio features. It sends branches (a) to the muscles of the forehead and 
eyebrows. Branches (h) to the eyelids. Branches (c) to the muscles which move the nos j-ll:: 
and uiipcr lip. Branches (d) to thi) lower lip. Branches (c) going down to the sideof the nock. 
Conn(!Ctloiis ( /') with the spinal nerves of the neck. A nervo (y) to a portion of tho muscle 
that Is In the l>ac;k of the head, and to inu.scies of the ear. B. The nervus vagus, or the wander- 
ing nerve, so named from Its extensive distribution. This Is the grand respiratory nervo. 
C. The H|ilnal accessory nerve. I), the ninth nerve, which Is the motor nervo of the tonguu. 
E. The nerve which sui)pllcs the diaphragm. F. Branch of tho sympathetic nervo. G. A 
bran(;li of the nervus vagus.whicli goes to the sujxu-lor jwrtlon of the larynx or windpipe, 
H. AnollK^r branch of the vagus, which goes t(j tlu! infcu'lor portion of th > lary 'X. I. T- " 
nerve which goes to tho louguo aiul uj)por part of tho gullet called the jdiaryns. 



The Throat, as popularly understood, is of somewhat in- 
definite meaning- ; for few can tell where the throat bei^ins and 
ends, or what organs it includes. It is generally understood 
to mean that part of the human frame in which are the 

FIG. 22. 


1, upper turbinated bono; 2, middle turbinated bone; 3, lower turbinated bone; 4, hole 
leading to the canal which drains the eye; 5, Eustachian hole; 6, palate; 7, uvula; 8, epi- 
glottis; 9, pharynx; 10, larynx; 11, cricoid cartilage; 12, thyroid cartilage; 13, cavity of 
the mouth. 



passages for food and breath, namely, the gullet and windpipe, 
or all that hollow cavity which may be looked into when the 
mouth is wide open. 

The Tracheti is the cartilagnious and membranous cana' 
through which the air passes into the lungs, commonly known 

FIG. 23. 


a, tongue; h, palato: d, e, front and back of tho palate; /, walls of the pharynx; g, pos- 
terior nares, separated by the vomer; h, epiglottis; i, head of windpipe; k, casophagus; I, 
windpipe; m, under jaw. 

as the windpipe. Its upper part is called tho larynx, the 
uppermost and smallest part of which is called tho epiglottis, 
being placed over the glottis, or mouth of the larynx, and 
serving to close the passage to the lungs in the act of swallow- 
ing. From the lower end of the larynx the canal takes the 
name of trachea, and extends as far down as the fourth or fifth 
vertebra of the l)ack, where it divides into two branches, which 
are the right and left bronchial tubes. Like tho larynx, it is 
formed of cartilages, united to each other by means of very 



FIG. 24. 

elastic ligamentous fibres. It is also furnished with fleshy or 

muscular fibres, some of which 

pass through its whole xtent 

longitudinally, while others are 

carried round it in a circular 

direction; and hence it may 

shorten or lengthen itself, or 

contract or dilate its passage. 

Laryjix is the name given to 
the organ of the voice, situated 
at the upper and fore part of 
the neck, where it forms a con- 
siderable projection. It extends 
from the base of the tongue to 
the trachea; is narrow and 
cylindrical below, but broad 
above, where it presents the 
form of a triangular box, being 
flattened behind and at the sides, whilst in front it is bounded 
by a prominent vertical ridge. It is composed of cartilages 
connected together by ligaments, moved by numerous muscles, 
is lined by the mucous membrane, and supplied with vessels 
and nerves. The cartilages of the larynx are nine in number, 
three single and three in pairs, uamely, the thyroid, cricoid, 

FIG. 25. FIG. 26. 



a, ligament ot the tongue; h, epiglottis; 
c, the lateral ligaments connecting the 03 
hyoiiles and the thyroid cartilage ; d, cricoid 
cartilage; e, arytenoid cartilages; g, the 


a, ligaments of the tongue, with the 
epiglottis at thebaclt; 6, thyroid carr- 
iage ; c, cricoid cartilage ; /, g, the vocal 

epiglottis, the two arytenoid, the two cornicula laryngis, and 
the two cuneiform. The upper opening of the larynx is 



temed the glottis. The vocal ligaments are two narrow bands 
of dense fibrous and highly elastic tissue, stretched between 
the anterior angle of the thyroid and the anterior surface of the 
arytenoid cartilages. 

FIG. 27. FIG. 28. 




a, tlio skull; h, cerotoollum; c, 
coiih.Uic artery: (i, naaul organs; 
e, vo)nor;/, uvula; ;/, tonguo; /r, 
parotid glands; i, opiglottis; Jr, 
larynx ; /, hoad of llio pharynx ; 
TO, aisophagus; n, trachoa; ;), left 
branch; q, right branch of Llio 
trachea: r, large artery; x, tho 
heart; ?/, lower vena cava; ?', tho 


a, glottis ; b, c, d, the vocal cords. 

FIG. 29, 


1, vortebra3, or joints of tho great spinal 
column ; 2, tlie oesophagus, or gullet, 
Bomowliat iiattcnod, as in a state of rest; 
3, tho windpipe; i, 4, tho carotid arte- 
ries; 5, 5, the internal jugular veins. 
These, with tho nerves, glands, the ex- 
ternal jugular veins, ami muscles of the 
nock, are enclo.sod within tho skin 
marked by the double line and ligurosC, 
6; in front of the windpipe lies the thy- 
roid gland,?. 

The (Esophagus is tho gullet, or the membranous tube 
leading from the pharynx to the stomach, and forming the 



passage through which the food descends into the latter organ. 
It commences at the cricoid cartikige, opposite the fifth cervical 
vertebra, and, descending along the front of the spine, passes 
through the diaphragm opposite the ninth dorsal vertebra, and 
there ends by opening into the cardiac orifice of the stomach. 
Its length is about nine inches, and its direction nearly straight, 
having only two or three slight curvatures. In the neck, the 
oesophagus lies immediately behind the trachea. 

The Pharynx is the muscular funnel-shaped bag at the 
back part of the mouth, which receives the masticated food, 
and conveys it to the oesophagus. It is broadest about the 
middle, being constricted at either end, more particularly below, 
where it terminates in the oesophagus. 

The Tonsils are the round or oval-shaped glands situated 
between the arches of the palate. In their natural state they 
can easily be discerned slightly projecting on each side of the 
fauces; but when swollen and inflamed, as they often are in 
weakly and scrofulous persons, they are very noticeable, being 
bright red, and often hanging down so as nearly to close the 
passage of the gullet, and render swallowing very difficult. 

FIG. 30. 


<*. 6, e, npper, lower, and middle lobe of the right lnn?r ; d, e. npper and lower lobe of the 
left Inn;:; /.heart; gr, pulmonary artery, — this artery rises from tlie light ventricle of the 
Ilea rt, and divi<les into two branches, (me going to each Inng ; i, the aorta, or large artery of 
thu heart; fc, vena cava; I, diaphragm; m, chest bone; »i, windpipe; o, p, right and left 
lobe of the liver • a, stomach. 



FIG. 31. 

The Lungs are two vesicular organs situated in the 
thorax or chest, the cavity of which, together with the heart 
and larger blood-vessels, they nearly fill up ; so that when 
the walls of this cavity are compressed, the air is forced out 
of the minute air-cells of which the lungs are composed, into 
the several elastic membranes (the bronchi) connected with 
them. These bronchial passages afterwards unite, and form 
one tube, the trachea or windpipe, through which the air 
passes upwards and downwards in the act of inspiration and 
expiration, or breathing, as it is popularly called. A reference 
to Fig, 30 will show this more clearly. Here it will be seen 
how each division of the lungs occupies its own side of the 
chest; the left is the smallest of the two, because the heart, 
whose place is between the lungs, takes up more room on that 

side than the other. The 
windpipe, or trachea, at 
the top has the larynx, or 
organ of voice ; while the 
lovv'er extremity divides 
into two branches or 
bronchi, one for each lung, 
on entering which it divides 
and subdivides into ex- 
tremely minute tubes, 
which terminate in the air- 
cells, small membranous 
cavities, on the walls of 
which the blood circulates 
in a network of veins, in 
such a way that it is 
b r u g h t into immediate 
connection with the atmos- 

a, the laryiix; b, the windplpo; c, d, right and loft 

InanchM of tlie windpipe; e, c, the bronchial tubes ; pheriC air, WlllCll IS Clrawn 

f,/, puimouury vc«icfes. -j^ ^^ ^^^^j^ inspiration, and 

80 obtains its due supply of oxygen; that, and other gases of 
which tlie air is composed, making its way through the ex- 
tremely thin membrane wliich forms the air-cells : thus noxious, 
as well as healthful vapors, or gases, are introduced into tho 
circulation, and men are poisoned by breathing, as well as by 
eating and drinking, deleterious substances. If we examine 
the structure of the lungs, wo find that it is porous like a 
sponge ; when, by the action of certain muscles, the capacity of 
the chest is increased, the air rushes in to fill the vacuum, and 
expansion of the lungs takes place; then, the muscular move- 



FIG 32 

ment ceasing, the ribs, by their weight and elasticity, contract 
and force out the air, and this alternate expansion and contrac- 
tion constitutes breathing, in the act of which w^e see the chest 
rise and fall. The tubes, air-cells, and blood-vessels of the lungs, 
are held together by what is called cellular tissue, and the 
whole are enveloped in a membrane which covers their surface 
and also the under surface of the ribs, for which latter purpose 
it is reflected back. This membrane is called the pleura. 

The action of the lungs may be forced or increased by an 
exercise of the will. From fifteen to twenty-two is the average 
number of respirations in a minute, under common circum- 
stances; but this number may, and often is, very greatly in- 
creased by excitement, exercise or disease. 

The average weight of the lungs in a healthy condition is 
about forty ounces. They 
are, as we hare seen, of a 
conical shape, embracing 
the heart between them, 
being internally concave 
to receive this organ, and 
externally convex to suit 
the concavity of the chest. 
In their narrow part up- 
ward they extend a little 
above the fifth rib, their 
broad and slightly concave 
bases resting upon the 
diaphragm, and extending 
further down behind than 
before. Their color is a 
pinkish gray, mottled with 
black, — their shape we 
have already explained. 
They hang free in the magnified view of a section of toe mua. 

chest, except where they Sbowinu tlio arran":cmont of some of the lolniles, 

nrf» <i tf •-!/-> It orl +n fL/i ft-iino tlio conmiiiiiication 01 tho ail-Cells in one lobule, and 

cuo clLUlLlieu LU lue spine, j,,^jj. 8,.i.aration from those of the adjoining lobule, 

or rather to the incdlClStl- '^'^e lamiacationa of the blood-vessels in the texture 

■I .I 1 of the lung, and their course through the air-cells 

nUni, Dy tne pulmonary me also seen, l.l, branches of the pulmonary veins,- 

arteries and veins, and by ^' ^' branches of the pulmonary artery. 

the bronchial tubes on either side. The areola, or cellular 
tissue, which connects together the arteries, veins, or cells, &c., 
is called the parenchyma of the lungs, and constitutes the second 
distinct tissue, of which they arc composed, — the first, or outer, 
being the pleura, and the third, or inner, the mucous lining of 


the air passages, or cells into which the air enters when we 
breathe. So great is their number that they have been calcu- 
lated to amount to 170,000,000, forming a surface thirty times 
greater than the human body. Every one of these cells is pro- 
vided with a network of blood-vessels, by means of which the 
blood is brought into immediate contact with the air over every 
portion of their surface. 

The lungs of an infant before birth are dark red, and con- 
tracted into a small space, within the cavity of the chest. They 
are firm, and specifically heavier than water, in which therefore 
they sink, whether entire or cut into pieces. They also give 
out little or no blood, and no air-bubbles arise from them. 
This, therefore, is considered a good test whether a newly-born 
infant found dead, under suspicious circumstances, was really 
born so. If it has ever breathed the lungs will have become 
inflated, so as to float on water ; they will then be of a pale 
red color, and appear of a loose spongy texture ; having ex- 
panded, too, so as to fill the cavity of the chest, and cover 
the heart, as w^o see them in the diagram of that organ above 
referred to. 

The diseases to which the lungs are mostly liable, are all, in 
their first stages, of an inflammatory character; and it is im- 
portant to ascertain, as soon as they are attacked, in which of 
the various tissues, or other structures, the mischief resides. 
The state of the lungs can generally be ascertained with 
tolerable certainty by means of auscultation : the passage of 
air into, and through them, giving rise to certain definite 
sounds well understood by the practised ear, applied closely 
to the outside of the chest, either with or without a stetho- 
scope. When the lungs are not affected, these sounds vary 
but slightly in different individuals ; so that any deviation from 
their ordinary and natural tone, or compass, is r asily detected 
as an indication of disease, which sometimes renders the lun.^' 
BO solid that the air cannot penetrate its tissues, and sometimes 
fills the cavity which contains it with water. In either case. 
percussion will but make a dull, heavy sound. Then the 
power of conducting sound varies according to the com ition 
of the structure, so that an application from without is r;uro ,o 
produce such a response from within as gives the skilled physi- 
cian all the information which he requires. 

The Heart is the great central organ of circulation, ^ts 
form is that of an irregular cone, having its base dire ted 
backward towards the spine, and its point forward and down- 
ward towards the left side ; so that at each contraction it may 



be felt striking between the fifth and sixth ribs, about four 
inches from tlie median line. In this position it rests upon 
the diaphragm, having the surface on which it lies much 
flattened. On its right side, it is firmly attached to the 
diaphragm, which, it should be remembered, is the muscular 
partition between the chest and abdomen ; and behind, by the 
vena cava, or trunk vein which passes through the diaphragm. 

FIG. 33, 



a, b, light and left walls of the ventricles ; c, soptiim ventriculorura ; d, cavity of the 
right ventricle; e, cavity of the left ventricle, /, valves of the right ventricle; y, valvea 
of the left ventricle; h, entrance of the pulnionary artery; i, entrance of the aorta, 
I, m, upper and lower vena cava, n, pulmonary artery; o, aorta; q, heart-case, or peri- 

Behind and above, the heart is also attached, although some- 
what loosely, to the upper and back part of the chest, by tlio 
vessels which there pass out of the pericardium, or membra- 
nous bag in which tlie heart is perfectly enclosed, although it 
is sufficiently loose to allow of free motion. In a healthy state, 
the pericardium is lined with what is called the serous mem- 




brane, which is smooth and moist, and constitutes its inner 
coat or layer, the outer one being fibrous. This membrane is 
also reflected, so as to give the heart two coverings, which, at 
every motion of the organ, glide smoothly over each other, and 
thus prevent friction. 

The heart may be popularly described as a hollow muscle, 
having four cavities, two on each side. Its action is that of 
a kind of double pump, intended to carry on the twofold circu- 
lation, namely, through the body and through the lungs. The 

FIG. 34. 


auricle and ventricle, on the left side, being devoted to the 
Ibrrner, and those on the right to tlie latter. Between the 
cavities on one side, and those on the other, there is no natural 
communication, but each auricle is connected with its corre- 
sponding ventricle, by a valve which only opens by pressure 
on one side, so that the blood cannot pass except in the right 
direction, — any attempt to return being instantly resisted by 
tlie closing of the bag-like valves. Should these become dis' 
cased, so that they perform their office imperfectly, tliere wij] 
bo regurgitation, or passing back of the blood, and that oo 
casions serious derangement of the balance of circulation, re 
suiting in organic disease. These valves, which are also placed 



FIG. 35. 

where the blood-vessels enter the diflerent cavities of the heart, 
consist of membranous folds, and are, according to their form, 
either sigmoid or semilunar. The regurgitation of blood into the 
lungs or other parts of- the body, is 
not an unfrequent cause of hemorrhage 
or dropsy. 

It will, perhaps, conduce to the better 
understanding of all this if we enter a 
little more fully into explanation, and 
refer back to Fig. 30, which exhibits 
the heart more in its relations to the 
surrounding parts. Let it be under- 
stood that the two large lobes on either 
side are the lungs : / is the heart itself, 
receiving into its right auricle the blood 
from the vena cava (k) ; this is the 
venous circulation, which has gone 
through the system, and is on its way 
back to the lungs to be reoxygenized. 
Opposite to this, or on the left side, 
is the left auricle, into which the 
purified blood passes through the 
ventricle, and is pumped out into the 
aorta (i), and pulmonary artery (g). 
These are the main channels of the arterial circulation. The 
contraction of the auricle to force out the blood is called systole, 
and that of the ventricle diastole. At the root of each of the 
above-named arteries are three valves, which are like mem- 
branous bags, so arranged that when there is any regurgitation 
they assume the appearance represented by Fig. 36. 

The heart not only by its contraction propels 
the blood, but in its expansion it acts as a sucker 
to draw it up, so that it is at once both a suck- 
ing and a forcing pump; and such is the 
power of its action that the whole mass of 
the circulation, about twenty-eight pounds, goes 
through the system in the space of three 

The Face, Lips, Mouth, Jaws, Teeth, and Gums.— 

The Face is the lower and front portion of the head. It con- 
sists of fourteen bones firmly joined tou'other, except in the 
instance of tlie lower jawbone. The principal cavities are the 
orbits of the eyes, the opening for the passage of the tears into 
the nose, and the opening for the optic nerves. The nasal 


1, superior vena cava ; % in- 
ferior vena cava ; 3, left auricle ; 
4, left ventricle ; 5, mitral valve ; 
C, .septum veiitriculonmi; 7, aorta; 
8, pulmonary arteiies ; 9, pulmon- 
ary veins; 10, right auricle; 11, 
right ventricle; 14, descending 
aorta; 15, tricuspid valves. 

FIG. 36. 




FIG. 37. 

cavity in the skull is large, — the nose being composed chiefly 
of cartilage, divided by thin vertical plates, pierced above with 
numerous holes for the passage of the olfactory nerves. 

The muscles of the face are numerous ; and 
to these we are indebted for that infinite 
variety of expression that characterizes the 
human countenance, and gives manifestation 
to the Avorkings of the human mind. 

The Lips are the edge or border of the 
mouth. In man, and some other animals, the 
lips are two fleshy muscular parts, com- 
posing the exterior of the mouth. In man 
they cover the teeth, and form part of the 
organs of speech, being essential to the utter- 
ance of certain sounds, called labiates in conse- 
quence. These parts owe their red color to 
their extremely vascular structure, and the 
thinness of the covering membrane ; and their 
sensitiveness, to their abundant supply of 
minute nerves. By the color and general 
appearance of the lips, we may often judge 
Avith tolerable accuracy of the health of the 
individual: if they be pale, and thin, and 
shrunken, there is a deficiency of the red 
globules in the blood, and a want of vigor in 
the circulation. This we find to be the case 
in ansemia and some other forms of disease. 
When the lips are full, and have more or 
less purple in their tint, Ave knoAV that the 
blood does not undergo its proper changes, and ,that there is 
danger of congestion toAv^ards the brain. 

The Mouth is the cavity in Avhich the tongue and teeth are 
contained, Avhich serves as a receptacle for the food Avhicli is to 
be conveyed to the stomach, and by means of Avhich articulate 
sounds are rendered possible. The parts AA^hich are immedi- 
ately connected Avith it are the lips, the ujipcr and loAver jaAvs, 
the palate and tonsils, and the fauces generally. It is lined 
by the mucous membrane, Avhich stretches from the tongue to 
the lower jaAV, and is surrounded by the salivary glands, Avhich 
open into ducts in various parts of the cavity, and supply it 
with moisture. 

The Upper JaAV, or, as they are generally called, the 
Superior maxillary bones, are the largest bones in the face, 
with the exception of the inferior maxillary or loAver jaAv- 


a, incloses the four 
chambers of the heart; 
b. veins bringing dark 
blood to c, riglit auricle; 
d, right ventricle; e, pul- 
monary artery ; /, begin- 
ning of i)ulnionary vein 
conveying the arterialized 
blood to (/. left auricle ; h, 
left ventiicle ; i, arteries. 
The arrows show the di- 
rection ot the current. 



bone. They form, by their union, the whole of the upper jaw, 
and assist in the construction of the nose, orbit, cheek, and 

FIG. 38. 

FIG. 39. 




The muscles of the jaws, as might be supposed from the 
work they have to do, are strong and numerous. The action of 
the lower jaw is effected by the attachment of fourteen pairs, 
and of the upper by that of ten muscles. Many nerves, arteries, 
and veins, are also connected with thorn. 

The Teeth. — True bony teeth are found only in the higher 
or verteb rated animals, and of these only the highest class, — the 

mammalia, at the head of which 
is man, have them in single 
rows in each jaw. The human 
adult has these rows arched, 
and sixteen teeth in each row. 
They are of three kinds, as 
represented in the annexed 

First we hiive the large teeth 
behind, with broad flat surfaces, 
which, on account of their func- 
tions, are called Grinders (a) ; 
they are sometimes termed 
Molar Teeth or Molares. Alto- 
gether they are twelve in num- 
ber, being three on each side 
of both upper and lower jaw : the last of them are called Wisdom 
Teeth in man, from the fact that they do not appear until ho is 
supposed to have attained years of discretion, namely, from the 



eighteenth to the thirtieth years of his age. Next to these, on 
each side of both jaws, are two teeth whose surfaces are less 
broad, and which, having two sharp projections on each, are 
termed Bicuspids (two-pointed) (b). The sixth tooth on each 
FIG. 41. side is the E^^e Tooth (c) ; it has but one 

point or projection, hence these teeth 
liave been called Cuspidata (pointed). 
From its large development in dogs, this 
has been called the Canine Tooth. Be- 
tween these last on each side, coming in 
front of the mouth, we have four teeth 
which have neither the broad surface of the grinders, nor the 
point of the cuspidata ; but they are flat, having a sharp edge 
like a knife; hence they have been called Incisors, or Cutting 
Teeth (d). 

The above illustration (Fig. 41) exhibits more clearly than 
the foregoing, the peculiar form of the Molares, Bicuspids, and 
Cuspids, with their fangs or roots. 

The above three sorts of teeth, which we may call grinders, 
tearers, and cutters, represent three classes of teeth among the 
lower animals ; that man has them all we may take as an evi- 
dence that he is intended to be an omnivorous feeder. 

Although the teeth form so prominent and distinguishing a 
feature of all the full-grown individuals of the higher forms of 
animals, yet most of these animals, including man, are born with- 
out any teeth at all. When the child is born, the jaw is covered 
with gums, but underneath the gums are little cavities in which 
the teeth are formed ; and, as they go on growing, they at last 
press upon the gum, and causing it to absorb, finally break 
through it. This process is called dentition. It is frequently a 
source of disordered health to children, especially if anything 
occurs to prevent the absorption and ready yielding of the gum 
to the pressure of the tooth below. The absence of teeth dur- 
ing the period of human infancy evidently indicates that the 
food required at that period does not need their employment. 
It is a well-known fact that the food of the infant is its mother's 
milk; but it is too often forgotten that, till teeth are developed. 
Nature docs not intend the child to take food that requires 
})reparation by teeth in order to its digestion. The practice of 
feeding young children with solid food is the cause of great 
destruction of life; and even sops should only be sparingly 
administered, in cases of necessity, till the first 'teeth have ap- 

In the adult man there are thirty-two teeth; but if w© 


examine the jaw of a child after it has "cut" all its teeth, and 
before it is six years old, we shall find that it has but twenty. 
Nor are these teeth increased in number by the addition of 
others ; but whilst this first set of teeth are performing their 
duties, an entirely new set is growing underneath them, in pre- 
cisely the same way as they did at first. Gradually the fangs 
of the first set of teeth are absorbed, in consequence of the 
pressure of those beneath, and they fall out, or are easily re- 
moved, and make way for the others. The order in which the 
teeth appear, as well as the time, is subject to considerable 
deviations, but the following periods will be found to be about 
the time : — 


2 lower middle Incisors 4th to 8th month. 

2 upper middle incisors 4th to 8th month. 

4 lateral incisors 4th to 11th month. 

4 anterior, or first molars I'ith to 18th month. 

4 eye, or canine teeth 16th to 22d month. 

4 back molars 19th to 38th month. 


In some children the whole of the teeth may be cut by the 
end of the third year, whilst in others, the process of dentition 
may be prolonged to the fifth year. 


4 first molars, one on each of the two sides of the two 

jaws 6th to 7th year. 

4 middle incisors, two in each jaw 7th to 8th year. 

4 lateral Incisors, a little later than the last 7th to 8th year. 

4 first bicuspids 8th to 9th year. 

4 last bicuspids lOtU to 12th year. 

4 eye, or canine teeth 11th to 13th year. 

4 second molars 12th to 14th year. 

4 back molars, or wisdom teeth 18th to 30th year. 


The internal structure of the teeth is very complicated. If 
we make a vertical section of a tooth with a fine saw, and after 
having polished it on a hard and smooth whetstone, submit it 
to an examination under the microscope, we shall easily make 
out the parts indicated in the cut. We shall discover that there 
are three very distinct portions. First, the enamel (in cut a), 
which covers the whole of the external part of the tooth ; 
second, the dentine (b), — this substance, which is so largely 
developed in the tusks of the elephant and other pachydermatous 
animals, constitutes ivory ; third, the cement (c) or bone, forming 
the external covering or facing of the tooth. In the middle of 
the tooth (d) is the pulp cavity. Into this cavity the nerves 
and blood-vessels of the tooth penetrate, and thus serve to main- 
tain the living connection between the tooth and the rest of the 



FIG. 42. 

Each hard part of the tooth is differently formed. The 
enamel is by far the hardest of these structures, and is com- 
posed of dense semi-transparent fibres, placed side by side, and 
so small that they do not measure more than 
the five-thousandth part of an inch in diameter. 
Tliese little fibres penetrate the dentine be- 
neath. This substance is composed of two 
parts, namely, a number of very minute tubes 
anastomosing with each other, and an inter- 
tubular tissue. The tubes commence in the 
pulp-cavity, and pass on to the outside of the 
tooth. The intertubular substance is com- 
posed of very minute white granules or 
globules. The cement Avhich covers the out- 
side of the fang has a structure precisely like 
that of ordinary bone. 

The teeth are inserted in— or rather, de- 
veloped out of — the upper and lower jaws. 
The upper jaw is fixed, but the lower jaw has 
two round projections, which are inserted into 
cavities in the skull, in which they move with 
great facility. This movement is different in 
different animals. In those creatures which 
feed upon vegetable fibre, as it exists in the 
loaves and branches of plants, the jaw admits 
of a lateral motion, and the trituration and re- 
duction of this kind of food is thus insured. On the other hand, 
in animals which partake of food that requires no bruising 
before it is carried into the stomach, this lateral movement 
would be of no use; hence, in the carnivora wc-find this action 
of the jaw confined to a simple up-and-down movement, by 
which the food is merely divided or cut into smaller pieces. 
When Ave examine the jaw of the human being, we find that it 
has a combination of tliese two movements, — that it combines 
the rotatory action of the ruminant with the up-and-down move- 
ment of the carnivora. 

The Tongue. — The tongue is composed of muscular fibres, 
which are distril)ute(l in layers arranged in various directions. 
Between these fibres is a considerable quantity of adipose sub- 
stance, and in the middle is a vortical septum of fibrous tissue. 
Tlio tongue is connected behind Avith the os hyoides by mus- 
cular attachment, and to the epiglottis by the mucous mem- 
brane, Avhich forms the three glosso-epiglottis folds called 
Frsena Epiglottidis. At cither side it is held in connection 




FIG. «. 

with the lower jaw by the mucous membrane ; and in front a 
fold of that membrane, which is named Frasnum Linguj\>, is 
formed beneath its under surface. The tongue is covered by a 
dense layer, analogous to the corium of 
the skin, which gives support to the 
Papillas. A Raphe marks the middle lino 
of the tongue, and divides it into sym- 
metrical halves. 

The tongue, like the whole of the in- 
ternal passages of the bod}^ is covered 
with mucous membrane. This membrane, 
when examined, is found to be a continua- 
tion of the skin which covers the external 
surface of the bodv, and, like it, is com- 
posed of two principal parts, — a layer of 
fibres and vessels, covered above with cells. 
It is the condition of these superficial cells 
that constitutes the diiferenco between 
the skin and mucous membrane. The first 
are always dry and hard, whilst the latter 
are soft, and covered with a fiuid secretion, 
called mucus. This membrane covers the 
whole surface of the tongue, and is pro- 
longed below, passing on either side of a 
mass of tissue under the tongue, which is 
called the Frj\3num, or string of the tongue. 
It is this part of the tongue which, being 
prolonged to an unusual extent along the 
fioor of the mouth, constitutes the- condi- 
tion which is called "tongue-tied." It is 
very seldom indeed that this affection 
exists to an extent to require interference ; 
but it is very often imagined to be present 
by officious nurses and anxious mothers, 
when the structure of the tongue is per- 
fectly natural. It should, however, be 
known that occasionally so large a blood- 
vessel may be wounded in this proceeding as to produce alarm- 
ing consequences on the system of a new-born babe. 

Under the mucous membrane, and causing projections on 
its surface, lie the Papilla) of the tongue. These papilla) vary in 
size, but are very obvious to the naked eye when the tongue is 
put out. On examining them with the microscope, they are 
found to consist of blood-vessels and nerves. The nerves which 


1, the raphe, which some- 
times divides iu two 
branches as iu the figure ; 
2, 2, the lobes, the rounded 
eminences hero and near 
the top being the papilke 
fungiformcs, — the smaller 
ones among which they are 
dispersed being the papillcB 
coniceir, and filiforims ; 3, tip 
of the tongue ; i, i, its sides, 
on which are seen the 
lamellated and fringed 
papilla); 5, 5, the A-shaped 
row of papilUe circumvaUata; 
6, l]iQ foramen aecum ; 7, mu- 
cous glands at the root of 
the tongue; 8, epiglottis 
with its frasna (9, 9) ; 10, 10, 
the greater coruua of the 
OS hyoUics. 


are sent to these little papillae are not supplied from the same 
nerves which are furnished to the muscles in order to give them 
the power of movement, but from a special source ; and the 
branch of the nerve which is thus supplied is called the gusta- 
tory, on account of its being the part of the nervous system 
which gives the special sense of taste. Through this organiza- 
tion, then, the tongue is not only enabled .to assist in mastica- 
tion, but it becomes the principal source of enjoyment in the 
taking of food that is agreeable to the taste. 

The mucous membrane, as well as the form of the tongue, 
are liable to considerable changes in appearance, indicative of 
disordered states of the system. It is on this account that the 
tongue is so constantly examined by the medical man in dis- 
eases of the body. Itsi form and movements will often indicate 
the general state of the nervous and muscular systems ; whilst 
the appearance of the surface is an index to the condition of 
the mucous membranes throughout the whole body. 

The Gums are the cellular and mucous membranes which 
cover the alveolar f)rocesses of the jaw before the growth of the 
teeth, the fangs of which they afterwards envelope. 

The Eye. — The Eyeball, is a hollow globe, or small spheri- 
cal chamber, about one inch in diameter, having the segment of 
a smaller sphere engrafted on its front surface. This is what 
we see projecting like a bow v/indow, as it were, when we take 
a side view of the face. It is, in fact, the window of the 
chamber, and through it pass the rays of light which paint 
pictures on the retina within, of outward scenes and objects. 
In Fig. 44 this projection is very distinctly marked, giving to 
the sphere a frontal elongation. This globe is composed of in- 
vesting tunics, three in number, and of refracting media, called 
humors, of which there are also three. The lines encircling 
this globe represent the tunics by which the humors are kept 
in their proper place. 

Fig. 45 represents the Eyeball divested of its first tunic, 
so as to exhibit the second, with the beautiful distribution of 
the veins of the choroid, called venai vorticosce, from the pe- 
culiar manner of their arrangement. This is the external layer 
of the choroid, which is connected with the ciliary ligament. 
Next to it comes the middle or arterial layer, composed chiefly 
of tlie ramifications of minute arteries. It is called the tunica 
Ruyschiana, and is reflected towards its junction with the ciliary 
ligament, where it forms what are called the ciliary processes 
already spoken of. The internal layer of this tunic is called 
the mcmbrano pigmenti, which is composed of several lamina) 



of minute six-sided cells, which are arranged like a tessellated 
pavement, and contain granules of pign>entum nigra, or black 
paint ; this is not, however, quite black, but of a deep_ choco- 
late color. In Fig. 44 we see it in the dark line which en- 
circles the globe, and thickens considerably towards the front. 

FIG. 44. 

FIG. 45. 


1 marks the course of the outer tunic, 
called the sclerotic, which invests four- 
fittlis of the globe, and gives it its peculiar 
form. It is a dense fibrous membrane, 
thicker behind than in front, where it pre- 
sents a bevelled edge, into which fits like a 
watch-glass the cornea (2), which invests the 
projecting portion of the globe, and is com- 
posed of four layers, viz., the conjunctiva, or 
cornfa propria, consisting of thin lamella;, or 
scales, connected by an extremely flno 
areolar tissue; the cornea elastica — an elastic 
and excessively transparent membrane, 
which lines the inner surface of the last; 
and the lining membrane of this front vesti- 
bule of the Eyeball, whoso second tunic is 
formed by the choroid (3), represented by 
the dark line; the ciliary Ui/am-nit (4), which 
developes from its inner surface the ciliai-y 
processes, and the iris (C), of which the open- 
ing at 7 represents the pupil. The third 
tunic, is the retina (8), which is carried for- 
ward to the lens (12), by the zonula ciliaris, a 

prolongation of Its vascular layers passing along the front of the Canal of Petit (9), whi,ch en- 
tirely surrounds the lens. In the space marked 10, is contained the aqueous humor ; 11 is the 
posterior chamber; 12, the h-ns, more convf>-^ behind than before, and enclosed in its proper 
cai)sulo ; 13 marks the inner area of luo globe, filled with a thin membrane called the 
hyaloid, and containing the vitreous humor; 14 is the tubular sheath of the membrane, 
through which passes an artery connected with the capsule of the lens, and, at the back of 
the eye, with the optic nerve, as represented at 16. Of this nerve, 15 marks the neurileuma, 
or sheath. 

Our next diagram (Fig. 46) represents a front segment of a 
transverse section of the Globe of the Eye, and again exhibits 
that beautiful arrangement of parts for which this organ is so 


1, part Of the outer tunic, the sclerotic ; 
2, the optic nerve, communicating with the 
ball at the back; 3, 3, distinguish the out- 
line of the choroid coat ; 4, the ciliary liga- 
ment, a dense white structure which sur- 
rounds, like a broad ring, the circumfer- 
ence of the iris (5). This ligament serves 
as a bond of union between the external 
and middle tunics of the Eyeball, and 
serves to connect the cornea and sclerotica 
at their lines of junction with the Iris and 
external layer of the choroid ; 6, 6, mark 
the veiuB rorticosce ; and 7, 7, the trunks of 
these veins at the point where they have 
pierced the sclerotica; 8, 8, the posterior 
ciliary veins, which enter the Eyeball in 
company with the posterior ciliary arteries, 
by piercing the sclerotica at 9. The course 
of one of the long ciliary nerves, accom- 
panied by a vein, is marked by 10. 



We have hitherto been looking upon this wondrous little 
globe from without. Let us now take a view of it from within, 
as represented in Fig. 47. This is a posterior segment of a 

FIG. 46. 

FIG. 47. 



1, the three outer tunics; 2, the entrance 
of the optic nerve, with the vein Icnown as 
the anlma cmtralis relince piercing its centre ; 
4 is the foramen of Soemmering, situated in 
the middle of the axis of the eye. This is 
a circular spot, surrounded by a yellow 
halo, called the limbus hUeus. This halo is 
commonly obscured by a fold of the 
retina (5). 

1, the divided edges of the three tissues, 
the sclerotic (outer), choroid (middle and 
dark), and retina (inner), which last is com- 
posed of three membranous layei-s, the ex- 
ternal being serous, the middle nervous, 
and the internal vascular; 2, the pupil, that 
central spot, which enlarges or contracts, 
according as more or less light is required 
to be admitted; 3, the iris, so called from 
iris, a rainbow, on account of its variety of 
color in different individuals. It is com- 
posed of an anterior muscular layer, con- 
sisting of radiating fibres, which, converging from the centre toward the circumference, 
have the power of dilating the pupil; and also of circular fibres, which, surrounding the 
pupil like a sphincter performs the duty of contracting its area. The posterior, or hlader 
layer, is of a deep purjih; tint, and is hence named uvea, from its resemblance to a ripe 
grape. This is the surface of the iris presented to view in the above section. 4, ciliary 
processes ; 5, scalloped anterior border of the retina. 

transverse section of the ball. Here again we see, of course, 
only the divided edges of the tunics on the three outer rings 
from which extends the membrane covering the whole internal 
surface of the retina. The foramen, which signifies an opening, 
has been found to exist only in animals which have the axes of 
the eyeballs parallel with each other, as man, the quadrumania, 
and some sauritm reptiles. 

The Lens, or crystalline humor, marked 12 in Fig. 44, is 
situated immediately behind the pupils, and surrounded by the 
ciliary processes which overlap its margin. It is less convex 
on the front than on tlic hinder surface, and is invested by a 
peculiarly transparent and elastic membrane called the Capsule, 
which contains a small quantity of fluid called the Liquor 
Morgani, and is retained in its place by its attachment to the 



zonula ciliaris, already described as a prolongation of the vascu- 
lar layer of the retina. 

The lens consists of concentric layers formed upon a hard, 
firm nucleus, and becoming softer as they tend to the outer sur- 
face. These concentric lamellee are composed of minute parallel 

FIG. 48. 



1, 2, the Inner skies ot the eyelids; 3, 3, 
the Coiyunctiva ; i, the apertures of the 
glands, along each corner of the lids ; 5, 5, 
6, C, the Fapillce lathrymaks and the Puncta 
htchrymalia ; 7, the apertures of the ducts of 
the Lachrymal gland. 

1, the superior or upper tarsal cartilage, 
along the lower border of which (2) are 
seen the opouings of the Meibomian gtaruh : 
3, the inferior, or lower, tarsal cartilage, along 
the upper edges ot which are also openings 
of the above-named glands; i, the superior 
or orbital portion of the Lachrymal gland, 
from which come tears; 5, its inferior or 
palpebral portion ; 6, the Lachrymal duett, or 

channels through which the tears pass to the outer surface of the eye ; 7, the Plica femilunaris, 
containing a small plate ot cartilage, which appears to be the rudiment of a third lid, such 
as is developed in some animals ; 8, the Caruncula lachrymalis, the source ot the whitish secre- 
tion which so constantly collects in tlie corner ot the eye ; it is covered with minute hairs, 
which can sometimes be seen without tlie aid of a microscope ; 9, the Puncta lachryiiialis, the 
point, or external commencement ot the ducts, which terminate at the larhrymal sac, the 
position of which is marlied by 12; as are the superior and inferior lachrymal canals by 10 and 11. 
The nasal duct, marked by 15, and 14 is its dilation With the lower meatus of the nose. 

fibres united with each other by means of scalloped borders, the 
convexity of one body fitting into the concavity of the other. 

Before leaving this part of our subject, we wall give a brief 
summary of the iises of the several parts which we have been 
endeavoring to describe. The first tissue, the sclerotic, is 
simply one of protection ; the cornea is a medium for the 
transmission of light ; the choroid supports the vessels, such as 
veins and arteries, by which the eye receives nutriment ; and 
also, by its inner layer of pigmentum nigrum, absorbs all scat- 
tered rays, by which an image impressed on the retina might 
be confused. The iris, by its powder of expansion and contrac- 
tion, regulates the quantity of light admitted through the pupil. 
If it be thin, and the rays pass through its substance they are 
absorbed by the uvea; and if the power of that layer be insuffi- 



FIG. 50. 

cient, they are taken up by the black pigment of the ciliary 

When the body of the refracting medium is too great, owing 
to over-convexity of the cornea and lens, the image falls short 
of the retina, unless the object be brought very close, — this is 

near-sight. When there is an 
opposite condition of things, so 
that the image is thrown beyond 
the nervous membrane, we have 
what is called far-sight. 

Of the various nerves, veins, 
and arteries, which traverse the 
eye, we need not attempt a de- 
scription. To some of the princi- 
pal of them allusion has already 
been made; but to the appen- 
dages we must devote a little 
space. These are, first, the Eye- 
brows (supercilia), two promi- 
nent arches of integument, cov- 
ered more or less with thick 
short hairs, and forming the 
upper boundary of the orbits. 
Their obvious utility is to shade 
the eyes from too vivid a light, 
and to protect them from parti- 
cles of dust and moisture from 
the forehead. Second, the Eye- 
lids (palpebral), which, have been 
well called the Curtains of the 
Eyes; when drawn open, they 
leave an elliptical space suffi- 
ciently large for the purposes of 
sight, and when closed, as in 
sleep, they eftcctually defend 
the delicate organs which they 
cover from injury. If wo in- 
quire into tlie structure of those two valvular Eye-curtains, we 
find tliat they consist of integuments, muscles, cartilages, glands, 
and tlie mucous memljrano called conjunctiva, which covers the 
whole of the anterior surface of the eye, and is reflected back so 
as to form the internal layer of the lids. 

On examining the inner aspect of the Eyelids, the Meibo- 
mian Glands can be distinctly seen, arranged like strings of 


1, Sphenoid Bone; 2, the Critic Nerve; 3, 
the Globe of the Eyo; i, tlio Upper Muscle, 
called the Levator Palpebrce, the Lifter of 
the Eyelids : 5, the Superinr Oblique, so called 
from the direction in wliich it draws the 
Eyeball; we see its cartilaginous pulley (6), 
and the reflected portion passing down- 
ward to its point of connection with tlio 
ball, beyond which the Inferior Oblique has 
its bony origin, — the point of which is 
marked by the little square knob. The 
other four muscles are called i?fc<i,straight ; 
the Superior Rectus, sometimes called the 
Levator Oc-uli, erector of the eyes, and some- 
times Supei-bus, because its action gives an 
expression of pride; its opposite, 13, the 
Inferior Rxtus, sometimes called Deprimus 
oculi, depressor of the eyo, and Ilumulis, as 
giving an expression of humility; 10, the 
Rectus Internum, sometimes called Adductor 
Oculi, from its drawing the Eyeball toward 
the nose, and Bibitorious, a sort of punning 
name, in allusion to the cup, or orbit, to- 
wards which it directs the glance; 11 and 
12, Rectus Ef-ternus, the one showing its two 
heads of origin, and the other its termina- 
tion; the Intervening portion of muscle 
[having been removed] has the name of 
Abductor Oculi, becatiso it turns the ball 
outwards; Indiynabundus Is another name 
for it, as giving an expression of scorn. In 
our diagram, the internal rectus passes 
behind the optic nerve, which partly con- 
ceals It; 14, the tunica albigania, or white 
tunic, formed by the expansion of the 
tendons of the four liecli muscles. 



pearls, about thirty, on the cartilage of the upper lid, and some- 
what fewer in the lower, wliere also they are shorter than those 
above, as they correspond in length with the breadth of the 
cartilage. Each of these glands consists of a single lengthened 
follicle, or tube, into which a great number of small clustered 
glandular vesicles open ; and from these tubes the secretion is 
poured out upon the margins of the lids, which, being thus kept 
constantly moist inside, are in a condition to lubricate and Avash 
the surface of the cornea, which they do in the motion of winking. 
The Eyelashes {cilia) are important organs of defence for 
the delicate surface of the eye, for whose curtains they form, as 
it were, a silken fringe. 

FIG. 51. 

1, pinna; 2, lobule; 3, tube; -t, tympanic membrane; 5, Incus, or anvil; 6, malleus, or 
hammer; 7, Eustachian tube; 8, semicircular canals ; 9, vestibule; 10, cochlea. 

The Ear. — The Ear, the organ of hearing, consists of three 
parts, — the external ear, the middle ear or tympanum, and the 
internal ear or labyrinth. The external ear consists of an ex- 
panded trumpet-shaped cartilaginous structure, called the pinna, 
or auricle, which collects tlie sounds, and a tube which conveys 
these sounds to the internal ear. The pinna, or auricle, consists 
of an uneven piece of yellow cartilage, covered with integu- 


ment, and fixed to the margin of the auditory canal. This 
canal, or tube by which sound is conveyed from the pinna to 
the internal ear, or tympanum, is about one and a quarter 
inches in length, and is formed partly by bone and partly by 
cartilage and membrane. Its direction is obliquely forwards 
and inwards, and is somewhat bent downwards towards the 
middle, so tliat it is rather higher there than at either ex- 
tremity. The skin lining the auditory canal is very thin, and 
closely adherent to the cartilaginous and osseous portions of 
the tube. It is continued over the membrane of the tympanum 
in the form of a thin pellicle, forming its outer covering. Around 
the entrance of the meatus are some fine hairs; and there are 
also ceruminous glands, Avhich secrete the ear-wax, and open on 
the surface by separate orifices. 

The middle ear, tympanum, or drum of the ear, is an irregular 
cavity situated within the petrous bone, and interposed between 
the meatus auditorius and the labyrinth, or inner ear. It is 
filled with air, and communicates with the pharynx by the 
Eustachian tube. It is traversed by a chain of small movable 
bones, which connect the membrana tympani with the labyrinth, 
and serve to convey the vibrations communicated to the mem- 
brana tympani across the cavity of the tympanum to the in- 
ternal ear. The outer boundary of the cavity is formed by 
the membrana tympani, and by a small portion of the surround- 
ing bone. This membrane is a thin, semi-transparent substance, 
nearly oval in form, separating the cavity of the tympanum 
from the bottom of the auditory canal. 

The Eustachian Tube is the channel through which air is 
conveyed from the pharynx to the tympanum. The small 
bones, or ossicles, of the tympanum are three in number, — the 
malleus, incus, and stapes. These small bones are connected 

FIG. 52. FIG. 53. FIG. 54. 


together, and with the tympanum, by ligaments, and moved by 
small muscles. 

« The inner and fundamental portion of the organ of hearing 
is called, from its comidcxity, the labyrinth, and consists of 



three parts, — the vestibule, the semicircular canals, and the 
cochlea. It consists of a series of cavities channelled out of the 
substance of the petrous bone, communicating externally with 
the cavity of the tympanum, and internally with the meatus audi- 
torius internus, which contains the auditory nerve. Within the 
osseous labyrinth is contained the membranous labyrinth, upon 
which the ramifications of the auditory nerve are distributed. 

The Vestibule is the common central cavity of the osseous 
labyrinth, and is placed behind the cochlea, but in front of the 
semicircular canals. These are three bony canals, situated 
above and behind the vestibule, measuring about one-twentieth 
of an inch in diameter, and opening at both ends into the 

TIG. 55. 


The Cochlea, so called from its resemblance to a snail's 
shell, is conical in form, and placed almost horizontally in front 
of the vestibule. Its length is about a quarter of an inch, and 
its width at the base about the same. It consists of an axis, or 
centre ; of a canal Avinding spirally round it for tAvo turns and a 
half from the base to the apex ; and of a delicate lamina con- 
tained Avithin the canal, Avhich folloAvs its Avindings, and sub- 
divides it into two passages. The Avholo inner surface of the 
labyrinth, including the semicircular canals and the passages of 
the cochlea, is lined Avith a thin fibrous membrane, the outer 
surface of Avliich adheres closely to the bone, Avhile the inner is 
covered AAdth a single layer of epithelium, like that on serous 
membranes, and secretes a thin serous fluid. The auditory 
nerve, which is distributed over the different parts of the laby- 
rinth, enters by the meatus auditorius internus, and divides into 
two branches, viz., an anterior for the cochlea and a posterior 
for the membranous labyrinth. 



FIG. 66, 


1, the epigastric region; 2, the umbili- 
cal; 3, the hypogastric; i, 5, the hypo- 
choudrlac ; C, 7, the iliac ; 8, 9, the inguinal 

The Abdomen. — The Abdomen is the lower venter, or 

belly, containing the stomach, intestines, liver, spleen, pancreas, 

kidneys, <fec. It is lined within 
by a membrane called the j?er*- 
toneum, defended on either side 
by the short ribs, and covered 
with the abdominal muscles, 
which, by their relaxations and 
contractions, in the act of breath- 
ing, assist digestion, and give 
the necessar}'' secretive and ex- 
pulsive motions to the surround- 
ing parts. 

The abdomen is bounded 
above by the midriff, or dia- 
phragm; and below by the 
pelvic bones, forming the pelvic 
cavity, with which it communi- 
cates ; at the front and sides are 
the abdominal muscles, which 
also extend backward to the 
vertebral column, or spine. This 

is the largest cavity of the human body, and, for convenience of 

description, it has been mapped 

out into three zones, — upper, 

middle, and lower, — and several 

parts, or regions. 

The contents of the abdomen 

— or, as they would be more 

properly called, the abdominal 

viscera, this word being the 

])lural of viscus, which means a 

bowel or any internal organ 

which has a specific use — are 

situated as shown in Fig. 57. 

Below the chest (1), and next to 

the diaphragm (2), is the liver 

(3), extending from beneatli tho 

right ribs across to the left, and 

having the largest development 

on the former side. Next to 

this is the stomach (4, the smaller 

end of wliicli is situated in the epigastric, and the larger in the 

left hypochondriac region, where it comes in contact with the 

FIG. 57. 





1, the under-surfaee of the liver: g, the 
gall-ljladfler ; /, the common bile duct: o, 
tlio cardiac end of tlie stomach; s, under 
surface of the stomach; p, pylorus; il, 
duodenum ; h, i, the pancreas, cut across to 
exhibit the structure of the pancreatic duct, 
ami its branches; r, the spleen; c, portion 
of the diaphragm ; a, aorta. 

spleen, or melt. Behind the stomach lies the pancreas, or 
sweetbread. In the middle zone lies the large bowel (5), the 
omentum or caul, with a portion of the small intestines (6) ; and 
behind these, close to the spine, 
are the kidneys. The small in- 
testines also pass down the 
centre part of the inferior zone, 
as do laterally the ends of the 
large intestines, or colon ; and 
there also we find, when it is 
distended, the upper portion of 
the bladder (7). Over all these 
viscera, covering and support- 
ing them, extends the moist 
glistening membrane called the 
peritoneum, which extends also 
into what is called, in the male, 
the rectum, in the female the 

The Stomach. — The stomach 
is the large membranous re- 
ceptacle which receives the 
food from the oesophagus, and within which it is acted upon by 
the gastric juice and converted into chyme. It is situated in 
the left hypochondriac and epigastric regions, and when dis- 
tended it has the shape of an irregular cone, having a rounded 
base and being curved upon itself. The left extremity is the 
larger, and is called the greater or splenic end of the stomach, 
— the right or small end being called the pyloric. The oeso- 
phagus terminates in the stomach two or three inches from the 
great extremity by the cardiac orifice ; while by the pyloric 
orifice at the other end, the digested matter enters the duode- 
num. When moderately filled, the stomach is about ten or 
twelve inches in length, and its diameter at the widest part 
about four inches. The walls of the stomach consist of four dis- 
tinct coats, held together by fine areolar tissue, and named, in 
order from without inwards — the serous, muscular, areolar, and 
mucous coats. The first of these is a thin, smooth, transparent, 
clastic membrane, derived from the peritoneum. The muscular 
coat is very thick, and composed of three sets of fibres — the 
longitudinal, circular, and oblique, which form three layers. 
The areolar and fibrous coat is a tolerably distinct layer, placed 
between the muscular and mucous coats, and connected Avith 
both. The last is a smooth, soft, rather thick and pulpy mem* 



FIG. 59. 

brane, loosely connected with the muscular coat, and covered 
with exhaling and inhaling vessels. At the pyloric orifice, lead- 
ing from the stomach into the 
duodenum, there is a sphincter 
muscle which contracts the aper- 
ture and prevents the passage of 
any matter into the intestines 
until properly digested. The 
food is propelled along the oeso- 
phagus, and enters the stomach 
m successive waves through its 
cardiac orifice. It is then sub- 
jected to a peculiar peristaltic 
motion, having for its object to 
produce a thorough intermixture 
of the gastric fluid with the ali- 
mentary mass, and to separate 
that portion which has been suffi- 
ciently reduced from the re- 
mainder. This motion causes not 
only a constant agitation or churn- 
ing of the contents, but also moves 
them slowly along from one ex- 
tremity to the other. These revo- 
lutions are completed in from one 
to three minutes, being slower at 
first than after chymincation has 
more advanced. The passage of 
the chyme or product of the gastric 
digestion through the pyloric 
orifice into the commencement of 
the intestinal tube is at first slow; 
but when the digestive process is 
nearly completed, it is trans- 
mitted in much larger quanti- 

The Liver. — The liver is the 
secreting organ or gland by which 
the bile is formed. It is situated 
in the right hypochondriac and 
epigastric regions below the dia- 
phragm, and is of a reddish-brown 
color. Its form is irregular, being convex on the upper surface, 
irregularly concave below, very thick behind, and very thin in 




a, musolos of tho cheek; h, parotic 
gland; c, rrmsclos of tho gullet; <l, 
larynx; e, trachea; /, gullet; n, left 
ventricle of the heart'; h, right auricle 
of tho heart ; i, left auricle ; k, stomach ; 
I, pancreatic (lu<;t; m, gall-lJladdor; n, 
common duct; o, duoUonum ; j;, mesen- 
teric glands ; 2, thoracic duct. 



front; and in the adult it generally M^eighs from three to four 
pounds. It is divided into two principal lobes — the right and 
left, the former of which is by far the larger. They are divided 
on the upper side by a broad ligament, and below by a con- 
siderable depression, or fossa. Between and below these two 

FIG. 60. 


a, oesophagus ; b, diaphragm ; c, stomach ; (?, duodenum ; h, i, right and left lohe of the 
liver; fc, gall-bladder; /, biliary duct; m, mesentery; 2. ascending colon ; r, s, <, transverse 
colon; V, rectum; w, bladder; y, apleeu; z, left lung. 

lobes is a smaller lobe, called lobulus Spigelii, Avhich is bounded 
on the left by the fissure for the lodgment of the ductus venosus ; 
on the right hj the fissure for the vena cava. The lohulus 



mndaius is a tail-like process of the liver, stretching ^o^' 
wards from the middle of the right lobe to the lohulus Spigelii. 
The liver, like the other viscera of the abdomen, receives an 
ip vestment from the lining membrane of that cavity — the peri- 

FIG. 61. 


p. branches of portal vein ; f, capillaries 
conaectliig hepatic and portal vems; h. 


d, d, the hepatic ducts; b, 6, minute rami- 

hepatic veins. 

tonemn. which, being reflected from it at different points, forms 
broad bands, connecting it vrith the surrounding parts. An in 
vestment of areolar tissue is also spread over the organ, extend- 
ino- into the interior, and forming thin but dense sheaths to the 
vessels and canals, called the capsule of Glisson. The proper 
tissue of the liver is composed of a great number of granular 
bodies, of the size of millet, and called lobules, of a foliated ap- 
pearance. The blood-vessels of the liver are the hepatic artery 
and veins and the vena portae. The liver receives two kinds of 
blood: arterial, for the nouri-shment of the gland; and venous, 
from which the bile is principally formed. 

The secretion of bile, though the chief and most obvious of 
the functions of the liver, is not the only one which it has to 
perform; for recent discoveries have shown that important 
changes are effected in certain constituents of the blood, in its 
transit through this gland, whereby they are rendered more fit 
for their subsequent purposes in the animal economy. The 
excretorv apparatus of the liver consists of the hepatic, common, 
and cystic ducts, and the gall-bladder. 

The biliary ducts commence by small twigs in each lobule, 
and join, forming, where they emerge from the gland, the he- 
patic duct. This duct, after passing down for a short distance, is 
joined at an angle by the cystic duct from the gall-bladder. The 
common duct thus formed empties itself into the duodenum. 

The retention of the materials of the bile in th« blood acts 



like a poison upon the nervous system, and if the suspension of 
secretion is complete, death soon takes place. 

The Q-all-Bladder.— The gall-bladder is an oblong mem- 
branous receptacle, situated on the concave side of the liver, 
under the right lobe. It is about the size of a small hen's egg, 
and resembles a pear in shape. It serves as a reservoir for the 
bile, which, when digestion is not going on, regurgitates through 
the cystic duct, and is retained for future use. 

The Spleen. — The spleen is a spongy viscus, of a livid 
color, oval in figure, and situated in the left hypochondriac 
region, between the eleventh and twelfth false ribs. It is con- 
vex externally and concave internally, and its weight in the 
healthy adult is from four to ten ounces. 

The Intestines. — The intestines are that part of the ali- 

TICt. 63. 

FIG. 64. 




1, csecum ; 2, commencement of colon ; 3, 
Ileum ; 4, aperture of entrance of tbe ileum 
Into the large intestine; 5, 5, ileo-ca'cal 
valve ; 6, aperture of appendix vermitormis 
cjeci : 7, appendix ; 8, 8, sacculi of the colon, 
separated by valvular septa; 9, falciform 
frjenum of the appendix. 




mentary canal which extends 
from the stomach to the anus, 
and is formed by a peritoneal, 
muscular, and mucous or vis- 
cous coat, united bv cellular 

membrane. It is divided into small and large intestines, the 

first of which has three divisions, severally distinguished as the 
Duodenum, or twelve-inch intestine, the* membrane of whose 
inner surface presents a number of folds called valvular conni- 
ventes. This begins at the pylorus or lower surface of the 



FIG. G5. 

— df ^ 


. « 9 

^'"^ 4 

M «' 

stomach ; it bends first backwards, then downwards, and then 

across the body, being partially covered by the peritoneum. 

It then takes the name of Jejunum, so called from its being 

usually empty at this part. It 
then runs into the remaining por- 
tion called the Ileum, which takes 
its name from its mazy folds or 
convolutions. The small intes- 
tines open by the ileo-colic valve 
into the large intestines, which 
have also three divisions : first, 
the caicum, or head of the colon, 
to which is attached the appendix 
vermiformis, a little blind bag. 
The colon, which constitutes al- 
most the entire length of the 
large intestine, is termed as it 
ascends into the right lumbar 
region, the ascending colon ; as 

viKw OF THE FOLLICLES OF THE COLON, it crosscs tlic abdomou, tlio trans- 
MAGNiFiED ABOUT 115 TIMES. ^ ^^^^i of tho colou ; aud as it 

descends in the left lumbar region, the descending colon. 

The termination of the large intestine is the rectum, or end 

of the alimentary canal, — so called because it is nearly in a 

right line. Here the covering called the peritoneum ceases, 

and the intestine accomo- 
dates itself to the hollow 

of the pelvis, having its 

external opening in the 

anus, the sphincter of 

which, a strong circular 

muscle, guards it. 

The whole of the intes- 
tinal canal is a continuous 

tube about six times the 

length of the body, the 

first three-quarters of it 

comprising the small, and 

the last quarter the largo 


In the mucous coat of 

the alimentary canal is to 

be found a cribriform texture of veins, almost without an artery. 

The fine venous trunks of a deeper layer have their originating 

FIG. 66. 





FIG. 68. 

extremities directed vertically toward the cavity of the gut, 

and the meshes of the venous intertexture are exceedingly 

minute, producing in the ^^^^ ^^ 

colon an appearance re- 
sembling a plate of metal 

pierced with round holes 

closely bordering on each 

other. These holes are 

the follicles of Lieber- 

kulin, are gaping orifices, 

the edges of Avhich are 

rounded off, and their 

depth is that of the 

thickness of the venous 

anastomosis. The aggre- 
gate number of these 

follicles in the colon, is 

estimated at nine millions six hundred and twenty thousand. 
The villi (shown in Fig. 66) are curved, with their edges 

bent in, or concave ; but there is, in the whole canal, every 

variety of shape, from oblong, 
curved, and serpentine ridges, 
to the laterally flattened cone 
standing on its base. 

Fig. 67 shows a distended in- 
testine, with its arteries, veins, 
and lymphatics, or lacteals, with 
tliree glands (5), through which 
the absorbed matter passes, and 
in Avhich it is believed that it is 

The Pancreas.— The pan- 
creas is a single glandular organ, 
situated transversely across the 
upper part of the abdomen. It 
is of an irregular elongated form, 
from six to eight inches in length, 
an inch and a half in breadth, 
and from half an inch to an inch 
thick. In structure, the pancreas 
closely resembles the salivary 
glands, but it is looser and softer 

in texture ; and the fluid secreted is almost identical with saliva. 

Its object is believed to be to reduce fatty matters to the state 




of an emulsion, and thereby promote their absorption by the 
lacteals. The amount daily secreted by man is from five to 
seven ounces, and it is most abundant at the commencement of 

The Kidneys. — These are two glandular bodies situated 
in the lumbar region, whose office is to secrete the urine from 
■piQ 59 the blood. Their exact position is 

on either side of the spine, in what 
is usually called the small of the 
back, where they lie imbedded in 
fat ; each of them is supplied with 
blood by vessels which issue di- 
rectly from the aorta, and from 
each of them issues a duct called 
the ureter, which conveys the urine 
to the bladder. The kidneys are 
composed of two very different 
structural arrangements — the 
outer, or cortical portion being, as 
it were, granulated, and the inner 
being fibrous, arranged in pyramids 
or cones, with their bases resting 
upon the cortical substance, and 
their apices or points opening into 
SECTION OF A KIDNEY. ^ ccntral cavity— thc pelvis, or, as 

it has been called, the brain of the kidney, which may be re- 
garded as an expansion of the upper portion of the ureter, 
which is about the diameter of a goose quill, and eighteen 
inches long, passing behind the bladder, and entering that 
organ at its lower part. 

Each kidney together forms a firm, fleshy 'mass, which is 
enclosed in a fibrous capsule, the outer and tougher membrane 
being lined Avith a soft and smooth mucous membrane which 
forms a continuation of that which lines the ureter and the 
bladder; the shape is about that of a French bean. 

The Urine is a highly complex fluid, secreted from the 
blood by the kidneys. In a healthy person, when recently 
voided, it is a clear, limpid fluid, of a pale yellow or amber 
color, with a peculiar faint aromatic odor, which becomes 
pungent and ammoniacal when decomposition takes place. 
Often, however, as it cools, it becomes opaque and turbid, from 
the deposition of part of its constituents previously held in 
solution; and this may l)e consistent with health. The quan- 
tity secreted in twenty-four hours depends upon the amount of 



FIG. 70. 

fluid drank and the quantity secreted by the skin; but generally 
it is about from thirty to forty fluid ounces. In 1000 parts of 
ordinary urine there are 933 parts of water and 67 parts of 
solid matter. 

The Bladder is a thin membranous bag v/hich serves as a 
receptacle for the urine secreted by the kidneys, until it is 
voided through the urethra. It is situ- 
ated in the pelvis, and is kept in its place 
by ligaments, which are usually divided 
into true and false, the latter being 
formed of folds of the peritoneum. It is 
composed of three coats, or membranes, — 
the external, or fibrous membrane ; the 
middle, or muscular membrane ; and the 
internal, or mucous membrane. On each 
side, rather below its middle, it receives 
the two ducts called ureters, which convey 
the urine from the kidneys into the 

Generative Org^ans.— In the human 

race, as throughout the greater part of 
the animal kingdom, generation is accom- 
plished by fecundation, or the effect of 
the vivifying fluid provided by one class 
of organs upon the germ contained in the 
seed or ovum formed by another class, in J'^"'^ 
the opposite sex. This germ, when 
fecundated, is termed the embryo. The 
process consists of impregnation in the male — conception in the 

The organs of generation in the male are — 1. The testes 
and their envelopes, namely, the scrotum or cutaneous envelope ; 
the dartos, which corrugates or ridges the scrotum; and the 
fibrous or vaginal tunics; we must also here include the epi- 
dermis, above the testes ; the vas deferens, or excretory duct, 
and the spermatic chord. 2. Vesiculee seminales, forming a 
canal situated beneath the bladder. 3. The prostate gland, 
surrounding the neck of the bladder and the commencement of 
the urethra. 4. Cowper's glands, a pair situated below the 
prostate. 5. The ejaculatory ducts. 6. The penis, Avhich con- 
sists of the corpus cavernosum, the urethra, the corpus spon- 
giosum, which terminates in the glans penis ; then there are the 
vessels, nerves, and a cutaneous investment, which by its pro- 
longation forms the prepuce. 


Left Ureter; 9, Left por- 
of Seminal Vesicles: 11, 
Lateral Lobes of the Pros- 
tate Gland; li. Urethra, tied 
with a cord. 


The female organs are: 1. The vulva or pubendum, the 
external parts, comprehending the labia pubendi (lip), the 
clitoris, situated at the middle and superior part of the puben- 
dum; the nymphfe or ala3 minores; the urethra, which termi- 
nates in the meatus urinarius, opening into the vagina, which is 
occupied by the hymen, a semilunar fold, or the carunculai myrti- 
formis, its lacerated remains after the first act of copulation; 
and the entrance into the vagina, termed the os externum, so 
called to distinguish it from the os internum, or orifice of — 2. 
The uterus, whose appendages are — the ligamenta lata (the 
broad ligaments), sometimes called alas vespertilionum, and the 
round ligaments commencing immediately before and below the 
Fallopian tubes, which extend to the ovaria. 

The Perinseum.— The space between the anus and the 
external parts of the generative organs, so called from being 
frequently moist. The operation of cutting for stone in males 
is usually performed here, and here it is that serious injury 
sometimes occurs, when persons fall with their legs astride of 
any object, or get a bruise while in that position, as on horse- 
back ; bloody urine, or complete stoppage may be the conse- 
quence, arising from inflammation of the bladder, c urethra. 
Rest and warm fomentations, with leeches, and the use of the 
catheter, if necessary, must in this case be resorted to; with low 
diet, aperients, and cooling medicines, to keep down any ten- 
dency to fever there may be. 

We abstain from giving cuts of these several parts and 
organs for sufficiently obvious reasons ; in a book intended for 
family use they would be altogether objectionable. With re- 
gard to the diseases which more immediately affect them, a few 
simple remarks will be made under their several heads ; but we 
would here impress upon our readers the necessity of at once 
seeking medical advice for all affections of the genital organs. 
It is in the treatment of this peculiar class of diseases that ad- 
vertising empirics reap their richest harvest, entailing the 
greatest present sufferings, and most fearful after-consequences 
upon their too credulous dupes. 

_ The Bones. — Tlie number of bones in the human body is 
variable; but in the adult they are reckoned at about two 
hundred and forty-four. Tliey are equally divided into long, 
flat, and irregular — long, as in the thigh and leg ; flat, as in the 
skull and pelvis ; irregular, as in the hands and feet. Bones are 
covered with a peculiar membrane, called the periosteum, which 
serves to conduct the blood vessels and nerves. The osseous 
skeleton is divided into head, trunk, upper and lower extremi- 




ties. The trunk is divided into the spine, thorax, and pelvis. 
The thorax contains the principal organs of circulation and 
respiration, and is the largest of the three great cavities con- 
nected with the spine, and is formed by the sternum and costal 
cartilages in front, the twelve ribs on each side, and the dorsal 
vertebrae behind. The sternum is a flat, narrow bone, situated 
in the anterior part of the thorax, and connected with the ribs 
by means of the costal cartilages. 
The ribs are twenty-four in number, 
twelve on each side. The pelvis, or 
lower ca\nty of the trunk, consists 
of four bones. » The os coccygis, 
which forms the terminal bone of 
the spine, is sometimes regarded, 
like the os sacrum, as composed of 
four false vertebrae, which are at 
first distinct, but afterward become 
united. The ossa innominata are 
two irregularly-shaped bones, situ- 
ated one on each side of the pelvis, 
and consisting of three parts — the 
ilium, ischium, and pubis, firmly 
united in the adult, but distinct in 
the young subject. Each of the 
tv.'o upper extremities is composed 
of the bones of the arm, the forearm, 
and the hand, and is united to the 
trunk by means of the scapula and 
clavicle, which form the shoulder.- 
The scapula is a flat, triangularly- 
shaped bone, placed upon the upper 
and back part of the thorax. The 
clavicle, or collar bone, is a long 
bone, something in the form of the 
italic letter /. The arm has only 
one bone, the os humeri, which ex- 
tends from the scapula to the bones 
of the forearm. The forearm con- 
sists of two bones, the radius and ulna, which are parallel, and 
play upon each other, thus admitting of freer motion in that 
part. The radius is situate on the outer side of the forearm. 
Its upper end is small, and forms only a small part of the elbow 
joint, while its lower extremity is large, and forms the chief 
part of the wrist joint. The ulna is placed at the inner side of 





the forearm, and differs from the radius in being larger at the 
upper than at the lower extremity. The bones of the hand are 
divided into the carpus, the metacarpus, and phalanges. The 

bones of the carpus, or wrist, are 
eight small bones, arranged in two 
rows, the upper row comprising 
the scaphoid, semilunar, cuneiform, 
and pisiform ; the lower row com- 
prising the trapezium, trapezoid, 
OS magnum, and unciform. The 
metacarpal bones, or bones of the 
palm, are five in number, and corre- 
spond to the fingers. The pha- 
langes, or bones of the fingers, are 
fourteen in number, each finger, 
with the exception of the thumb 
(which has only two), having three 
of them. The upper and lower ex- 
tremities bear a great resemblance 
to each other in the nature and 
form of their bones. Like the 
upper, each of the lower extremi- 
ties consists of three distinct parts — the thigh, leg, and foot. 
The thigh is composed of a single bone — the os femur, — which 
is the longest and largest in the body. The leg consists of 
three bones — the patella, tibia, 
and fibula. The patella, or knee- 
pan, is a small, flat, triangular 
bone, of a spongy texture, situ- 
ated at the anterior part of the 
knee-joint, between the femur 
and the tibia. The tibia and 
fibula in the leg resemble the 
radius and the ulna in the fore- 
arm : the tibia is, after the femur, 
the largest bono in the body. It 
is situate at the anterior and 
inner side of the leg, articu- 
lating with tlie femur above and 
the astragalus below. The fibuhi 
is considerably smaller than the 
tibia. Its upper extremity is small, and placed below the level 
of the knee-joint, but the lower extremity projects below the 
tibia, and forms the outer ankle. The foot, like the hand, is 

FIG. 73. 


a, OS sacrum ; I), tho iliac; c, fossfn, form- 
Ing tlie lateral boundaries of tlie falsa 
pelvis; g, Iho acetabulum; d, os jjubisj 
f, iscliium ; /, tuberosity ot tho ischium. 



go to 

FIG. 74. 


showing the formation of Joints, the synovial capsules, and 
ligaments. The references are not given, as difficult and 
needless to remember. 

composed of three classes of bones — the tarsus, the metatarsus, 
and the phalanges. The tarsus is composed of seven bones. 
The metatarsal bones are long small bones, five in number, con- 
nected at the one extremity with the tarsal, at the other with 
the phalangeal 
these last 
f o r m t h e 
toes, each of which 
has three, except 
the great toe, 
which has only 

The different 
bones of the skele- 
ton are connected 
together in various 
ways, and such 
collection 3 are 
termed articula- 
tions. The^ are 
of various kinds, but are usually divided into immovable, mova- 
ble, and mixed. Immovable articulations exist where flat and 
broad bones are united to inclose important organs, as in the 
cranium and pelvis. In some parts the edges indent or inter- 
lock each other ; in others they are brought into close contact, 
or are united together by a thin layer of cartilage. The mova- 
ble articulations are of various kinds, according to the kind of 
motion required. In such cases, the bony surfaces brought into 
contact are covered with cartilage, bound together by ligaments, 
and Ihied by synovial membrane. Mixed articulation prevails 
where only a slight degree of motion is required, combined with 
great strength, as in the vertebrae. 

Bone is a highly organized and complex substance. It con- 
sists of animal and earthy, and saline materials, in the propor- 
tion of about one-third of the former to two-thirds of the latter ; 
or, to speak more strictly, according to chemical analysis, we 
may say that in lOO'OO parts there are 33"30 of cartilage and 
blood-vessels, 5I"04 phosphate of lime, 11*30 carbonate of lime, 
2"00 fluate of lime, and 2*36 magnesia and soda. 

In the human frame the bones are of various forms and de- 
grees of density, or hardness. Thus, in the limbs, they are 
hollow cylinders, combining lightness with strength; in the 
body and head they are chiefly flattened and arched, forming 
cases for the internal viscera; in the spine and extremities, they 



FIG. 75, 

are in many pieces, to facilitate the bending of the numerous 
joints. Their connections with each other are accomplished 

and preserved in manv ways. 
In all bones, whether hollow or 
solid, the outer portion is harder 
than the inner; many of them 
are spongy, or, as it is scien- 
tifically termed, cancellated, and 
most of them have minute irregu- 
lar cells scattered through their 
texture. At those extremities, 
where a smooth and elastic sub- 
stance is required for the joints, 
most bones have a covering of 
cartilage. Bones are first de- 
veloped in a gelatinous form, 
which hardens into cartilage, 
and then receives the deposit 
of lime, by which they are ren- 
dered firm ; sometimes there is 
a deficiency of the earthy de- 
posit, and thus the bones are 
l3ent and yielding. When there 
is too much lime the bones are 
too brittle and easily broken. 
One of the principal diseases to 
which the bones are subject is 
Caries. It acts on the perios- 
teum like ulceration on the soft 
parts of the body. 
Another disease of 
the bones is Ne- 
crosis. It is, as its 
name implies, 
actual death of the 
osseous substance. 
Both these diseases 
are characterized ^^ -Ij 
by a constant gnaw- 
ing pain in the bone. 
Swelling and red- bones of the 

BOXES OF THE LEG. j^ggg ^^^^ ^1,^ ggat ^^'^■ 

of the disease ensues ; there is a formation of matter and a dis- 
charge of a foul, fcetid character, communicating a dark stain 

FIG. 77. 




FIG. 78. 

to the dressings. Several openings in the skin may occur along 
the course of the diseased bone, of which occasionally small 
pieces may come away with the dis- 

Many minute blood-vessels pass into 
and through the porous tissues of the 
bones, and hence they are liable to 
inflammation and congestion, both acute 
and chronic, resulting in softening, 
and ulceration or mortification, pass- 
ing thus into caries and necrosis. That 
which is commonly called a White 
Sicelling is a result of chronic inflam- 
mation. It ends in caries of the 
spongy texture of the ends of the 
bone, and destruction of their carti- 
laginous lining. Abscess of bone some- 
times results from inflammation, and 
especially after acute disease, such as 
small-pox. A prominent symptom is 
a fixed pain in one spot, in addition 
to inflammatory enlargement. 

Exfoliation is the death of the outer 
bony layer only. It is generally 
caused by some injury to the bone 
from a blow or a graze, or the ampu- 
tating-knife. In this case the shell 
dies, and is replaced by fresh osse- 
ous matter coming up from beneath 
by granulations pushing the dead 
bone from its place in thin flakes or 

The Muscles. — The muscles are 
the moving organs of the animal 
frame. They constitute, by their 
size and number, the great bulk of 
the body, upon which they bestow 
form and symmetry. In the limbs, a.xhcSkuU; 6,therace; o.cervi 

.1 'i J. 1 J J.1 1 cal Vertebrfp, or Neck-Bones; d, 

they are situated around the bone, Breast vertigo; e. Lumbar Vertel 

whifh thev invest and dpfpnd wbilp ^''^> °^ Spine; /, Os Sacrum, or 
\\mcu Luey in vest ana ueiena, ^^ mie Rump-Bone; g, coccyx; h, luum. 

they form to some of the lOmtS a or Hcaunct-Bone : i, sternum, or 
^ '' Breast Bone ; 1% Ribs ; ?, Clavicle, or 

CoUar-Bone; to, Scapula, or Blade-Bone ; n. Humerus, or Arm-Bone; o, Radius, or Circular- 
Bone of Forearm; />, Ulna, or large Bone of the Forearm: q. Carpus, or Hand -Bones; r. 
Phalanges, or Fingers; .s Femur, or Thigli-Bone; t. Patella, or Knee-bone; u. Tibia, or Shin- 
Boue; i\ Fibula, or Small Bone of the Leg; u, w. Tarsus, or Foot Boue; x, Calcium, or Heel- 
Bone ; z, z. Phalanges, or Toes. 




FIG. 79. 


principal protection. In the trunk, they are spread out to en- 
«;lose cavities and constitute a defensive wall, capable of yield- 
ing to internal pressures and 
again returning to its 

Muscle is composed of a number 
of parallel fibres placed side by 
side, and supported and held to- 
gether by a delicate web of areo- 
lar tissue ; so that, if it were possi- 
ble to remove the muscular sub- 
stance, we should have remaining 
a beautiful reticular framework, 
possessing the exact form and 
size of the muscle, without its 
color and solidity. Towards the 
extremity of the organ the mus- 
cular fibre ceases, and the fibrous 
structure becomes aggregated 
and modified, so as to constitute 
those glistening fibres and cords 
by which the muscle is tied to 
the surface of bone, and which 
are called tendons. Almost every 
muscle of the body is connected 
with bone, either by tendinous 
fibres, or by an aggregation of 
these fibres constituting a tendon, 
and the union is so firm, that, 
under extreme violence, the bone 
itself breaks rather than permit 
the separation of the tendon from 
its attachment. 

It may be interesting, as well as 
useful, to enter a little more fully 
into the structure of muscle,whicli, 
as before stated, is composed of 
bundles of fibres enclosed in an 
investment or sheath of areolar 
membrane, which is continuous 
with the framework of the mus- 
cular fibres, each bundle of which, termed a fasciculus, is com- 
posed of a numl)er of smaller bundles, and these of single fibres, 
which, from their minute size, and independent appearance, 


a. Muscles of the Head; 6, Visual Mus- 
cles; c. Cervical Muscles; rf, Comhiuatlou 
of tho Cervical Muscles; e, Pocloral Mus- 
cles; /, Dorsal Muscles; <i. Abdominal 
Muscles; h. Muscles of the Pelvis; i. 
Shoulder Muscles; I, Muscles of tlio 
Upper Arm ; m, Anterior Muscles of tho 


have been called ultimate fibres; although microscopic exami- 
nation informs us that each one of these is itself a fasciculus, 
made up of ultimate fihrils enclosed in an extremely delicate 
sheath, called the myolemma or sarcolemma. The appearance 
of one of these bundles of fibrils, as magnified, is shown in 
Fig. 80. 

Of the ultimate muscular fibre there are ^ '^^^• 
two sorts in the animal economy, viz., that of 
voluntaiy or animal life, called striated mus- 
cle, and that of involuntary or organic life, muscttlar riBniLs. 
termed smooth muscle. The former is known by its size, its 
uniformity of calibre, and especially by its transverse markings, 
which occur at minute and regular distances. It also presents 
markings, or strire, in a longitudinal direction, which indicate 
the existence of fibrilla) Avithin the sheath, or myolemma, which 
is thin, transparent, and elastic. The ultimate fibres, or fasci- 
culi, are polyhedral, or many sided, in shape, this form being 
due to mutual pressure ; and that the sizes differ in different 
classes, genera, and even sexes of animals. The ultimate fibrils 
of animal life are beaded filaments, presenting a regular suc- 
cession of segments and constrictions, the latter being narrower 
than the former, and the component substance probably loss 
dense. The arrangement of a bundle of these fibrils in an ulti- 
mate fibre, is such that all the segments and constrictions corre- 
spond, and in this manner give rise to the alternate light and 
dark lines of the transverse stride. The beautiful regularity of 
this arrangement may be seen by Fig. 81, in which B "represents 
the ultimate Jih-il of animal life, and C the union of such in an 
ultimate j^&re. 

We have mentioned that the ultimate fibril of animal life, 
FIG. 81. although cylindrical, becomes pol3'hcdral from press- 
ure, when forming part of an ultimate fibre, or fasci- 
culus. It measures in diameter l-2000th of an inch, 
and is composed of a succession of cells connected by 
thin flat surfaces. These cells are filled with a trans- 
parent substance which has been called myoUnc. It 
differs in density in different cells, and this circum- 
stance imparts a peculiarity of character to certain 
of them, and causes the structures which they form 
FiBKE. yiHRiL. to assumc, under the microscope, a very beautiful 
and remarkable appearance, such as is represented in Fig. 82. 

Very different from all this in its form and arrangement, is 
the ultimate fibre of organic life, it being a simple homogeneous 
filament much smaller than the fibre of animal life, — flat, smooth, 



FIG. 82. 
B C 

'P 1' 

■ =2 i 


and without transverse markings. It is of a fusiform shape, 
and various length, and consists of a thin external membrane, 
blended with a soft, homogenous, or finely granular contained 
substance. Fig. 83 represents muscular 
fibres of organic life — D from the urinary- 
bladder, and E from the stomach, both 
magnified 600 times, linear measure; the 
diameter of these two fibres midway between 
the thick parts, or nuclei, being l-4750th of 
an inch. 

This kind of muscle is distributed very 
abundantly in the animal frame, and is met 
yviih in all situations where a distinct con- 
tractile power, independent of mere elasticity, 
is required. 

The Arteries are vessels which convey 
the blood from the heart, — formerly sup- 
posed, from their being found empty after 
death to contain only air. The arterial system of the human 
frame is that which performs one of the most important func- 
tions on which vitality depends. Proceeding directly from the 
Iieart, and ramifying in every direction, through all the various 
tissues of the body, it conveys the blood, after it has received a 
supply of oxygen from the lungs, and been passed into the great 
organ with which the arteries are connected, wheresoever it is 
required for the purposes of life. These arteries are membra- 
nous cyliirdrical tubes, composed of three coats, and 
are so constructed as to be capable of considerable 
extension, and likewise of bearing a great amount of 
strain and pressure, to which they are occasionally 
subjected, and which results sometimes in a rupture. 
The whole of the arteries of what is called the 
systemic circulation, proceed from a single trunk 
termed the aorta. This main trunk or channel pro- 
ceeds from the left ventricle of the heart, and con- 
tains the pure arterial blood, known by its bright red 
color, and issuing, when it makes its escape at any 
accidental opening, in jots, in accordance with the 
l)ulsation8. From these the smaller arteries are given 
off as branches, dividing and subdividing to their 
ultimate ramifications, constituting the great arterial 
tree, of some of the principal branches of which, we 
here present our readers with a cut, wliicli represents the large 
vessels at the rout of the heart and lungs. It is necessary 

FIG. 83. 




here to refer to the minute explanation of the figured points of 
figure 84. 

FIG. 84. 
1, The ascending aorta ; 2, the transverse 

portion ol the arch of the same; 3, Its 
thoracic portion, passing through the 
chest; 4, the arteria innominata springing 
out of the arch, an<i divided Into the com- 
mon carotid; 5, which again divides at 6, 
into the external and Internal carotid, 
and 7 the right subclavian artery, which 
passes Into the auxiliary artery 8, whoso 
extent Is Indicated by the dotted lines; 
this again runs Into the brachial artery, 
which forms the channel of supply to the 
right arm. The two lines " " are a pair of 
nerves called the rlcht' an - left pncumo- 
gastric ; 11 Is the left comnon carotid, and 
12 the loft subclavian, becoming auxiliary 
and brachial in Its course, like its follow 
on the opposite side; all theso belong to 
the greater systemic cir ilation, as do also 21, 
intercostal arteries, and the branches from 
the front of the aorta above and below 3, 
which are pnricardirui and assophaglal, per- 
taining to the pericardium and the a3so- 
phagus, and abdomen. 

We now go back on the diagram to No. 3, 
the trunk of the pulmonary artery, which 
emanating from the right ventricle of the 
heart conveys the impure blood, returned 
there by the veins to the lungs for aera- 
tion. This Is the main channel of the 
lesser or pulmonary circulation, it is con- 
nected with the concavity of the arch of 
the aorta by a fibrous cord, called tho ductus arteriosus. 

14, the left pulmonary artery, and 15 the right; 16 the trachea, or windpipe, the passage 
which communicates with tho lungs, will serve to ^how tho relative positions of these 
arteries; 17 and 18 are the right and left bronchus, and 19 are the jjulmonary veins; tho 
rest of the numbers indicate the roots of the lungs. 

The arteries do not, as was at one time supposed, run im- 
mediately into the veins, but are connected with them by what 
are called the capillaries, a hair-like network of vessels so 
minute that it requires a microscope to make them out; these 
are, it is said, about l-3000th of an inch in diameter, and they 
are distributed through every part of the body so thickly as to 
render it impossible to pass a small needle into the flesh without 
wounding several of them ; hence the flow of blood from a prick; 
it is through this medium that all the phenomena of nutrition 
and secretion are performed ; they are all small alike, and are 
joined on the one hand with the terminal ramifications of the 
arteries, and on the other with the minute radicles of the 
The capillary vessels have but on© coat, which is transparent 




and fibrelcss ; as they approacli tlie arteries and veins this coal 
becomes thicker, and, in accorchance with the substance thereof, 
they are distinguished as line or coarse ; the latter gradually 

FIG. 86. 

FIG. 85. 


A, Is the descending portion of the Duodenum ; 
B, is a transverse section of tlie same; C, tlie 
Pancreas; D, Jejunum; E, Ilium; F, Coecum, 
and Apjiendix Vermlformis; G, Ascending Colon; 
H, Transverse Colon; I, Descending Colon; J.Su- 
perior Mesenteric Artery; K, Colica Media; L, 
tlie branch which Inosculates (or joins by little 
mouths) with the Colica Sinistra; M, Inferior 
riiiicroaiic Duodenum; N. Colica Dextra; O, Ilio 
Colica; P, Vasa Intostiui Tenous, 


1. Minute artery. 2. Transitional 
capillary. 3. Coarse capillary, the 
ttiick coat being represented by the 
double lines of contour, i. Fino 
capillary, the black marks indicate 
the position of certain nuclei dls- 
Ijcrsed over the inner surfaces of 
capillaries, transitional vessels, nr- 
teries a,nd veins constituting in tho 
two latter tho opithitial layer of tho 
Inner coat. 

augmenting in size and complexity of structure become Avliat 
are called transitional vessels. 

The capillaries are most al)undant in the lungs, liver, kid- 
neys, and other secreting glands, also in the skin, and mucus 
membrane ; and they are smallest and least abundant in the 
muscles, nerves, organs of sense, and those tissues where nu- 
trition only is to be accomplished ; they are largo in the bones, 
but not numerous, interweaving, as in many parts they do, into 
a minute network called a Plexus. The extreme beauty of 
arterial arrangement will be best exhibited by Fig. 86, showing 
the course and distrilnition of the Su])erior Mesenteric Artery. 

A particular description of all the several arteries could 
scarcely be looked for in a work like the present. It has 



FIG. 87. 

already been seen that they are very numerous, although we 
have alluded to but few of them comparatively ; some of them 
lie deep amid the internal viscera; others, as the femoral, pass- 
ing down the thigh, the temporal, which 
traverses the forehead, the carotid, in the 
neck, and the bronchial, and other arteries 
of the arm, which are most likely to be 
wounded in the act of venesection, come 
very near to the surface, in some cases 
protected from injury only by the loose 
ariolo-fibrous investment which sepa- 
rates all arteries from the surrounding 

The Veins. — These are the vessels 
which return the blood to the auricles of 
the heart, after it has been circulated by 
the arteries through the various tissues 
of the body. They are much thinner in 
substance than the arteries, so that when 
emptied of their blood they are flattened 
and collapsed. 

Arteries are the channels through which 
blood passes from the heart to the various 
parts of the body. Veins are the chan- 
nels by v.diich it returns to that organ, 
and to the lungs, to be purified, and again 
rendered fit for its vital purposes. These 
two different channels of circulation do 
not communicate directly with each other, 
but are connected by the minute branches 
which they each throw out, and which are 
called capillaries. These ramify all 
through the extremities, and all over the 
surface of the body, conveying arterial 
and taking up venous blood, wdiicli is 
passed into the smaller veins, thence into 
the larger, and so proceeds upward to the 
great fountain from which it set out, con- 
stantly receiving fresh accessions from the 
tributary veins Avhich pour into the main 
channels on every side. Veins admit of a 
threefold division — into superficial, deep, 
and sinuses. 

Superficial Veins return the blood from the integument and 
superficial structures, and take their course between the layers 





1, the Radial Vein ; 2, the 
Cephalic; 3, the Anterior 
Ulnar; 4, the Posterior 
Ulnar; S.theTrunli, formed 
by their union; 6, the Basi- 
lic, which at 7 penetrates 
the deep fascia; 8, point of 
communication between 
the deep veins of the fore- 
arm and the upper jiart of 
the Median; 9, Median 
Cephalic; 10, Median Basi- 
lic; 11, a convexity of tho 
deep fascia, formed by tho 
Brachial Artery; 12, Ex- 
ternal Cutaneous Nerve, 
which pierces the deep 
fascia, and dividing into 
two branches, passes be- 
hind tho Median Cephalic 
Vein; 13, Internal Cutane- 
ous Nerve, dividing Into 
branches, and jiassing In 
front of the Median Basilic; 
14, Inter cos to Humeral 
Nerve ; 15, Spiral Cutaneous 


of the upper fascia. They then pierce the deep fascia, in the 
most convenient and protected situation, and terminate in the 
Deep Veins, which are situated among the deeper structures 
of the body, and generally in close proximity with arteries. In 
the limbs they are enclosed in the same sheath with these 
vessels : these return the blood from the capillaries of the deep 

Sinuses differ from these veins in their structure,' and also 
in their mode of distribution, being confined to special organs, 
and situated within their substances. 

One very remarkable feature of veins is their numerous 
valves^ Avhich are composed of a thin stratum of nucleated 
areolar tissue mingled with fine elastic fibres, and coated on the 
two surfaces with fine elongated cells. The segments, or flaps, 
of these valves are semi-lunar in form, and arranged in pairs, 
one on either side of the vessel generally, but sometimes there 
is a single flap which has a spiral direction, and occasionally 
there are three. The free border of the valvular flaps is con- 
cave, and directly forwards, so that while the current of blood 
is permitted to flow freely towards the heart, the valves are 
distended and the current intercepted, if the stream from full- 
ness of the veins above, or other causes, should turn back. 
When we consider that the course of the venous current is 
upward, and so opposed to the law of gravitation, we shall see 
at once the wisdom of such an arrangement. On page 31 will 
be found a cut of a valve of the heart, which will give a good 
idea of the general conformation of those of the veins. In those 
of the extremities, particularly the deeper ones, they are most 
numerous. In the portal and cerebral, and very small veins, 
and those of the viscera, they are generally absent, and alto- 
gether so in the large trunks. 

The Glands.— A gland is an organ of the body, in which 
secretion is carried on, and which consists of a congerie of 
blood-vessels, nerves, and absorbents. 

There are two primary divisions under which the glands 
are commonly placed. These are — First, those employed in 
secreting some particular fluid for the use of the body, such as 
the Liver, which secretes bile, and purifies the blood; the 
Kidneys, which secrete urine ; and the Salivary Glands, which 
secrete the saliva. Second, the Absorbent Glands, and vessels 
whose office is to carry oft" the waste materials of the machine. 
The Pancreas and the Spleen should also bo placed in the first 
of these divisions, although their peculiar offices in the animal 
economy is somewhat obscure. \ 


The Blood. — The blood is a red fluid circulating through 
the heart, arteries, and veins of animal hodies, serving for the 
nourishment of all their parts, and the support of life. This 
nutritive fluid consists, firstly, of water, holding, in a dissolved 
condition, fibrine, albumen, potassium, 
and sodium, together with phosphoric 
acid and other substances; secondly, 
of corpuscles, or globules, which float 
in the liquor sanguinis. When drawn 
from the body, the blood undergoes a 
remarkable change. By degrees it 
gelatinizes, and forms spontaneously '■' W 

coagulum and serum. Coagulum con- cobpuscles of the blood. 
sists of the fibrine and the corpuscles ; i, 2, 1, Biood corpuscles, as seen 

cjprnm nf wntpr nlhnmpn nnd tliPi on their flat surface and edge; 2, 
Seium, 01 \VdLei, aiuumeu, anu LUe congeries of Blood corpuscles m 

various saline matters. The corpus- columns, m coagulating, the cor- 

1 ,. , 1 • 1 1 1 1 • i puscles apply themselves to each 

Cles are 01 two kinds red and white, other, so as to retemblo piles ot 

the red being the more numerous. f-^^,^ \}^^}SS^ft'^.^^''^^\ 

Blood is termed arterial or venous, which are set free by the dlssolu- 
T , , , 1 . 1 • 1 • , tion of the containing cell. 

according to the vessel m which it 

circulates. Arterial blood is a florid red, with a stronger odor 
and less specific gravity than the venous fluid. Venous blood 
is of a dark purple. The scarlet, or arterial blood, which is one 
degree warmer than venous blood, owes its color to its under- 
going contact with atmospheric air in the lungs. It circulates 
in the pulmonary veins, the left cavities of the heart, and the 
arteries, by which it is distributed to the different organs 
throughout the body. The dark purple blood circulates in the 
veins, in the right cavities of the heart, the pulmonary artery, 
and the lungs. There is, again, a difference between arterial 
and venous blood in respect to the gases which they contain. 
The first holds a supply of oxygen ; the second is rendered im- 
pure by the carbonic acid with which it is loaded. 

Blood is the product of the elaboration of chyle, and ac- 
quires its nutritive and life-giving qualities in respiration. By 
means of the arterial vessels it penetrates to all the organs, dis- 
tributing nutrition to every organic tissue. It is, moreover, 
the principal source of animal heat ; from it, also, the secretive 
organs derive their various products, such as saliva, bile, 
urine, <fec. The average quantity of blood in an adult man has 
been calculated at twenty-eight pounds, or pints. It has been 
shown that the composition of the blood undergoes a change in 
various diseases ; and, after repeated bleedings, the number of 
corpuscles becomes permanently diminished. The color, as 


well as the composition of the blood, varies in different sections 
of the animal kingdom: red in the vertebrates and annelides; 
white and transparent as water in insects and crustaceans ; 
bluish-white in mollusca; yellowish in holothurians and some 
other invertebrates. This difference in color arises from the 
corpuscles, which are in some cases red, and in others white or 
straw-colored, or bluish-white. 

The chemical constituents of blood, when in a healthy con- 
dition, are — albumen, fibrin, hajmatin or coloring matter, oleic, 
stearic, lactic, phosphoric, sulphuric, and hydrochloric acids, 
in combination with soda, potash, ammonia, lime, magnesia, and 
a small portion of phosphorized fat. The blood also contains 
oxygen, nitrogen, and carbonic acid. In considering the chemi- 
cal constitution of the blood, it may be regarded as consisting 
of two parts — the liquor sanguinis and the blood corpuscles 
floating therein. The liquor sangtdnis is composed of serum, 
holding a very small quantity of fibrin in solution. Taking the 
blood as a whole, Liebig gives its component parts as water, 80 ; 
solid matter, 20. 

The solid matter, on being icinerated, gives 1| to 1^ per 
cent, of ash, which consists of one-half sea-salt, one-tenth of 
peroxide of iron, and the rest of lime, magnesia, potash, soda, 
phosphoric acid, and carbonic acid. 

The Skin. — Although apparently very simple in its struc- 
ture, the skin is nevertheless a very compound organ; and when 
we consider the important functions it performs, and its re- 
lations to the rest of the body, we shall not be surprised at 
this. It is not only the seat of common sensation, but by means 
of the vapor it constantly, emits in the form, of perspiration, 
it becomes the great regulator of the heat of the body. For 
these purposes it is supplied with nerves, blood-vessels, and 

On examining a portion of skin from the palm of the hand, 
or sole of the foot, from without inwards, we find that ex- 
ternally it presents a number of furrows, or lines, which are 
tolerably constant in particular parts of the body. On the 
elevations between these lines are seen a number of minute 
openings (h h) which are the terminations of the glands (d d d) 
that yield perspiration. Tliese furrows and pores are in the 
upper layer of the skin, called epidermis (c c) or scarf skin. 
This membrane is in some parts very thin, not exceeding the 
one two-hundred-and-forticth part of an inch in thickness, whiist 
in others, as in the sole of the foot and the palm of the hand, it 
is at least one-twelfth of an inch thick. It is this portion of 



the skin which is elevated when what are called blisters are 
formed. When examined with the microscope, it is found to 
consist of minute flat cells, which have been formed below, and 
are gradually thrust upwards. Below this, but for the most 
part continuous with it, is another series of layers of cells (c c), 


a, Epidermis ; 6 6, Pores ; c e. Lay- 
ers of epidermis aud rote mu- 
cosum ; /, Inhalent vessels ; g g, 
Papillas of the skin; 7i h, Corium or 
true skin; d d d. Bulbs of sudo- 
riferous glands opening in tlio 
glands 6 b. 


On tho loft IsaMagnified View of the Ridges of the 
Cutielo, as seen in the Palm of the Hand, with the 
Openings of the Pores in their Furrows. On tho 
right, the Cuticle has heen removed, leaving corre- 
sponding rows of Papilla?. 

and which were called, at one time, by the name rcte mucosum, 
as it was supposed to be a separate membrane. The real nature 
of these layers of cells is, that they are all secreted on the sur- 
face of a tough fibro-vascular membrane, called the corium or 
true skin (A li). The cells of tho lower layer, called the rete 
mucosum, are softer and much less compressed than those which 
form the epidermis. It is amongst these cells that a certain set 
are found which are termed pigment cells. When separated 
they have a very distinct form, and are easily distinguished 
from all the other cells by their dark color. This dark color is 
dependent on the presence, in the cells, of a number of flat, 
rounded, or oval granules, not more than the one twenty- 
thousandth of an inch in diameter. Now it is found that these 
cells are always present in the skin of tho dark-colored races of 
mankind, and also in those parts of the skin of fair races which 
are of a dark color. It is, then, to the presence or absence of 
these cells that the skin is indel3ted for its white or black color. 
Where they are very abundant, the skin has a black color ; and 



in proportion to their diminution are the various shades called 
red, yellow, brown, brunette, which are observed amongst the 
various races of mankind. The skin is provided with two dis- 
tinct sets of glands. One is destined to free the blood of a large 
quantity of fluid, and are named the perspiratory or sweat 

FIG. 92. 

FIG. 91. 


A vertical section of tbo solo of the largely magnified. 

foot-a tho Cuticle or Scarf Ski u the ^ ^^^^^ ^.^^^^ ■ ^ Hair'enclosed in its Folli- 

deeper layers of which, dark in color. ^^ ^^^^^ showing Its pair of Sebaceous Glands ; 

being called the rete rriMosum ; ^ the Sebaceous Gland. 

PapUlce; c, the Ciilix or True Skin; ^' 

and d is the Sweat Gland in a cavity 
of oily globules. 

glands; the other being designed to draw off a considerable 
amount of solid matter, and are styled sebaceous or oil glands. 
The watery vapor which is constantly passing off through the 
pores of the skin — when not, as is commonly the case, in such 
quantity as to be noticed — is termed insensible perspiration; 
when so profuse as to collect in drops on the surfixce, it is sensi- 
ble perspi7'ation or siveat. The fluid which thus passes off from 
the system consists chiefly of water, with a small proportion of 
muriate of soda and free acetic acid ; the quantity is at all times 
very considerable, but is greatly increased during violent exer- 


cise, or in hot weather. The sweat gland possesses a twisted 
duct which passes upward to the surface, and through this tube 
ascends to the surface the perspiration, sensible and insensible. 
It is calculated that there are no less than twenty-eight miles 
of this tubing on the surface of the human body, and that, on 
an average, from two to three pounds of water daily reach the 
surface through these channels, and is evaporated. It is sup- 
posed that at least one hundred grains of effete nitrogenous 
matter are daily thrown off from the skin. If this excretion be 
checked or arrested, it throws additional labor on the kidneys; 
if it remains in the blood, it will prove fatal to life and health. 
Great attention, therefore, should be given to the functions of 
the skin, so as to keep the pores open and its action free ; and 
for this purpose nothing is so efficacious as bathing in cold 
water, followed by friction and exercise. 

Beside this beautiful arrangement for the perspiration, the 
skin is provided with another set of special organs, named 
sebaceous glands, whose office it is to withdraw a peculiar fatty 
matter from the system, while the secretion itself prevents the 
skin from being dried and cracked by the influence of the sun 
and air. These glands are distributed more or less closely over 
the whole surface of the body, but are most numerous in those 
parts which are largely supplied with hair, such as the scalp 
and face, and are thickly distributed about the entrances of the 
various passages into the body, as the anus, nose, lips, and ex- 
ternal ear. They are altogether absent in the palms of the 
hands and the soles of the feet ; they appear to be made up of 
an aggregate of small vesicles, and these small vessels are filled 
with an opaque white substance, something like soft ointment. 
These glands are overspread with minute capillaries or blood- 
vessels, and their ducts open either in the surface of the skin, 
or, which is more usual, directly into the follicle of the hair. 
These hair-follicles, into which the sebaceous glands open, are, 
in fact, among the secretor}^ organs of the skin, since it is only 
at their root or lowest part that the material produced from 
their walls is appropriated to the growth of hair. All the rest 
goes to anoint the hairs and the surface of the skin. Hence it 
is that this secretion is much more abundant in tlie inhabitants 
of tropical climates than in those which inhabit cold countries. 
But for this benevolent provision of the great Creator, the skin 
would become parched and dry ; and even with this provision of 
nature, the natives of the warm countries are in the habit of 
lubricating their skin with vegetable oils of various kinds, to 
protect it from the scorching influence of the solar rays. 


Sictcness Prevented. ^ Disease Arrested.. 

Before treating of diseaBe and its remedies, we will give 
a brief summary of the rules of health, by the observance 
of which disease may in a vast number of cases be preventedo 

If it be asked what is meant by the term " health," it 
would be apparently easy to answer ; but there is no one who 
will not find that it is as difficult a question as can be asked. 
This difficulty arises in a great measure from the term being a 
relative one. Such a state of body as would be considered 
health in one person might not be so in another, and in some 
cases it would be disease. Some men may consider them- 
selves healthy when the doctor knew they were in disease; 
whilst some may consider themselves in disease when the doc- 
tor knew they were in good health. The true idea of health is 
a perfectly sound mind in a perfectly sound body — mens sana 
in corpore.sano, as is the well-known Latin saying. A man's 
body must be right, and his mind and soul must be right, or he 
is not a healthy man. One of the first conditions of health is 
to have suitable food. Our bodies are made up of certain sub- 
stances, which under their different functions are constantly 
worn out ; so that being during our whole lives in a constant 
waste there must be a regular supply of food to replace this 
waste. Men do not eat simply to satisfy appetite. The object of 
taking food is to keep up the original size, &c., of the body, and 
to replace the waste. The animal body is a warm body, 
and is constantly emitting heat, and the heat so emitted 
must be replaced. The animal body has often been com- 
pared to a locomotive, in which by food, air, and water, 
heat is generated. Food may be considered as the fuel, but it 
does not serve to generate heat only, as in the locomotive, but 
to form new particles for the growth of the body, and to re- 
place those Avorn out. Whilst in the engine the machine is 
constantly wearing out, the body, up to a certain time, by 
means of its fuel, is constantly replacing the waste, and even 
serving for the increase of the body. And here is seen the 
superiority of God's arrangements over those of men. All the 
different articles of food may be reduced to two great groups ; 
— Ist, flesh-forming substances ; and 2d, licat-forming sub- 
stances. The flesh of men and animals showed a third class of 
nutritive substances, known as nutritive salts. These salts 
have only begun to bo fully recognized dui-iiig the last few 



years. These salts may be seen in the form of ashes when any 
food is burned — such as salt, phosphoric acid, potash, &c. The 
flesh-forming substances are required to form the flesh and 
muscles, the heat-forming substances to supply fat, which may 
be considered as the storehouse of heat ; and the salts for the 
bones. Good food must contain a certain amount of flesh-form- 
ing substances, heat substances, and nutritive salts. It was 
popularly stated that a certain weight of eggs was equal to the 
same weight of flesh-meat, but it has long been known that eggs 
are not equal to meat. With flesh meat a carnivorous animal 
may support life, but it is not so with eggs. A dog may eat eggs 
but cannot digest them. If it can digest them it cannot live 
upon them. This is because the parts of the egg eaten 
do not contain an atom of nutritive salts. If we must eat eggs 
for the full nutriment we must eat the shell also. The contents 
of an egg when being hatched have not one particle of salts in 
them, yet when the chick comes forth it comes forth with the 
due proportion of phosphate of lime, as in m.en. This is due 
to the fact that the contents of the shell are able to dissolve the 
inner portion of the shell, and build it up into bones, and thus at 
the same time get the shell ready to break. There was a great 
argument a few years ago as to how the chick got out of the 
shell. True, the beak is so arranged at a certain point as to 
be ready to break the shell, but with all its power a chick 
cannot break the shell but for the removal of the inner portion 
of the shell to build up its bones. It is much the same with 
meat — if soaked in water it becomes useless; hence the value 
of salt. In salting meat 15 per cent of the nutritive parts are 
taken up with the brine, and salted pork is far more nutritive 
than raw or boiled ham. It is well knoAvn that a man dying 
of starvation cannot satisfy himself with boiled ham. It can be 
eaten and enjoyed, but that is because other things arc taken 
along with it. Raw moats, and especially pork, should not be 
eaten, because they contain germs which become tape-worms. 
Pork, if eaten raw, is often positively poisonous. By the judi- 
cious mixing of the nutritive salts, different kinds of food 
which want them are good. It is this mixing of food which makes 
porridge and milk furnish perfect nutriment even for an adult. 
It is a pity the custom of eating porridge and milk is dying out, 
for it is as good a food for keeping up the substance, the animal 
heat, and strength as anything that could be eaten. It is also 
an ascertained fact that a dog if fed upon white bread, dies, 
whereas his health does not suffer at all if he is fed on brown 
bread. The reason of this is that in dressing; the Avhite bread 


a certain necessary portion is taken away. "What is true of the 
dog is true also of the man. In dressing wliito flour the bran 
is taken away. How many more men can be fed upon brown 
bread than if fed upon white at present in this country ? At 
least a million. We are wasting the produce of the earth to 
the extent of at least one-thirtieth by not using the bran in the 
bread. There is not a child who, if it had taken brown 
bread for a time, but would prefer it. This is a natural in- 
stinct, and these instincts are given for a wise purpose. God 
has so arranged it that our natural instincts lead us to select 
such a class of food as is fit for the body. Milk contains, out of 
100 parts, 4^ of flesh-forming substances, 8 parts of heat-giving 
substances, and the rest is a little mineral and water. Milk is a 
perfect type of natural food, but only for children. Butchers' 
meat contains 22 parts of flesh-forming substance, 14 of the 
heat-giving principle, ^ of mineral salts, and the rest w\ater. 
Bacon contains only 8 of the flesh-forming substance, but 62 of 
the heat-giving principle. The relative proportions of fish are 
respectively 14 flesh-forming, 7 heat-giving, 1 mineral salts, 78 
water; flour, 17 flesh-forming and 66 heat-giving — it consisting 
mainly of starch, which is an essential to the heat-giving prin- 
ciple ; oat meal, 13 flesh-forming, 70 heat-giving, 3 mineral salts; 
potatoes, one flesh-formiug, 22 heat-giving, as it consists, like 
flour, mainly of starch and water. Sugar has not a particle of the 
flesh-forming ingredient, but consists entirely of the heat- 
giving principle. Bread has 6 flesh forming, 38 heat-giving, 
1^ mineral salts, and 48 water; cheese 31 flesh-forming, 25 
heat-giving, 4 mineral salts. In beer there is not actually 
one part of flesh-forming principle, and only 9 of the heat- 
giving out of 100 parts. It is almost entirely water, The 
flesh-forming foods are characterized by containing nitrogen, 
and the heat-giving by containing carbon — flesh-forming con- 
taining a predominance of nitrogen, and the heat-giving a pre- 
dominance of carbon. From these facts wo can easily estimate 
tho relative value of diiforent kinds of food for sustaining the 
body. In a case of illness these facts guide medical man. 
If a man is suffering from inflammation, and has been a gre^at 
eater, they do not give him flesh-forming foods, but the other 
kinds to let him burn it off. Milk is the standard, and to 
every hundred parts of nitrogen in huniiin milk, cow's milk 
contains 237 parts. Milk is intended for tho nourishment of 
persons only in a state of quietude, such as babies. Tho practice 
of letting babies sit up before they can weU do so — and having 
something of everything on the table, is not a wise one, but a 


a very ruinous one. Milk should be given — and that alone — 
to a child until it gets its teeth. Another question regarding 
food is if, when taken, it can be digested. One kind might be 
very nutritious, but might be inferior to another with not so 
much nouri 'liment in it. Suppose a man wore to take some 
highly nourishing food, but after ho had taken it could not di- 
gest it, it is of no more value than others which were not so 
nourishing but which could be digested. Indeed it is worse, if 
they made the stomach do twice the work for half the value. 
There is a great difference in the digestibility of food. Rice 
boiled soft, digested in an hour ; apples, sweet and ripe, 1^ 
hours ; sago, 1| hours to two hours ; milk, 2 hours ; cabbage, 
2 hours ; parsnips, 2| hours ; roasted potatoes, 2| hours ; boiled 
potatoes, 3^ hours ; carrots, 8| hours ; butter and bread, 3^ hours ; 
venision, l^ hours ; oysters, 2 hours and 3 minutes ; raw eggs, the 
same ; soft boiled, 3 hours ; hard boiled, 3| hours ; salt beef, 5^ 
hours; mutton, 3 hours; pork, 3^ hours; salted pork, 4 hours and 
38 minutes, &c. Not only must food be of a proper quality and 
such as could be digested, but care must be taken that it be 
cooked in the proper manner. Many articles are spoiled by 
improper cookery ; and many a good cook will improve an in- 
ferior article. The French peasant lives on an amount of food 
which would astonish many, for the way in which they dress it 
and mix it up makes it go a lono- way. We actually use more food 
than we need to do, and it is wasted in the system, for it is 
given to the stomach in such a way that the stomach can not 
use it. Another point is to take care that no portion of the 
strength of the moat is wasted in the cooking. Not one person 
out of 500 knows how to make beef-tea or boil a leg of mutton. 
If they put beef for beef-tea into boiling water they will be 
sure to leave a great deal of the nutriment in the meat, and of 
course so much the less in the tea. When people want to get 
all the strength out of the beef, they should take a piece of lean 
meat, mince it fine, and put it into cold water, and afterwards 
gradually heat the water to boiling pitch, but by no means do 
this quickly. If they want boiled mutton to be juicy, they 
must put it into boiling water, which will have the eifect of 
coagulating the albumen, and the water will be nothing but 
water. Another important matter is the amount of food to be 
taken. This ought to bo considered by the amount of work a 
man has to perform. The amount of food must also vary accord- 
ing to the climate. Foods containing fat are required for winter, 
and containing starch for summer. In India it is almost necessary 
to live on rice, in Lapland the people have to eat an enormous 


amount of fat to keep up the warmth of the body. People 
should always remember that they ought to eat to live, and not 
live to eat, as too many seem to do. More than half the inhabi- 
tants of this country do not remember this maxim. It is there- 
fore better to get up from the table with an appetite, than to 
feel you cannot take any more. Some systems need more than 
others, but natural instincts must guide a man on this head. 
There is almost as much disease caused by intemperance in 
eating as in regard to drinking. Food taken into the system 
and not wanted is an incubus, and the system in trying to get rid 
of it is often diseased. It is an old saying, that good eating re- 
quires good rest, and it is true ; hence the importance of not 
taking active exercise of body or mind after the principal meal 
of the day. Food when taken into the stomach requires an 
extra amount of blood to digest it, and if we indulge in reading 
the blood is taken away. There should be a good breakfast, a 
little food eaten in the middle of the day, and a good feed when 
the work is done. There is much truth in the saying — 

After dinner sit a while; 
After supper walk a mile. 

The supper should be light. Long fasting is objectionable. 
The food should also be well masticated, and for this purpose 
teeth were given to us. Food imperfectly masticated takes a long 
time to digest, and putrifies in the stomach, tainting the breath. 
Hence the importance of having artificial teeth when our natural 
ones are gone, for there can be no doubt that modern dentistry 
has lengthened the average duration of life in this country. Then 
as to suitable drinks. It is evident from the natural constitu- 
tion of our bodies, and the very abundant supply, that God in- 
tended our drink should consist mainly of water. Everybody is 
agreed as to the suitability of water as a drink, but everybody 
is not agreed as to whether it should be taken alone or witli 
something in it. In all nations yet discovered, some kinds of 
artificial stimulants are used. Some are less injurious than 
others, but all or any of them taken to excess are injurious to 
both body and mind. In moderation at least some of them are 
useful, such as tea after a hard day's work. A cup of tea is far 
more refreshing than a glass of spirits or wine. Perhaps a safe 
rule is for persons to take those articles which do not intoxicate 
at their own discretion, such as tea or coffee, &c., whilst those 
which are intoxicating sliould nc^t 1)0 taken exce})t under judi- 
cious advice. It must never be forgotten tliat good wholesome 
food is tlie corn, whilst stimulants are only tlie whip. Another 
important condition of health is plenty oi" fresh air. 


Air is as necessary to existence as food, and its total de- 
privation is still more rapidly fatal ; but the quality of the air is 
also of nearly equal importance, though this is not so readily 
proved. Nevertheless, it is an admitted fact that pure air, 
uncontaminated either by decomposing animal, vegetable, or min- 
eral products, is of the greatest consequence to the human race. 

Whatever renders the blood impure tends to originate con- 
sumption. Whatever makes the air impure makes the blood 
impure. It is the air we breathe which purifies the blood. And 
as. if the water we iise to wash our clothing is dirty, it is im- 
possible to wash the clothing clean, so if the air we breathe is 
impure, it is impossible for us to abstract the impurities from 
the blood. 

What, then, are some of the more prominent things which 
render the air impure ? It is the nature of still water to be- 
come impure. Running water purifies itself. Air in motion, 
draughts of air, are self-purifiers. Thus it is that the air of a 
close room becomes inevitably impure. Thus it is that close 
rooms cause consumption in countless thousands. Hence all 
rooms should be constructed as to have a constant draught of air 
passing through them. 

A man of ordinary size renders a hogshead of air unfit for 
breathing, and consumes its blood purifying qualities every 
hour. Hence, sleeping in close rooms, even though alone or 
sitting for a very short time in a crowded vehicle, or among a 
large assembly, is perfectly corrupting to the blood. Close bed- 
rooms makes the graves of multitudes. The simple fact set 
forth by Dr. Arnott, long ago, that a canary bird suspended 
near the top of a curtained bedstead in which people are sleep- 
ing will generally be found dead in the morning, should be suffi- 
cient to show the danger of breathing a vitiated medium, 
and the necessity for providing a constant and ample supply of 
fresh air in our dwellings. 

Impure air, however, cannot be seen; its effects are not 
immediate ; and so it is allowed to kill its thousands annually. 

A healthy, full-grown man respires about twenty times in a 
minute, and inhales in that period about 700 cubic inches of air. 

Fresh air contains twenty-three per cent, of oxygen ; by 
the process of respiration the oxygen is reduced to eleven per 
cent., and the carbonic acid is increased to rather more than 
eight per cent. Three-and-a-half per cent, of this gas renders 
air unfit to support life ; and this will give some notion of the 
large quantity of air required for the healthful occupation of a 
building by a number of persons, especially of sleeping-rooms. 


It is very important upon taking a house to consider well be- 
forehand all the advantages or disadvantages connected with 
the proposed residence; for not only may the physical comfort 
of a family, but also its mental and moral well-being, be ma- 
terially affected by the selection. 

The primary advantage every home should possess is 
healthiness. Do not choose your house in a low, damp situation, 
however cheap it may apparently be : houses in such situations can- 
not be well drained, and the consequence is, that fever or cholera 
often prevails in such a locality. A house built on dry, gravel- 
ly soil, on rising ground, and where the drains are in good order, 
should be selected as being that in which health may be best pre- 
served. The signs of damp are moulding of the walls, paper- 
hanging mouldy and peeling oif, and moist floors. High and 
dry situations, with a fi'ee circulation of air, whether in towns or 
in the country, are proverbially healthy : whilst those which 
are low and damp, or surrounded by connned air, are the op- 

A plentiful supply of pure water is indispensable both for 
drinking and cleansing ; good health cannot be expected if im- 
pure water is drunk, and you cannot have comfort in a dirty 
house or in dirty linen. Tlierefore, let " cleanliness be next to 

The signs of good water are, that it easily becomes hot or 
cold, that in summer it is cool, and in winter slightly lukewarm ; 
that a drop dried on a clean cloth loaves no stain behind ; it has 
likewise neither taste nor smell. 

Another sign is, that pure water, when boiled, becomes hot 
and afterwards grows cold sooner than water impregnated with 
impure substances. Standing pools and wells, are not unfre- 
quently impure. 

River water varies according to the soil over Avhich it runs, 
the influence of the weather, &c., and though commonly drunk it 
is never pure. 

Next to well and river water, rain water may be considered 
in the scale of preference. 

The water most to be preferred is that which descends 
from mountains or lofty hills, throuffh flints and sands, and rolls 
gently over a similar bed of rocks. 

The selection of a temporary residence for invalids is a mat- 
ter of great importance; for one class an elevated situation, and 
a dry bracing air, will be most proper ; a sheltered residence, 
with a milder air, will bo suitable for another; whilst the sear 
side may perhaps be preferable for a third. 


Yory much precious time is often lost, and real injury in- 
flicted, from Avant of due care upon this head, and from persons 
acting upon their own ideas, or upon insufiicient advice. The 
subject is too extensive to admit of profitable consideration in 
this little manual, and the decision respecting the climate, re- 
sort to which is likely to benefit each individual case, is so much 
a matter of judgment, and of such importance, that medical 
opinion ought always to bo taken when change of climate is de- 

Besides what has been said on the necessity of change of 
climate to those afflicted with organic diseases, a change of resi- 
dence and scene may have beneficial influence on health. 
Those persons accustomed to sedentary pursuits in town, fre- 
quently derive adequate beneficial results by a short resort to 
a suburban district, or the seaside. The nervous system is 
braced by the change, and all the functions are brought into 
more vigorous play. 

Ventilation is a primary consideration. It is not possible 
to have too much fresh air in the house, provided only an uncom- 
fortable and chilly draught is not allowed to blow upon the 
body. Mischief from draught may be prevented by means of 
folding screens to turn it aside, 

A house without back windows, or without chimneys in the 
sleeping-rooms, is by no means healthy ; a free current of air 
must be allowed to pass through all the apartments often every 

The warmer and stiller the air is, the more difficult it be- 
comes to secure free ventilation through the inside of rooms. 
In the calm, hot nights of summer the windows of sleeping- 
rooms should, on this account be left partly open. It is better 
to breathe air moistened with niglit dew than it is to breathe air 
impregnated with poisonous vapors. 

The upper part of a room (supposing it to be badly venti' 
kted, or not ventilated at all), is always filled with foul air, 
which keeps on increasing until it is breathed by persons who 
are in the room, to the prejudice of their health. The openings 
for the escape of foul air should be made as near the ceiling as 
possible. Fresh air finds its way into a room at the lower part, 
and if openings for ventilation are made in the upper part, a 
stream of air fit for breathing is always passing through the 
room, the foul air escaping as it becomes vitiated. 

A dwelling, to be healthy, must by all means be well lighted ; 
a dark house is not only gloomy and dispiriting, but always un- 
healthy. The amount of disease in light rooms, as compared 


with dark ones, is vastly less. Liglit is as needful to health as 
fresh air. 

A plant will not flourish until it has light. Put a geranium 
in a cellar and its leaves will fade, its blossoms turn white, and 
its general look betoken sickliness. So it is with human beings. 

Chlorine and hydrogen gases if mixed together and kept in 
the dark will never unite ; the light of day causes them to min- 
gle slowly, but in direct sunshine they combine instantaneously, 
and explode with a loud report. 

Colors fade in a strong light, and, as most readers know, 
portraits are taken by the action of light. 

People who work in dark rooms, or in mines are sallow and 
sickly in complexion, sometimes deformed. One great cause of 
despondency and illness among emigrants while on board ship, 
is want of sufficient light between decks ; and it is well 
known that some animals are tamed by being deprived of light. 

Bearing these facts in mind, we shall better comprehend 
the reason why dwelling-houses ought to be built so as to admit 
plenty of light. Light ought to be diffused over the whole 
dwelling, so that no dark corners be left to invite a deposit of 
that which is untidy or oflensive. 

A certain degree of warmth is considered necessary to the 
healthy play of the vital functions. The temperature of this 
climate is such as to require the aid of artificial heat. This is 
supplied partly by fuel and partly by clothing. Exercise warms, 
invigorates, and purifies the body ; clothing preserves the 
warmth which the body generates ; fire imparts warmth ex- 
ternally; therefore, to obtain and preserve warmth, exercise is 
prefei-able to fire. Within doors, where less exercise can be 
taken, we are dependent greatly for health as well as comfort 
on the mode of heating rooms and houses. In small rooms the 
snug and cheerful fireside is preferable to all kinds of stoves 
and flues. 

Nature teaches us to adopt the materials and amount 
of clothing to climate and other atmospheric conditions. In 
this country it is best to have some material next tlie skin 
which combines warmth v/ith lightness, protecting from the vari- 
ations of temperature, and absorbing the insensible perspiration. 
Spun silk, Angelo, llarmel, and wrought lambs'-wool, of various 
thicknesses for different seasons, are the best materials for this 
])uri)ose. By habit from youth many can dispense with any un- 
der-ch)tliing, but it is always a great protection from disease. 
In hot cUmates a stranger is apt, for momentary comibrt, to 
throw oil" abruptly the under-clothing, and man^ j^ life has been 


lost by diseases produced from the check to perspn*atioii, which 
the continued use of the article would have prevented. If thick 
under-clothing is worn during the day, that of much thinner tex- 
ture should be used at night. 

Children are, in many cases, most insufficiently protected 
from the weather; numbers go without a single article of under- 
clothing, either in consequence of carelessness, or from the er- 
roneous idea of rendering them hardy. The surface of a child, 
from the neck downwards, ought to be kept warm by clothing ; 
exposed chests, bare legs, and thin coverings are synonymous 
with croup, inflammation of the lungs, and scrofula. 

The clothing of the feet is a matter of the greatest import- 
ance to all ; dryness and warmth must be attended to by those 
who value health. On the other hand, the head is often — in in- 
fants and children especially — kept too hot. 

Exercise comes next to air and food in its bearing upon the 
healthy development of the human frame, but its eftects are de- 
pendent on a ditferent chain of laws. Respiration, circulation, 
digestion, secretion, and all the bodily functions are assisted by it. 

The evil results of the want or deficiency of exercise are 
seen in persons of indolent life or sedentary habits. Indi- 
gestion, costiveness, and a multitude of chronic maladies are pro- 
duced, besides the general derangement and discomfort of the 
whole system under which nervous and hypochondriacal pa- 
tients suffer. 

Without exercise the frame becomes contracted and en- 
feebled, the internal functions of the body deranged, and the 
brain incapable of any great mental ellbrt. With it, the 
machinery of life goes on with "vigor and regularity, and the 
mind is stimulated to healthy action. The benefits of exercise, 
therefore to those whose occupation does not require any 
physical exertion, cannot be too highly estimated. 

The body must undergo a certain amount of fatigue to pre- 
serve its natural strength, and maintain all the muscles and 
organs in proper vigor. This activity equalizes the circulation, 
and distributes the blood more effectually through every jiart. 

Cold feet, or chill anywhere, shows that the circulation is 
languid there. The muscles during exercise press on the veins, 
and help on the currents by quickening every vessel into ac- 

When exercise is neglected, the blood gathers too much 
about the central region and the oppression about the heart, 
difficulty of In-eathing, lowness of spirits anxiety and heaviness, 
numerous aches and stitches, are evidences of this stagnation. 


The precise amount of exercise required depends In a great 
measure upon a person's strength, but under ordinary circum- 
stances every person should pass at least two hours daily in 
open-air exercise. The delicate may take exercise within doors, 
selecting the largest room with the window open, and walking 
to and fro for an hour or more. 

Exercise, therefore, is necessary as an ordinary excitant to 
be brought Into daily operation that the vigor of the functions 
of the body may be preserved ; It is the merciful provision by 
which the decree " that man should earn his bread by the sweat 
of his brow" has been converted into a blessing ; It is that which 
gives the laborer sound sleep and healthy appetite. 

Cleanliness has a powerful influence on the heaith and pre- 
servation of the body. Cleanliness in our garments and persons 
prevents the pernicious effects of dampness, bad smells, and 
contagious vapors, arising from putrescent substances. Clean- 
liness keeps up a free perspiration, renews the air, refreshes the 
blood, and even animates and enlivens the mind. 

Frequent ablutions of the body In water Is not only neces- 
sary to cleanliness and comfort, but It Is also necessary to the 
preservation of health. The explanation of this is, that the 
pores of the skin act as agents for removing from the body use- 
less and superfluous matter, which Is constantly being gen- 
erated. If this refuse is suffered to accumulate, it Ibrms a thick, 
hard crust, which obstructs the pores and Impedes their func- 

To obviate these evil effects, the whole body should be sub- 
jected daily to an ablution In cold Avater, or to friction with a 
damp cloth. 

As we have above stated, when it Is considered that the 
well-being of the whole frame depends in a great measure on 
the healthy condition of the skin, the Importance of bathing 
must be obvious; and for this purpose, either the cold or tepid 
bath may be employed. Besides being necessarv to cleanliness, 
the cold bath, when used by persons in health, increases the 
tone of the stomach, strengthens the digestive organs, and by 
diminishing the sensibility of the Avliole system, particularly of 
the skin, renders the body less susceptible to atmospheric Im- 
pressions from cold, wet, and sudden changes oi tempera- 
ture. The Interval for a person to remain In a cold bath should 
not at any time, and In the most robust health, exceed ten min- 
utes or a quarter of an hour; and In winter not more than five 
minutes. In the morning, before breakfast, is the most strength- 
ening time for those in health to indulge in the bath; but those 


of less vigorous frame should bathe about two hours after break- 

The use of the tepid bath is more important for the pur- 
poses of cleanliness, and the general preservation of health, than 
as a remedy for disease ; although in the latter case it is occasion- 
ally very valuable. The range of temperature extends from 85 
to 92 degrees ; and it is sometimes employed previously to the 
cold bath, the bather lowering the degree of heat gradually each 
time until he arrives at that of the cold bath. For the mere 
purposes of ablution the tepid water is the best, choosing the 
particular degree that is most desirable. It is very refreshing 
after fatigue and travelling, and is equally serviceable, occasion- 
ally, to persons of sedentary habits. 

Summary, and Practical Rules— When you find a 
want of vigor and activity of body or mind, or when 3^ou ex- 
perience depression of spirits, morbid and gloomy imaginations, 
or perverted feelings, try to discover the cause, and whether it be 
not one dependent on your own acts. 

If you are assured, on competent authority, that you have no 
organic disease, suspect bad condition of the blood, — to remedy 
which, look first to your diet ; and as to quantity, remember that 
generally, during the period of growth, deficiency is to be feared ; 
and, in adult li^, excess is the thing to be guarded against. If 
your appetite is defective, inquire lohy ; if your avocations are 
sedentar};, see that you get exercise daily, and in the open air 
if possible. Cultivate (for it may be cultivated) quietness of 
mind, and freedom from care and passion, — both of which de- 
stroy the appetite. As to quality of your food, remember its 
twofold object is to produce Aeo^ and to repair ivaste,hvit also 
remember, that for you, what you can lodl digest is the only 
proper food. 

If you loaste much, either by muscular or mental exertion, 
you must repair it by a due proportion of nitrogenous or flesh- 
producing food ; and for those who work chiefly with the brain, 
the various kinds of pulse, as peas, beans, lentils, &c., are less 
suited than for those whose labor is chiefly muscular. 

Consider your habit of body, and also to what disorders 
3^ou have a tendency, either by hereditary or acquired dis- 

If you are disposed to emaciation, use abundance of farinace- 
ous food, and that containing starch and sugar, — especially 
sound bread, and take the utmost care that it be sound. 

If you are disposed to superfluous fat (obesity), take the 
diet just described, but very sparingly; and use more flesh- 


All scrofulous or consumptive disorders require pure dry 
air, but not necessarily hot. It is quite a mistake to suppose 
that hot climates are favorable to such invalids in all stages of 
disorder. To some they prove positively hurtful. 

Neglect not the care of tlio skin. Use frequent warm 
baths, soap, friction with Russia duck towels, (fee. 

Use no hot baths except by medical advice, and cold only 
if you are robust. 

Exercise the limbs as much as possible, in the open air when 
practicable ; and use sufficient exercise, at least once a day, to 
produce sensible perspiration of the skin. 

When out-of-door exercise is impracticable, do not omit in- 
door ; not only gymnastics, but reading aloud, singing, music, 
especially stringed instruments. 

Those who are in moderate health, ought to accustom 
themselves to the open air in almost aU weathers. 

Use warm clothing, but avoid as much as possiWe that 
which is impervious to perspiration. 

As to temperature. Lot your rooms bo kept at a tempera- 
ture not exceeding sixty-two degrees nor falling below fifty- 
four degrees. 

When you pass from & warm room to the open air in very 
cold Aveather, get well heated before you expose yourself. 

In passing from very cold air to the house, go first into the 
coolest part of the house, so as to avoid the sudden transition 
from cold to hot air, which is very hurtful. 

There is no danger, but much benefit, from the application 
of cold water to the skin, when the latter is extremely hot; 
since this is just the condition in which cold affusion is useful, 
as in fevers. , 

To promote proper excretion, and to avoid constipation, 
oliserve the following : — 

Let not your diet bo too delicate or concentrated; bulk as 
well as nutrient elements being necessary. 

llemeinber that constipation often do])ends on the first 
stage of digestion being imperfect; therefore eat only what you 
can thoroughly digest. 

Do not use aperient medicines if you can possibly regulate 
the bowels without them. If they become needful, a few o-rains 

/•111" ' O 

or rimbarb or minute quantities of castor-oil (a teaspoonful only) 
are to l>e preferred, especially for the aged, who should avoid 
saline medicines, or use them very sparingly, as they reduce 

As to the excretion of urine. If you find yourself growing 


fat and weak, and if also you require to pass urine very fre- 
quentl}' , suspect disease of the kidneys and seek advice, and re- 
member that this disease arises primarily from bad digestion or 
improper diet. 

Never defer attention to the natural call to evacuate the 
urine, as danger often ensues from this cause. 

Take care to keep the lungs in exercise by sufficient loco- 
motion, by muscular exertion of some kind ; and also take care 
that your clothing admits of the free action of the muscles of the 
trunk, by Avhich respiration is carried on. 

Be careful also to avoid all pressure ■which can obstruct the 
circulation of the blood, especially in the neck and in the lower 

Learn a lesson fi"om the trainer, for there is perhaps nothing 
so bad but that some good lesson may be derived from it : and 
it is a natural and useful inquiry, hy lohat means does the trainer 
bring his pupil into a fit condition for such a contest as that 
which has of late attracted so much attention ? The rules are 
these : — 

1st, and most indispensaljlo of all, is abstinence from strong 
drink, and from all sensual indulgences. 

2d. Continued waste of the old particles of the t)ody, 
muscular and nervous especially, and of tlio blood itself, by 
strong exercise; this waste being supplied by. 

3d. Plain solid diet of brown meats, especially beef and 
mutton, good bread, &c., a very sjxirhuj use only of any liquid 
aliment being allowed. 

4th. Active frictions of the skin. 

5th. Abundant and pure air, with early bed hours. 

We see, therefore, that training is nothing more than the 
application of the laivs of health (which throughout this Avork we 
have been inculcating) to their fullest extent. The only differ- 
ence which need to exist between our ordinary mode of life and 
a period or course of training is this, that in the latter we make 
health the primary object, and all pursuits of pleasure and busi- 
ness are postponed. This, it may be said, we can not do in ordi- 
nary life. True, we can not; but, for the most part, the self- 
denial, industry, and wholesome diet which are the chief fea- 
tures of training, will be no less conducive to success in business 
and the enjoyment of real pleasure, than they are to the success 
of the pugilist, pedestrian, or the victor in a boat-race. 

how to detect 
Approachinq Diseask. 


The great enemy of our bodies is disease. 

Tlie aches, pains, and physical suffering of the human 
family are largely due to ignorance of a few simple facts easily 
comprehended even by a child. 

Disease always sends a warning cry ahead, which, if heeded 
in season, will avert illness and often prevent death. 

A disordered system and approaching sickness may be 
clearly detected by the Countenance^ the Eye^ the Tongue^ the 
Pulse, the Gums, and Lips, the Stomach, Boivels, etc. 

The Countenance is the great dial plate of the inter- 
nal organs. 

When the countenance is livid and tinged with blood, there 
is impeded respiration and circulation, and probably congestion 
of the brain ; this is the case in apoplexy, disease of the heart, 
effusion of the lungs, etc. A pale countenance is a sign of faint- 
ing, of anaemia, and hemorrhage, external or internal. When 
the expression is violent and excited, there is probably the 
delirium of fever, inflammation of the brain, mania, or delirium 
tremens. In paralysis, convulsions, epilepsy, hysteria, and 
chorea, we have a distorted countenance ; and a flushed one is 
symptomatic of fever in general, and of the early stage of delir- 
ium tremens. Sometimes, in the latter stage of an incurable 
disease, the face becomes what nurses call "struck with death," 
and to this hopeless corpse-like expression has been applied the 
term Fades Hippocratica, because it has been vividly pictured 
by Hippocrates himself. Here is his picture : " The forehead 
wrinkled and dry, the eye sunken, the nose pointed and bor- 
dered with a dark or violet circle ; the temples sunken, hollow, 
and retired ; the ears sticking up, the lips hanging down, the 
cheeks sunken, the chin wrinkled and hard, the color of the 
skin leaden or violet; the hair of the nose and eyelashes 
sprinkled with a yellowish white dust." 

The Eye. — The expression of the eye, and of the whole 
countenance, affords an excellent index to the state of health or 
disease. When the eye is bright, but not too much so, high 



health is generally present ; if languid, there is a want of tone ; 
and on the other hand, if excited and wandering, some affection 
of the brain may be predicted. 

The Tongue is a certain indicator of the state of the 
system, and is always consulted by the physician as reliable 
authority. Florid redness is a sign of dyspepsia ; a livid or 
purple tongue shows that there is obstruction in the circulation, 
or lungs ; a pale or white tongue denotes a weak and impoverished 
state of the blood ; a furred tongue is common to some people 
even when in health, but when there are bright red points per- 
ceptible beneath the fur, there is a scarlet fever present ; a 
tongue with red edges and furred in the middle is a sign of 
intemperance, or brain disorder. 

In feverish conditions of the system the tongue becomes 
very dry and hot, parched, as it is called ; if clammy and viscid, 
there is usually derangement of the digestive functions ; a yellow 
tinge on the coating of the tongue indicates a biliary disorder ; 
a thin creamy white, inflammatory disease in the abdomen. In 
sore throat, we often find it of a dingy whitish color ; in scarlatina, 
we have elongated papilla?, presenting bright red spots ; and in 
some forms of intestinal irritation and hemorrhage, it is mor- 
bidly clean and red. In ansemio patients we find this organ 
partaking of the general condition of the system, being pale and 
flaccid ; in paralysis it is drawn on one side ; in delirium tremens, 
and nervous affections, it is tremulous ; and in low stages of 
fever it becomes almost black, and cannot be protruded. 

The Pulse is one of the chief indications of disease. 
Walsh, in his Domestic Economy^ gives the following on the 
pulse, gums, lips, and stomach : — ^ 

When the pulse is frequent^ large, and soj%, it indicates the 
early stage of fever or of acute inflammation, as in scarlatina, 
erysipelas, inflammation of the lungs, &c. 

When very frequent, large, and hard, it accompanies the full 
onset of fever, of an inflammatory kind, such as rheumatic fever, 
small-pox, etc. 

A moderately frequent, large, and hard pulse may be that of 
mere fullness of blood. 

Wlien frequent, hard, large, and thrilling, there is generally 
some disease of the artery, or in its close neighborhood, such as 
aneurism or tumor. 

A frequent and small pulse is often met with in consumption, 
in which the quantity of blood is diminished, and is equally 


A sloiv, laboring^ large, and hard pulse is often attendant 
upon apoplexy, or other forms of pressure on the brain. 

The Gums and Lips are also useful as indicative of 
certain conditions of the system : — 

When the gums are swoUen,n.nd bleed at the slightest touch, 
there is reason to believe that the system is generally out of 
sorts, in a state commonly called scorbutic. 

A pah bluish-red gum, with a marked line of blue at the edge, 
is a sign that lead has been taken into the system in some way. 

When the lips are inarched, and cracked, with foetid breath, 
there is reason to suppose that fever is present in a typhoid 
type, though this is by no means a certain sign by itself. 

The Stomach. — The symptoms affecting the stomach 
are vomiting or nausea, flatulence, pain after eating, and in 
some cases eructations of a watery fluid in large quantities. 

Flatulency is a system of disordered stomach of a chronic 

Pain after eating is also a sign of disordered stomach, but 
there is generally inflammation accompanying it. 

The Bowels present the following symptoms when dis- 
ordered : — 

Constipation may arise from torpor of the bowels, owing to 
long continued neglect, or the absence of aperients, or other 
causes, or from a defective secretion of the natural stimulus, 
the bile. 

Diarrhoea consists in an increased discharge of liquid fjieces, 
either caused by the irritation of food or medicine, or the pres- 
ence of hardened faeces ; or sometimes from a poison, such as 

The Faeces. — The ffi3ces are the rejected residue of tlie 
food passed into the stomach after it has served the purposes of 
nutrition. According to r)erzelius, the normal constituents of 
the human fccces are as follows: — 

Water 7P..3 

Vegetable; and Aniiual Iveiiiains 7.0 

Bile 0.9 

Albumen 0.9 

I'eculiar Extractive Matter ^.7 

Salts 1.2 

Slimy Matter, consisting of picrumcl, peculiar animal matter, 

and insoluble residue 14.0 


This is the condition of the fiuces when the health is per- 
fect, and there is nothing very peculiar in the diet to render it 
otherwise. In diseases great changes take place, not only in 


tlie proportions, but even in the ingredients of wlncli the faeces 
are composed. By their peculiarities of substance, smell, and 
color, the medical man is enabled in a great measure to judge 
of the nature and progress of the mischief going on within ; 
tlierefore it is of importance that they should be preserved for 
his inspection. The following are a few of their most obvious 
indications : — 

NatMval motions are of a ginger-bread color, slightly vary- 
ing in tint and hue, and of tolerable solidity of consistency, 
although perfectly impressible. The smell is offensive, but has 
not that peculiar foetidity which is observed in some diseased 
conditions of the system. The evacuations should be daily, 
and at or near a certain hour; but a deviation from this rule is 
no })roof of ill health. We have known persons, in a perfectly 
healthy state, who only went to stool once in two, three, or 
four days, and even a week. It depends greatly upon habit, 
but such a habit is not good. Children should be taught to go 
at a certain hour every day, and tlie habit of a daily evacuation 
of the bowels once fixed, will probably remain through life, 
except when it is interfered with by sickness, or the failing 
powers which are often a consequence of old age. 

Mucous evacuations have a semi-transparent, jelly-like 
appearance. They may be tinged with brown, green, or yellow, 
all indicating the presence of bile ; or red with blood, when 
there is inflammation or congestion of the mucous membrane as 
in mucous diarrhrea and dysentery. 

Lymphatic evacuations have a rough, shreddy, or spotty 
appearance. There may be little irregular round specks, like 
dirty white of Qgg^ scattered through the fieces, or long pieces 
like shreds of Ij^mph or dingy-colored parchment. In this case 
it is likely there may be acute inflammation of the mucous 
membrane of the intestines, the seat of which may be in any of 
the bowels, or merely the rectum. This, like the above, is a 
symptom of diarrhoea and dysentery. 

Pus in the f?cces indicates either ulceration of the bowels, 
or the breaking of an internal abscess into the alimentary pas- 
sages. If tliere is much of it, the latter is most likely the case. 
This is a dangerous symptom. 

Bile in the ftcces indicates excessive action of the liver, 
the cause of which may be excessive irritation or active con- 
gestion, — in which case the color is generally of a bright yel- 
lowish brown, but sometimes, especially in children, it is of a 
decided green color. This, too, is often the case with grown 


persons, when the liver is just recovering from a torpid state 
and beginning to act violently. This is commonly the case, too, 
in hydrocephalus, vi^hen the color is a peculiarly deep green. 
Bilious motions may or may not be loose, although they are 
generally so, from the bile acting as an irritant in the lining of 
the bowels. 

Absence of bile in the fpeces is shown by absence of color. 
The motions are clayey, sometimes as pale as pipeclay, and 
ranging from that shade up to the natural hue, occasionally 
assuming a grayish tint. They vary in substance, and when 
liquid are usually frothy, and float upon water on account of 
the quantity of gas which they contain. 

Loose motions proceed from so many causes that we cannot 
take them as clear indications of any particular diseases. They 
are always present where there is an irritated or inflamed state 
of the mucous membrane, as a diarrhcea, in some stages of 
which they become altogether watery. If, when in this state, 
they exhibit rice-like particles, they indicate Asiatic cholera, or 
the too powerful action of saline or drastic purgatives. 

jSoUd motions, when too much so, indicate constipation. 

Offensive motions occur in dyspepsia, especially those forms 
of it which are associated with hypochondriasis. The foetor is 
excessive in low fevers, when the poison introduced into the 
system seems to render the whole of the solids and fluids there- 
of peculiarly liable to decomposition. 

Expectoration. — This is, first, the act of discharging 
mucus or other matter from the lungs or trachea ; and, second, 
the substances so discharged. The term in its first meaning is 
synonymous with coughing, and need not further occupy our 
attention ; but, in its second, we find so many important consid- 
erations connected with the diagnosis of disease, that we must 
pause awhile to consider it. It is by the nature of the expec- 
toration that the physician is enabled to judge of the character 
and progress of the malady with which he has to contend. If 
this be frothy, it indicates active bronchitis, catarrh, or influenza ; 
if stringy, and of a whitish or yellowish color, the bronchitis has 
become chronic, or spasmodic, or there may be whooping-cough 
present or impending ; if purulent, it may indicate the latter 
stages of catarrh or influenza, especially if the sputa, or matter 
spat up, is mixed more or less with a tenacious mucus ; genuine 
p^is, capable of being poured from one vessel to another, indicates 
the bursting of a vomica on the lungs, or of the matter of the 
empyema having found its way into the bronchial passages ; the 


yellow matter often expectorated in humeral asthma is not 
truly purulent, but to a large extent mucous. If lumpy, there 
can be no mistake as to the nature of the disease ; pulmonary 
consumption has fairly set in, and made considerable advances ; 
there is sure to be a softening and breaking up of tubercles, 
where there are small yellowish or whitish lumps expectorated 
along with the clearer fluid on which they float, perfectly dis- 
tinct. If membraneous, the sputa indicates inflammatory action 
of a chronic, most likely of a croupy, character. If stringy and 
rusty -colored, there is certainly pneumonia ; if bloody, there is 
hemoptysis, — either a blood-vessel on the lungs has broken, or 
blood has oozed through the bronchial membrane, both of which 
are symptoms of a very diseased state of the tissues, and indica- 
tive of great danger to the patient. If offensive and putrid, 
there may be gangrene of the lungs, but this is only a single 
sign, and not to be relied on alone. 

These are the chief distinctive characters which expectora- 
tion assumes, and its increase or decrease in bulk or density, its 
varieties of tint, and other particular changes, tell to the experi- 
enced eye of the doctor how the case progresses, and whether it 
is likely to terminate in convalescence or death. 

The Temperaments. — In physiology temperament has 
been defined as a peculiar organization of the system common 
to several individuals, which to a certain extent influences 
the thoughts and actions. There is, besides, in each individual 
a further peculiarity of organization which serves to distinguish 
his temperament from that of another person, to whom, however, 
he maj"- in other respects bear a great resemblance. This indi- 
vidual temperament is called Idiosyncrasy. 

Four temperaments were distinguished by the old physi- 
cians, founded on the notion of four qualities which entered 
into the constitution of man, and were supposed to temper each 
other, and influence the character, according as one or other 
prevailed over the rest. These qualities were, in the abstract — 
hot, cold, dry, moist ; in the concrete — fire, air, earth, and water; 
and their highest point of development was — 

1. The Sanguine, or Sanguineous Temperament, supposed 
to be characterized by a full habit, soft skin, ruddy complexion, 
blue eyes, red or auburn hair, frequent pulse, large veins, and 
vivid sensations. 

2. The Atrabilious, or Melancholic Temperament, described 
as existing in a thinner but firmer frame than the preceding, 
with a dark complexion, black hair, and a slower circulation, a 


nervous system less easily moved, and a character grave and 

3. The Bilious, or Choleric Temperament, intermediate 
between the two preceding, marked by black curling hair, dark 
eyes, a swarthy and, at the same time, ruddy complexion ; a 
thick, rough, hairy skin ; and a strong, full pulse. 

4. The Pldegmatic, or Pituitous Temperament. This differs 
from all the rest, in the laxity of the skin, the lighter color of 
the hair, and the greater sluggishness of the faculties. Without 
keeping to the old theory, modern phj-siologists to a certain 
extent ado})t these terms, to which they have added — 

5. The Nervous Temperament, marked by a combination 
of some of the above characteristics, with a quick and brilliant 
intellect, and great susceptibility. 

Not often do these temperaments occur in a pure form. 
We meet with the indications of two, or even three, of them 
mingled in one person, — whom, therefore, we must call nervous- 
sanguine, or nervous-bilious-sanguine, as the case may be. 

Viewing temperament as a jiredisposing cause of disease, 
we may say that sanguine persons are more liable to acute 
inflammation than others ; nervous, to mental disorders and affec- 
tions of the nerves; plilegmatic, to scrofula; phlegmatico-san- 
guine, to gout ; and bilious, to hypochondria, and disorders of 
the digestive organs. 

Idiosyncrasy. — In most individuals tliere are certain 
mental or bodily peculiarities which we term Idiosyncrasies ; 
and these, to a certain extent, shape and fashion the life and 
mode of thought, and greatly influence the state of health. In 
reference to the latter subject, when we say that a man has a 
predisposition to gout or gravel, we allude to oile of his idiosjai- 
crasies, and we speak of tlie gouty or other state of that man 
as his Diathesis. What are connnonly called antipathies are 
the peculiar result of states and conditions of the system, to 
which the above terms may be properly applied ; and it is 
imi)ossible to affix any assignable cause for these, nor can tlie 
medical man be aware of them imtil he has noticed them in 
their effects, or been J-uUy informed of them by the patient or 
his friends. 

To some persons a particular odor is perfectly unbear- 
able ; others cannot abide a certain sound ; the sight of an 
insect, or other animal not obnoxious to most people, will 
make this or that jierson ready to faint away, and fill the mind 
with a nameless dread. 





Abscess. — Abscess is a collection of mutter produced by in- 

Causes. — It arises from previous inflammation of the inner 
surfoce of the skin and its sorrounding parts, which did not pass 
oft' by gradual cessation, but a cavity (filled with matter) was 
formed, which is termed an abscess. 

Symptoms. — The inflammation of the part quickly subsides ; 
a heavy, dull, cold sensation of the part, instead of acute pain; 
frequent sighs, or shivers, through the frame; and the top of 
the tumor appears soft and white ; all around is redder. 

Treatment. — Take a slightly cooling and gentle aperient. If 
the abscess goes on regularly, leave it undisturbed until its point- 
ed shape and the thinness of the skin show its fitness for lancing. 
Do not squeeze it. Foment the part with hot flannel, and ap- 
ply a poultice of linseed-meal mixed with milk and water, or 
bread mixed with oil. In parts where the poultice is difficult 
to retain, it must be put into a bag made of muslin with a tape 
attached to each corner of the bag to fasten it on and retain it in 
its place. The poultice should be renewed every six or eight 
hours, and continued for some days. After discharging pretty 
freely, a slip of lint should be inserted by a probe, and renewed 
once or twice a day, according to the nature of the discharge. 
After this the part should be supported by a bandage, or slips 
of adhesive soap or plaster to facilitate contraction; and the 
aperture should be left open to facilitate the discharge. Good 
matter is about the color and consistency of cream, with no smell 
and scarcely any taste. If this is not the case, the matter is un- 
healthy, and the sore is not doing well. When healed, tonic 
medicine and change of air should be resorted to. During the 
continuant^e of the abscess, the patient should live on food which 
is plain and nutritious, without being stimulating, avoiding at 
the same time -except under extraordinary circumstances — 
wine, spirits, and beer. 


Abscess in the Ear. — Apply bread poultices to the ear, and 
warm fomentations ; syringe the ear with warm milk and water. 
When the abscess has broken and discharged freely, the ear 
must be kept very clean, and a syringeful of a slightly astringent 
lotion, such as ten grains of sulphate of zinc to a quarter of e 
pint of rose-water, be injected lukewarm twice a day. 

Or this will be found beneficial : — 

When there is much discharge, injections of warm soap and 
\vater, blisters behind the ear, or a drop or two of the following 
mixture put into the ear will be found oeneficial : ox-gall, three 
drachms ; balsam of Peru, one drachm. Mix. 

Aneurism. — Aneurism has been defined as a pulsating tu- 
mor, containing blood, and communicating with the interior of 
an artery. 

Aneurisms may be internal or external. In the former 
case, being so situated in the cavities of the body — as in the 
abdomen, chest, or cranium — as to render the nature of the dis- 
ease often very doubtful; in the latter, they are so placed in 
the limbs that access may be easily had to them. 

Causes. — The whole arterial system is liable to aneurisms ; 
but they occur much more frequently internally than externally, 
and oftener in those main trunks near the heart than elsewhere. 
They usually occur in persons of advanced age, such being most 
liable to calcareous depositions of the coats of the arteries, 
which are among their predisposing causes, with which may 
also be named violent contusions, abuse of spirituous liquors, fre- 
quent use of mercurials, fits of anger, extension of the limbs, 
straining, and violent exertion of any kind. Gunshot, and 
other wounds, also frequently cause aneurisms, which few per- 
sons long addicted to intemperate habits escape. ' 

Symptoms. — In the early stage there is a small tumor, pul- 
sating very strongly, more or less evident to the sight and 
touch, according to the depth at which it is seated. Sometimes 
its presence is only known by the rapid pulsation, and pain, 
and tenderness of the part. Sometimes, only as it inter- 
feres with the functions of some important organs, pro- 
ducing impeded respiration, cough, and other distressing 
symptoms, and ending in death ; for which, without a post- 
mortem examination, the pliysician can assign no adequate 
cause. F(jr the internal form of the disease no remedial meas- 
ures can bo advised. They depend so much upon situation, 
and other var3nng circumstances, that only the medical practi- 
tioner can judge of the means to be employed. 

Treatment of external anourisms. — This must also depend 


very much on circumstances. A surgical operation appears to 
give the best chance of a cure ; and this, which consists in di- 
viding and tying the artery on which the aneurismal tumor is 
situated, can bo attempted by no uni»rofessional person. 

No external irritant liniment or friction must be applied in 
aneurism ; nor fomentations and other hot applications. When 
the bleeding has commenced, the strength must be sustained 
by good nourishing diet ; but, until it has, it is best to keep the 
system low. Active exertion must be avoided, both mental and 
physical, and also pressure upon the part affected. 

Apoplexy. — This is deprivation of life or motion by a sud- 
den stroke or blow ; it is one of the most awful and appalling 
modes of sudden death; in an instant a healthful and vigorous 
man is smitten down — one who has exhibited no signs of decay 
or disease — who has perhaps received no premonitory warning, 
lies before us motionless and stark. 

Apoplexy may bo either cerebral — pi-oceeding from conges- 
tion or rupture of the brain — or pulmonary — proceeding from 
hemorrhage of the parenchyma of the lungs. The first is its 
more common form, and this may be spoken of under four heads: 
first, when it is sudden and violent at once ; second, Avhen it is 
comparatively slight at the commencement, and progressively 
increases in severity; third, Avhen it commences in apoplexy 
and terminates in paralysis; fourth, when it commences in the 
latter, and terminates in the former. 

Causes. — The causes' of apoplexy are either predisposing 
or exciting; among the first may be named, first: Sex — men 
are more liable to it than women, because they are more sub- 
ject to its exciting causes, of which Ave shall presently speak; 
second : Age — it is very rare in childhood, rare also in youth, 
most common between the ages of forty and seventy — rare 
much beyond the latter age ; third : Bodily Conformation — the 
man of sanguine and plethoric temi)erament, with large head, 
short neck, and full chest, is most liable to its attack, although 
one of the opposite state and condition of system is sometimes 
smitten down with it; fourth: Mode of Life — persons of seden- 
tary habits, who live luxui-iously, are its frequent victims; fifth: 
Suppression of Evacuations or Eruptions — as the piles, perspi- 
ration, healing of a seton or a Avound ; sixth : Mental Anxiety—^ 
such as a !ong continuance of harassing fears, business perplex- 
ities, grief, or any violent emotion or passions. All these are 
predisposing causes of apoplexy, to which it has been said that 
the studious are more liable than others; but this is an error, aa 
the history of laAvyers, judges, and philosophers, ancient an^ 


modern, is sufficient to show. Persons of advanced age, who 
take rich and stimulating diet in more than sufficient quantity, 
and whose intellectual faculties are exercised but little, are 
those most frequently carried off by this embodiment of the 
Greek idea of the " skeleton at a feast." The most powerful ex- 
citing causes of apoplexy, then, are intemperance, whether in 
eating or drinking, as well as violent exertions of the mind 
and body — whatever, in short, tends to determine the blood with 
an undue impetus to the brain or impedes its return from it, is 
an invitation to this dreadful destroyer to step in and arrest the 
vital current in its flow, as the breath of frost stays the water of 
the river. 

Symptoms. — Apoplexy may be known by the patient falling 
down in a state of insensibility or stupor, out of which it is im- 
possible to rouse him by any of the ordinary means ; the face is 
generally flushed, the breathing difficult and stertorous; the 
upper lip-margin is projected at each expiration ; the veins of 
the head and temples protrude as though overfilled, the skin is 
covered with perspiration, and the eyes are fixed and blood- 
shot; sometimes, however, the face is pale, Avith a look of mis- 
ery and dejection ; and the pulse, instead of being full and 
hard, is weak and intermitting. 

Treatment. — This, of course, must vary considerably in ac- 
cordance with the pathological condition of the brain of the per- 
son attacked, and with other circumstances which only those ac- 
customed to the treatment of disease can judge of. The imme- 
diate measures to be adopted when a fit of apoplexy comes on 
are the following : Place the patient in a sitting position, with 
the legs depending; remove everything about his neck, and let 
the air be freely admitted ; apply cold Avot cloths to the head 
and neck, and mustard plasters to the soles of the feet ; if the 
patient bo old and the pulse weak and feeble, the skin blood- 
less, and the countenance pinched, Avarm flannels and hot bricks 
should be used, and cold water should bo dashed in the face, 
strong spirits of ammonia applied to the nostrils, the foot put 
into a warm bath Avith a little mustard, and every means taken 
to arouse the patient from his state of lethargy. As soon as 
this is so far effected that he can swallow, give ^ dram of aro- 
matic spirits of ammonia in l^ ounces of camphor mixture, as a 
stimulant draught, but it is only Avlien the pulse is feeble and 
fluttering that the stimulant may be administered ; this is the 
exceptional case in apoplexy — most commonly the symptoms 
are those first described. Purgatives must be got doAvn as soon 
as possible; 6 grains of calomel placed on the tongue, and 


washed down with a black draught, or 1 or 2 drops of cro- 
ton-oil may bo rubbed on the back of the tongue, and an injec- 
tion composed of 2 tablespoonfuls of common salt, with a little 
oil or butter, and a pint of warm Avater; or a tablespoonful of 
soft soap mixed with the same quantity of water ; or an ounce 
of spirits of turpentine, rubbed down with the yolk of an egg, 
and a pint of thui gruel ; one of these should be repeated every 
two hours until some decided effect is produced. Other means 
of relieving the system may be taken should these fail, such as 
blisters behind the ears, to the nape of the neck or calves of 
the legs ; should the head be very hot let it be shaved, and a 
cold lotion be applied to it — water and vinegar or acid water will 
do best. Should the attack be soon after a full meal, adminis- 
ter an emetic — a scruple of sulphate of zinc with a grain or two 
of tartar emetic ; something like this should always be given 
when apoplexy arises from the effects of opium or spirits. 
In all cases, after the crisis of the disease is over, and when 
the patient has become convalescent, it behooves him to 
be very careful, as a slight indiscretion may bring on a fresh 

We have said that apoplexy comes without warning, but 
this is not strictly true. However sudden the attack itself may 
be, there are certain premonitory symptoms which no prudent man 
will disregard. Among these may be named a sense of fulness in 
the veins of the head, and a feeling of pressure in the head itself, 
with occasional darting pains, giddiness, vertigo, partial loss of 
memory, and the powers of vision and of speech ; numbness of the 
-extremities, drowsiness, and a dread of falling down ; irregulari- 
ty in the action of the bowels, and involuntary passage of urine. 
These all indicate that some internal mischief is going on, and 
if their warning is attended to the threatened attack may, per- 
haps, be avoided. Persons whose full habit of body and modes 
of life predispose them to this disease, should, when such warn- 
ings reach them, live sparingly, avoid stimulants, especially fer- 
mented and spirituous liquors, take regular and moderate exer- 
cise, sleep on a firm pillow with the head elevated, and nothing 
round the neck to impede tlie act of breathing; the mind should 
be in a cheerful condition, and free from excitement; sexual in- 
dulgence should rarely be resorted to; late suppers must be 
avoided, and a hard hair mattress used for sleeping on. Keep 
the bowels regulated by an occasional dose of saline purgatives. 
Those of a spare habit should take light, although nourishing diet, 
a little beer or wine, if they have been accustomed to it, and 
it does not affect the head. Spirituous liquors and hot spices 


should be avoided, and great bodily fatigue or nervous excite* 
ment of any kind. 

Eclectic or Herbal Treatment for Apoplexy.— The 

great object is to draAV the blood from the head and equalize 
the circulation. To do this apply cold water to the head, face, 
and neck, and place the feet in warm water to which has been 
added some powdered mustard or Cayenne. An injection must 
be used if the patient shows no symptoms of rapid recovery, the 
same as in the regular treatment, and also the croton-oil. 

It is desirable to promote perspiration, which may be done 
by using composition powder, pennyroyal or catnip tea. After 
recovery, observe the rules regarding diet, etc., as before di- 
rected, and take abundance of exercise in the open air. 

Asthma. — This is a disease of the lungs, whose main char- 
acteristic is laborious breathing, Avliich comes in paroxysms, and 
is accompanied by a wheezing noise. Humid asthma is that 
in which the attack terminates in expectoration ; when it does 
not this is called dry asthma. Persons so afflicted have gen- 
erally disease of the heart or lungs. Wheu'they have not, it is 
called spasmodic asthma, and to this persons are sometimes 
subject, who, when the attack is passed, may appear quite 
vigorous and healthy. 

Causes. — Hereditary predisposition ; dwelling" in a cold or 
moist atmosphere, or being subject to sudden changes of tem- 
perature ; inward gout, intense study, or great mental anxiety ; 
suppression of accustomed evacuations ; irritation of the air-cells 
and lungs by atmospheric impurities; irritation of the stomach, 
uterus, or other viscera. 

Symptoms. — The attack commonly occurs in the night, the 
patient having gone to bed in a listless, drowsy state, Avith a 
troublesome cough, oppression at the chest, and symptoms of flat- 
ulency ; towards midnight probably the breathing becomes 
more labored, the wheezing sound louder, and the patient 
is obliged to assume an erect posture to prevent suffocation. 
Sometimes he starts out of bed, and rushes to the window for 
air, or he sits with his body bent forward, his arms resting on 
his knees, with a flushed or livid face, if it be not deadly pale, 
gasping and struggling for breath, in a condition painful to be- 
hold ; the pulse is weak and intermittent, with ])alpitation of the 
heart; sometimes there is vomiting, with involuntary emission 
of tlie urine, which is of a pale color, and relaxed bowels. The 
attack will })robably last for a couple of hours or more, when 
the severe symptoms will gradually remit, with an expectoration 
of frothy mucus, and a tranquil sleep follows. For some days 


ttere Aviii be felt a tightness of the chest, and the slightest ex- 
ertion brings on a ditiiculty of breathing ; there will be slighter 
paroxysms, and after a longer or shorter period another severe 

Treatment. — The objects to be attained in this arc, first to 
moderate the violence of the paroxysm; second, to prevent its 
recurrence. Gentle aperients should be administered, and anti- 
spasmodic mixtures and injections ; a blister on the chest will 
often aftbrd much relief. The following is a go^d formula for the 
mixture : Tincture of assafoetida, 2 drachms ; sulphuric ether, 
2 drachms ; tincture of opium, 1 drachm ; peppermint water, 
6 ounces. Mix, and take a tablespoonful every hour. If the 
expectoration is scanty and difficult, add to this — Tincture of 
squills, 2 drachms; wine of tartarized antimony, 1 drachm. 

Or make the vehicle, instead of peppermint water, mixture 
of ammoniac'um ; that is, about two drachms of the gum rubbed 
down with six ounces of w^ater. The best aperient is castor-oil, 
given in peppermint, or weak brandy and water. Where there 
is reas(m to suppose the stomach is overloaded, an emetic, com- 
posed of one grain of tartarized antimony, and one scruple of 
powder of ipecacuanha, in half a tumbler of warm water, should 
be given. The enema may consist of two drachms of gum assa- 
foetida to a pint of thin gruel. Tincture of lobelia inflata is 
good in obstinate cases, dose one drachm ; and also tincture of 
nicotiana, or tobacco in nauseating doses. Inhaling the fumes 
of this yjlant through a pi[)e, and also of stramonium, is some- 
times of service, and the good effect of either will be assisted by 
a cup of hot coffee, putting the feet in warm water, or using the 
warm bath. 

To prevent the return of a paroxysm of asthma, avoid the 
exciting causes, keep the bowels gently open with rhubarb, or 
some other mild aperient, and strengthen the tone of the stom- 
ach by bitter infusions, such as camomile or gentian. If there 
is tightness of the chest, put on a blister, and take an emetic 
now and then to clear out tlie phlegm from the bronchial pas- 
sages. Take at bedtime ten grains of Dover's powder, or the 
same of compound squill pill, with a little warm gruel. For the 
rest, take light and nourishing diet, avoiding everything difficult 
of digestion ; wear warm clothing — flannel next the skin ; hav ) 
regular and moderate exercise ; change of climate if possible, 
should the situation occupied be damp, or bleak and exposed. 
Do not indulge in sensual or intemperate habits. 

Eclectic or Herbal Treatment for Asthma.— When the 
symptoms appear, at once place the feet in warm water, and 


take a decoction of catnip or pennyroyal, to produce a gentle 
perspiration. If the attack still continues, take a tablespoonful 
of the tincture of lobelia in a cup of warm tea, every half hour. 
The following remedy has produced marked results in severe 
cases: Take a half ounce of well-bruised seneca snakeroot; im- 
merse in one pint of water, and boil over a slow fire till reduced to 
a half pint. Dose, a tablespoonful every ten or fifteen minutes. 
A teaspoonful of mustard-seed, taken in tea or soup morning 
and evening, has cured many severe cases. Damp houses 
and damp air must be carefully avoided. Let the food be light 
and nutritious ; sleep on a hard mattress ; and frequently take 
the country air. 

Fains in the Back. — Pains in the back are of many kinds, 
and may result from a variety of causes. 

Treatment. — If weakness be the cause, cold bathing, the 
shower-bath, and squeezing a sponge repeatedly down the back, 
together with vigorous rubbing v.ath a rough towel, will be 
found efficacious. Rest, in a recumbent or somi-recumbent posi- 
tion, will also alleviate the pain and contribute to its removal. 

Baldness. — This is caused by the disorganization of the 
root or bulb of the hair, and may proceed from age, gen- 
eral derangement of the functions, or local disease. When 
baldness proceeds from age, the hair can never be restored. 

Treatment. — Mix well together liquor of ammonia, one 
ounce; camphorated alcohol, one and a half drachms; bay salt, 
half ounce ; water, one pint. With this mixture bathe the 
head three times a day. Afterwards, rub well into the scalp a 
pomatum made of fresh hog's-lard three and a quarter ounces, 
and grated camphor one ounce. The action of the sedative 
water restores the capillarv circulation which forms the bulb o' 
the hair, and imparts new life to the organ. The pomatum as 
sists and favors the growth. 

Or use either of the following: Castor oil, one and a half 
ounces; tincture of cantharides, half an ounce. Mix well to- 
gether, and rub the bald part with it night and morning. Or 
use lard, made to a thin consistence with rum, rubbed in night 
and morning. 

One of the most successful remedies ever used is prepared 
as follows : Glycerine, 4 ounces ; tannin, 1 drachm ; tincture 
of cantharides, 2 drachms; oil of capsicum, 10 drops. 

Apply to the bald spots morning and evening. 

Barber's Itch. — It is communicated by an unclean razor 
or brush in shaving, or may be sometimes caused by a dull 


Symptoms. — It appears on the hairy part of the foce — the 
chin, upper lip, the region of the Avhiskers, the eyebrows, and 
nape of the neck. It consists in little conical elevations, 
Avhich maturate at the top, and have the shaft of a hair passing 
through them. These pimples are of a pale yellowish color, in 
a few days they burst, and the matter, running out, forms into 
hard, brownish crusts. These crusts fall oft" in one or two weeks, 
leaving purplish, sluggish pimples behind, which disappear 
very slowly. 

Treatment. — The most important part of the treatment is 
the removal of the cause. The beard must not be pulled with 
a dull razor, and the shaving had better be discontinued alto- 
gether, the beard being simply cropped off" close with the 
scissors. All intemperance in eating or drinking must be 
avoided, as well as exposing the face to heat. A light, cool 
diet will do much toward a cure. Nitrate of mercury ointment, 
and a solution of oxalic acid arc the best applications. 

Bed Sores. — The constant pressure of certain portions of 
the body upon the bed or mattress frequently produces in in- 
valids excoriations, which are known by the above name. 

Treatment. — When the skin becomes red and inflamed, and 
painful to the touch, immediate steps should be taken to prevent 
if possible an abrasion of the skin. Mix two teaspoonfuls of 
brandy with a wineglassful of hot water, with thirty drops of 
tincture of arnica. Dab the part with this, and dry with violet 
powder. Or, either before or after the skin breaks, dip a camel- 
hair brush into collodion, and brush the inflamed surface over, 
repeating the operation from time to time until the part is 

Blear Eye. — A term given to an inflammatory appearance 
of the eyelids and corners of the eye itself. 

Causes. — Advancing age, cold, or temporary weakness. It 
is also caused by hereditary taint, and resolves itself into a con- 
stitutional defect. 

Treatment. — Where it is not constitutional, use the follow- 
ing lotion : mix five grains of sulphate of zinc in two tablespoon- 
fuls of water. Moisten the eye irequently with a linen rag. 

Another good remedy is to take an active aperient of calo- 
mel and rhubarb, and bathe the eye with poppy-water. If the 
eye should feel weak after the inflammation has subsided, bathe 
it frequently during the day with a lotion composed of one 
grain of sugar of lead to a large tablespoonful of water. 

Bleeding from the Bladder— Bloody; Urine.— Causes. 
— Falls, blows, bruises, or some violent exertion, such as jump- 


ing or the like; sop.ietimes from small stones in tne kidneys, 
ureter, or bladder, which wounds those parts. 

Symptoms. — The blood parted with is somewhat coagulated, 
and deposits a dark brown sediment resembling coffee grounds. 
When the blood is from the kidney or ureter, it is commonly 
attended by acute pain, and sense of weight in the back, and 
some difficulty in parting Avith it. When the blood is from the 
bladder immediately, it is usually accompanied by a sense of 
heat, and pain at the lower part of the body, and the blood is 
not so much coagulated. 

Treatment. — Empty the bowels with cooling purges, and 
take the following astringent tonic mixture : Tincture of steel, 
three drams : infusion of roses, six ounces ; mix, take two table- 
spoonfuls every three hours ; and physicians generally recom- 
mend that the drink should be thick barleywater, solution of 
gum arable, or a decoction of mallows sweetened with honey. 

Mild aperient draught: Tartrate of potash, three drams; 
tincture of senna, one dram ; manna, half an ounce ; warm water, 
one and a half ounces ; mix, and take at once. 

Bleeding at the Nose. — Persons of a sanguine tempera* 
ment and full habit of body are most subject to this disease ; 
but it ought to be regarded as a salutary provision for the re- 
lief of the overcharged system. If it does not run to a weaken- 
ing extent it is very questionable whether it should be inter- 
fered with. Those who are troubled with vertigo and head- 
ache, arising from a fullness of the veins and a tendency of blood 
to the head, know how much better and lighter they feel after 
a good bleeding from the nose; and there can be no doubt that 
many a fit of apoplexy has been averted by it, and many an at- 
tack of inflammatory fever, or inflammation of the brain. 

Causes. — Violent exercise, great heat, bloAv's on the part, 
the long maintenance of a stooping posture, and a peculiar small- 
ness of the vessels which convey the blood to the brain, render- 
ing them liable to rupture. It may come on without any pre- 
vious warning, or be preceded by headache and a sense of 
heaviness, singing noises in the ear, heat and itching of the nos- 
trils, throbbing of the temporal artery, and accelerated pulse. 

Treatment. — When it comes on too frequently and continues 
long, 80 as to cause faintness, and especially if the person sub- 
ject to it be of a weakly hahit or advanced in years, it should be 
stopped as soon as possible. The stopi)age may sometimes be ef- 
fected by immersing the liead in cold water, free exposure to cool 
air, and drinking cool acidulous liquids. Tlie ])ody of the patient 
should maintain an erect position, with the head thrown some- 

Diseases and their remedies. 105 

what back, a key or other cold substance applied to the spinal 
cord, vinegar be snnlTed np the nostrils, or an astringent wash 
injected with a syringe. It may be composed as follows: Alum 
and acetic acid, of each two drams; water, six ounces. Or, 3 
drams of the muriated tincture of iron in the same quantity of 
water. Or, if these fail, the nostrils may be plugged with lint 
dipped in a strong solution of the sulphate of copper; or the lint 
first moistened, and then dipped in finely powdered charcoal. 
When the bleeding has stopped there should be no haste to re- 
move the clotted blood from the nostrils. Let it come away of it- 
self; do not blow the nose violently, nor take stimulants, unless 
there be excessive faintness, in whicu case a little cold brandy 
and water may be taken. Where there is a full habit of body, 
cooling medicines and low diet may be safely advised. 

Bleeding from the Lungs (Rcpmopfysis). — This denotes 
in general the spitting of blood, and is generally used by pathol- 
ogists to signify the expectoration of blood from the lungs and 
air-tubes. It is important to ascertain the source of the blood 
Avhich escapes from the mouth, and if determined to be from the 
lungs, to ascertain whether it is symptomatic of disease of these 
organs, or merely vicarious in its character. It is not so much 
dangerous in itself as an indication of some other dangerous dis- 
ease, being most frequently connected with tubercular con- 

Causes. — Bleeding from the lungs may occur without or- 
ganic disease, in plethoric and robust individuals living a life of 
excitement and excess, and in nervous, irritable individuals, 
weakened by mental or bodily fatigue, and leading sedentary 
lives. It is often hereditary, and inay be brought on by violent 
muscular eftbrt, paroxysms of cough, blows or pressure on the 
chest, inspiration of irritating vapors, or of rarefied air on high 
mountains. The blood may be exuded from the tracheal or 
bronchial membranes or it may proceed from capillaries com- 
municating with the air passages in any part of their extent. The 
amount varies from a dram or two to as man}' pints at a time, and 
is generally florid, and more or less mixed with air, differing 
from the dark, coagulated blood which comes from the stomach. 

Symptoms. — An attack is frequently announced by a feeling 
of heat and oppression in the chest behind the sternum, followed 
by a cough, which brings up the blood. When the quantity is 
very great, it pours forth without a cough, and almost by an act 
of vomiting, with considerable spasmodic effort. 

Treatment. — Elevating the breast and shoulders, admitting 


plenty of fresh air, with spare diet, and perfect quiet, are 
among the most useful measures to be adopted. The chest 
should be sponged with vinegar and cold water, and a dessert- 
spoonful of the former in half a wineglassful of the latter will be 
a useful accompaniment to any other medicines which may be 
thought necessary. The oil of turpentine, ten to thirty drops in 
a glass of water ; or gallic acid, in doses of ten to fifteen grains, 
every three or four hours, have been found of great value. 
Cold liquids, and the sucking of pieces of ice, will be of service. 
Nauseating medicines, as tartar emetic and ipecacuanha, are also 
frequently employed. A teaspoonful of common salt, taken fre- 
quently, is an excellent popular remedy. In all cases calmness 
of mind, rest, silence, erect position, cool air, and freeness of the 
bowels should be enjoined. When the attack proceeds from 
congestion, blood-letting is recommended in certain cases. If 
cough be present, it should be allayed by narcotics. After the 
attack astringent tonics, as iron and quinine, may be given; and 
the return of the bleeding is to be guarded against by avoiding 
the exciting causes, and attending to the general health. 

Blindness. — Deprivation of sight may proceed from various 
causes, such as one oi the diseases which affect the eyeball, or 
deficiency of power in the optic nerve, local or general paraly- 
sis, or any disease whose seat is in the brain or the nervous 
system : the formation of a speck on the eye, or of a film over the 
lens. Sometimes the affection of the brain or nerves, from 
which loss of sight proceeds, is sympathetic, arising from a dis- 
ordered stomach. In this case, as i i many others, it is but tran- 
sient ; and matters may be set right by a blue pill and senna 
draught, with low diet, and avoidance of the exciting causes of 
the disorder. If these do not have the desired efiect, a surgeon 
should be consulted, as there is reason to suspecf some organic 
mischief. Leeches on the temples, blisters behind the ears, cup- 
ping in the neck — either or all of these may be tried, should 
there be a sense of fullness, headache, or giddiness, accompanying 
indistinctness of vision. In this case, too, more powerful medi- 
cines, such as colocynth and calomel pills, should be taken, and 
a course of depletion vigorously carried out. 

Proceeding, as blindness does, from such a variety of causes, 
few general directions can be given for its treatment. When 
it is owing to a change in the structure of the eye itself, its ap- 
proaches will bo very gradual, unless this change is the result 
of active infiammation. Temporary loss of sight is a frequent 
symptom of apoplexy. It also results from diseases of exhaustion, 
and sometimes occurs after copious bleeding ; its total loss may 


be eflfected by a blow on or about the region of tlie eye. For 
the blmd from birth there is no hope of recovery. 

Acute Inflammation of the Bowels. — This is an inflam- 
mation of the mucous membrane which lines them, as it is gen- 
erally understood, but really involves more or less the whole 
substance of the bowel. 

Symptoms. — The disease begins with a chill, and with un- 
easiness and slight griping pains, which increase in severity un- 
til they are intense and burning. Pressure aggravates the pain, 
which is greatest about the navel, but extends over the whole 
bowel. There is sickness at the stomach, and sometimes vomit- 
ing; loss of strength, costiveness, great anxiety, thirst, heat, and 
fever ; dry, furred, and red tongue, and but little urine, with 
pain in passing it. The matters passed from the bowels are 
dark and fetid, and the whole belly is sore to the touch. The 
pulse is quick, hard, and small. If the stomach sympathizes but 
little with the disease, it indicates the seat of it to be in the 
lower portion of the bowels. The length of time, also, before 
drink and medicine are vomited up after being swallowed is a 
pretty sure indication of the distance of the disease from the 
stomach. To discriminate this disease from colic, it is necessary 
to know that pressure produces pain, which it does not in 
colic; the pain never wholly ceases, as it does in colic; the 
knees are drawn up and the breathing short, or altered, as they 
are not in colic. 

Treatment. — Hot fomentations, mustard-poultices, soothing and 
quieting injections, cooling drinks, such as slippery elm, flax- 
seed-tea, etc., with tincture of veratrum virido in full doses, or 
3 drops every hour, to keep up a free perspiration, will gen- 
erally be all that is necessary. 

If the disease has been occasioned by the strangulation of a 
gut, or by hernia, it is very unmanageable. The gut may be 
disentangled by applying a large dry cup, or, wliat is better, a 
number of small ones, but the tenderness of the belly makes this 

Chronic Inflammation of the Bowels.— The signs of this 

disease are a dull pain in the belly, the tongue bordered with 
red, abdomen either swelled or flat, skin dry and husky, cold ex- 
tremities; small, frequent pulse; thirst, loss of flesh, low spirits, 
scanty urine, slimy discharges from the bowels from one to four 
times a day. 

Treatment. — The treatment commences with mustard poul- 
tices and hot fomentations. Cold compresses at night — the 
body well covered up in flannel — should be used if the bowels 


are very feverish, and the warm bath twice a week, taking care 
not to get cold. The diet must be very simple and unstimu- 
lating — beginning with gum water, rice or barley water, sago or 
arrowroot gruel, and gradually raising it to chicken broth, beef 
tea, or tender beefsteak. Gentle carriage exercise, as soon as 
the patient is able, will prove beneficial. A very mild laxative 
should be given on the inflammation being subdued. 

Bronchitis. — Bronchitis may be succinctly described as in- 
flammation of the lining membrane of the passages of the throat, 
through which the work of respiration is carried on. It will be 
evident that an inflamed state of these passages must, besides 
the local irritation caused thereby, seriously interfere with the 
vital functions. Bronchitis is either acute or chronic. 

Causes. — The exciting causes are nearly always exposure 
to cold and moist air, against wliich people cannot too sedulously 
guard. Inhaling irritating substances or vapors will also cause it. 

Symptoms. — The acute stage may commence immediately 
after exposure to cold. Most usually the lining membrane of 
the eyelids, nostrils, and throat are first affected, and then the 
inflammation extends downwards into the chest. The earlier 
symptoms are running at the nose, watering of the eyes, frequent 
sneezing, and all the distressing symptoms of wliat is generally 
known as Influenza. The fever generally runs high ; there is 
extreme lassitude, with headache, and probably a troublesome 
cough, with expectoration of mucus. With adults this, the most 
active stage of the disease, frequently assumes a very dangerous 
character, and prompt measures are required to arrest its pro- 
gress. If the febrile symptoms continue to increase in intensity, 
and the breathing becomes difficult from the clogging of the 
tubes with mucus, there is great reason for apprehension. 

Treatment. — The patient should, as a matter of course, be con 
fined to bod ; warm diluent di'inks, such as flaxseed-tea, or barley 
water, with a slice or two of lemon in it; gentle aperients, if re- 
quired ; foot-baths, and hot bran-poultices to the chest. The 
chief dependence, liowever, is tO be placed upon nauseating med- 
icines. One teaspoonful of the syrup of ipecac every quarter 
of an hour until vomiting is produced, and should be kept 
up at intervals of two or three hours. Sometimes a state of 
coma or collapse follows this treatment, and then it is neces- 
sary to give stimulants; carl)Oiiate of ammonia in five-grain doses, 
or sal volatile, half a teaspoonful about every liour. These 
are preferable to alcoholic stimulants ; but should they not 
succeed, brandy may be tried, with strong beef-tea. Should the 
urgency of the symptoms yield to the emetics, a milder treat- 


meut may be followed out. The following is a good mixture : 
Ipecacuanha wine, 1 dram ; aromatic spirit of ammonia, 2 
drams; carbonate of potash, 1 dram; water, 8 ounces. Two 
tablespoonfuls to be given every four hours. If the cough 
is troublesome, add a grain of aoe.tate of morphine. The 
diet should be light and nourishing, and all exposure to cold 
must be carefully avoided. In children, acute bronchitis does 
not commonly produce such marked effects as in adults, although 
sometimes it is extremely rapid and fatal, allowing little time for 
the action of remedies, which should be much the same as those 
above recommended, with proper regard, of course, to difference 
of age. If the child is un weaned, it must be allowed to suck 
very sparingly, if at all. The best plan is to give it milk with a 
spoon, or leeding-bottle, as the quantity can be thus better reg- 
ulated. Great attention must be paid to the bowels, and also to 
the temperature of the air breathed by the little sufferer. A 
blister on the chest, about as big as a large copper cent, may be 
sometimes applied with advantage if the hot bran does not give 
the desired relief. 

Winter coughs, catarrh, and asthma are very commonly but 
forms of chronic bronchitis. For the troublesome coughs which 
almost invariably attends confirmed bronchitis, and especially in 
the aged, opium is the most eifectual remedy. The best form 
of administration is perhaps the compound tincture of camphor 
taken with ipecacuanha or antimonial Avine — say half a dram of 
the former, with ten grains of either of the latter, in a little sugar 
and water or flaxseed-tea. If there are febrile symptoms, add 
fifteen minims of sweet spirits of nitre to each dose. 

It is especially during the spring months, and when there is 
a prevalence of east wind, that bronchitis attacks young and 
old, often hurrying the former to a premature grave, and mak- 
ing the downward course of the latter more quick and painful. 
With aged people, in such cases, there is commonly a great 
accumulation of mucus in the bronchial tubes, which causes con- 
tinued and violent coughing in the efforts to expel it, which 
efforts are often unsuccessful. Thus the respiration is impeded; 
the blood, from want of projjer oxygenization, becomes unfit for 
the purposes of vitality, and death, often unexpectedly sudden, 
is the consequence. Such bronchitic patients must be carefully 
treated — no lowering measures will do for them, but Avarm and 
generous diet; opium can not safely be ventured on. Warm 
flannel next the skin, a genial atmosphere, inhalation of steam 
— if medicated with horehound, or some demulcent plants, so 
much thQ better — a couple of compound squill pills at night, 


and during the day a mixture, composed of camplior mixture, 
six ounces ; tincture of squills, wine of ipecacuanha, and aromatic 
spirits of ammonia, each two drams; Avith perhaps two drams of 
tincture of hops. Take a tablespoonful every three or four 
hours. *• 

Cancer. — A cancer is an ulcer of the worst kind, with an 
uneven surface, and ragged and painful edges. It spreads in a 
Tery rapid manner, discharges a thin acrimonious matter, and 
has a very fetid smell. 

Causes. — It is found that persons of scrofulous constitutions 
are most liable to this complaint, it arises most frequently from 
a blow, or some other external injury, but now and then from 
previous inflammation, also by suppressed evacuations. Women 
are more liable to it than men, especially the latter about the 
change of life. 

Symptoms. — It mostly is about the glands or glandular 
structure, the breast, nose, &c., externally ; internally, the 
liver, womb, &c. It first appears a hard tumor, of about the 
size of a hazel-nut, which remains stationary awhile, then it 
begins to enlarge, shoots out roots ; the color of the skin begins 
to change, first red, afterwards purple, then livid, and at last 
black; shooting excruciating pains; the place enlarges, until at 
last it bursts, then a little ease is'got ; but if the disease is not 
now stopped, the place extends until it bursts some blood-ves- 
sels, or reaches some vital part and destroys life. Therefore 
immediate means should be taken to cure, wherever cancer is 
found to exist, even in the most incipient form. 

Treatment. — Diet light but nourishing, avoiding salted or 
highly seasoned provisions, or strong liquors. In all cases of 
Scldrrus or Unhrolien Cancer^ try to disperse it witholit breaking, 
if possible. Use the following : Hydriodate of potash, 1 dram ; 
fresh lard, 3 ounces. 

Mix well ; rub on the size of a hazel-nut twice a day for a 
fortnight; then cease for a week, and apply a poultice of figs 
boiled in milk, for three or four days ; then apply the ointment 
again, and continue doing so. This has disposed of many sus- 
picious tumors. Take internally the following : Calomel, 1 
scruple ; emetic tartar, 6 grains ; precipitated sulphuret of 
antimony, 2 scruples; gum guiacum, 2 drams; conserve of hops, 
sufficient quantity. 

Rub well together, and divide into forty pills. One to be 
taken every night, and the following in the daytime : Com- 
pound infusion of gentian, 12 ounces; tincture of calumba, 1 
ounce; carbonate of ammonia one dram. 


Mix. Take three tablespoonfuls three times a day. After 
taking this for a week, substitute the following pills instead of the 
draught: Oxyphosphate of iron, | ounce; compound ipecacu- 
anha powder, 1 scruple ; powdered aloes, 6 grains ; mucilage of 
gum arable, sufficient quantity. 

Mix, and divide into sixty pills. Take one three times a 
day. If those methods of treatment (which must be persisted 
in for some time) do not succeed, and it becomes a broken can- 
cer, the internal remedies may continue the same. Apply a 
carrot poultice, or the following Avill be good: Dried hemlock, 
1 ounce ; camomile flowers, 1 ounce ; boiling water, one pint. 

Boil ten minutes, and add to the strained decoction linseed- 
meal in sufficient quantity to make a poultice ; oil well, and apply 
warm twice a day. Continue this occasionally, till the diseased 
parts are destroyed. In all cases keep the place covered with 
dressings, with oiled silk or sheet of gutta percha, to keep the 
air off. In internal cancer, in addition to the preceding internal 
remedies, either or both of the following may be taken alternately 
with the second and third of the above formulas: Guiacum 
wood raspings, 3 ounces; raisins stoned, 2 ounces; sassafras shav- 
ings, 1 ounce ; liquorice root, sliced, | ounce. 

Boil the guiacum and raisins in a gallon of water, until it is 
reduced to five pints, then put in the sassafras and liquorice, 
and continue boiling until reduced to four pints ; then strain, 
leave to settle till clear. A pint may be taken daily, at about 
four times. 

Canker of the Mouth. — This is a gangrenous inflammation 
which chiefly affects the cheeks and gums of children of a 
weakly, scrofulous habit, with constitutions debilitated by want of 
wholesome food, impure air, and all the bad influences of pover- 
ty and Avretchedness, which surround so many of the poorer 

Causes. — Canker may be produced by the contact of cop- 
per or brass with the inside of the mouth. It is very often 
attributed to mercury, but this can only when given in large 
doses contribute to its development. Its most frequent cause 
is weakness and debility, combined with a scrofulous or diseased 
body. Very frequently the disease shows itself soon after 
measles, scarlet fever, or other acute inflammatory affections. 

Symptoms. — Its first symptom is usually a hard red spot on 
the cheek, which spreads and opens into a shallow ulcer on the 
inside, discharging matter of a peculiarly offensive character. 
As the disease progresses, the cheek swells, the breath becomes 
fetid, there is a great flow of saliva, which is often tinged with 


blood; tliere is mortification of the surrounding parts, including 
the gums; the teeth drop out, typhoid symptoms show them- 
selves, and, finally, the patient sinks exhausted, death coming 
like a happy release from its sufferings. This is the usual course, 
if early efforts are not made to arrest the progress of the disease. 

Treatment. — As soon as the red spot in the clieek gives 
warning of its commencement, the constitution shouhl be 
strengthened with good nourishing diet, such as beef-tea, milk, 
and eggs, if the stomach will bear them ; wine, if there is ex- 
treme debility, and no great amount of fever ; quinine, in half- 
grain doses three times a day, in infusion of gentian or decoc- 
tion of bark, may be given, or some preparation of iron with a 
warm stomachic, as the followiiig : Wine of iron, 2 drams ; com- 
pound tincture of cardamums or of valerian, 2 drams. Made up 
to eiglit ounces with ciiniamon or mint water; one or two table- 
spoonfuls twice or thrice a day. Change of air, sea bathing, 
and anything which is likely to invigorate the constitution 
should also be tried. Chlor;ite of potash, 1 dram, with twenty 
drops of muriatic acid, in six ounces of water, sweetened with a 
little syrup of orange-peel, is a pleasant and serviceable mix- 
ture. It may be given to a child six years of age, a table- 
spoonful every four hours. For local treatment, lunar caustic, 
or sulphate of copper, rubbed along the edges of the wound, 
are recommended. The mouth sliouhl be frequently washed 
Avith a lotion made of chloride of soda and water, in the pro- 
portion of two drams of the former to half a pint of the latter; 
or it may be, one dram of chloric ether to the same quantity. 
])y this means the unpleasant fetor is diminished st) as to be en- 
durable. When extensive ulceration and sloughing takes place 
outwardly, poultices must be applied. , 

Catalepsy or Trance. — A spasmodic seizure, which causes 
a rigidity of the limbs, retaining them in a certain position, 
Jiowever inconvenient or painful. 

Causes. — The causes of this disease are seldom local, but 
such as ailect the whole system; catamenia, worms, and painful 
emotions of the mind, or impaired digestion, may be mentioned 
as among the most IVequent; women are more subject to these 
attacks than men; and, sometimes, they result in apoplexy, epi- 
lepsy, or melancholia. 

Symptoms. — The symptoms are a sudden deprivation of all 
power of motion and sensation; the patient remaining in pre- 
cisely the same position as ho was when seized: the attack 
corners on smldenly, Avithout any warning, except, it may be a 
fcjlii^'lit languor of body andmind^ and lasts for several minutes^ 


or perhaps hours, although the longer period is rare ; if, during 
the fit the position of the limbs is altered, they will remain as 
placed, and when the paroxysm is over, there will be generally 
no consciousness of what has transpired .while it lasted ; in this 
respect it resembles the mesmeric sleep, or the state of insensi- 
bility produced by the inhalation of ether or chloroform. 

Treatment, — The treatment must depend upon the probable 
cause; if the patient is of a plethoric habit, cupping at the back 
of the neck, blisters, a seton or an issue, with the administration 
of cathartics ; if debilitated, tonics and anti-spasmodics must be 
given. During the attack apply mustard plasters to the palms 
of the hands and soles of the feet, pit of the stomach and spine ; 
cold water may be dashed in the face, if the fit continue long, 
and strong ammonia applied to the nostrils : a mixture of ether, 
fetid spirits of ammonia, and tincture of musk, 2 drams of each 
to 8 ounces of peppermint water, should be administered in 
ounce doses every quarter of an hour or so. On recovery, the 
system should be strengthened as much as possible with good 
diet, gentle exercise, sea bathing, or the cold shower-bath; 
chalybeate waters may also be drank with advantage, or prep- 
arations of steel, bitter infusion, or cascarilla with aromatic 
spirits of ammonia. 

Cataract. — A disease of the eyes, causing opacity of the 
crystalline lens, which prevents the passage of the rays of light, 
and so produces blindness. 

Symptoms. — A dimness and mistiness of vision, which may 
generally be noticed before any opacity can be perceived on 
the lens itself. Then there are optical illusions, like specks or 
motes floating before the eye. This is succeeded by the gradual 
falling, as it were, of a curtain upon the outward view, which is 
finally obscured altogether. Sometimes the progress of the 
disease is slow and gradual, but frequently it is rapid, especially 
in the latter stages. Persons who have passed the middle age 
are most likely to be affected by it, and sometimes it has made 
considerable progress in one eye before the patient is made 
aware of it by some accidental circumstance, which for a time 
prevents the use of the other. 

Treatment. — There is no medicinal remedy that is known to 
have any effect upon this disease ; nor is it at all likely, from 
the structure of the parts, that any such remedy exists. All 
palliative measures, therefore, are confined to attention to the 
general health of the patient, and the removal of any inflamma- 
tory symptoms that may exist along with it. The only mode of 


cure is actual removal by an operation; but so long as one eye 
remains unaffected, the operation may bo delayed. 

Catarrh. — Catarrh, or cold in the head, is the most com- 
mon of all the disorders to which the human body is subject, more 
particularly in variable climates, like our own. There are two 
kinds of this disease, the one a common cold; the other,Mnflu- 
enza or epidemic cold. A common catarrh is an inflammatory 
state of the mucous membranes of tlie head or chest, in the 
former case it is called cold in the head, or coryza; in the latter, 
cold on the chest, or bronchitis. 

Causes. — The common cause of this disease is exposure to 
cold or damp atmosphere, or to draughts, especially when the 
surface of the body is warm or perspiring. It is frequently 
occasioned by passing directly from a warm into a cold atmos- 
phere, and, we beUevo, even moro frequently by passing im- 
mediately from a cold into a warm atmosphere. Indeed, any 
sudden atmospheric change is apt, in delicate persons, to produce 
cold but in passing from a warm room to the cold air, people 
generally take some care, though they are not generally aware 
that the like danger attends jd fussing directly from the cold air 
into a heated room, and hence do not provide against it. 

Symptoms. — The symptoms of a cold in the head are a sense 
of uneasiness, heat, and stuffing in the nostrils, diminution or 
loss of smell, dull heavy pain in the forehead, inflamed eyes, 
sneezing, and a slight impediment in breathing. Generally, it 
extends also to the tliroat and chest, occasioning hoarseness, 
cough, and difficulty of breathing. Frequently there is also a 
general derangement of the system, loss of appetite, lassitude, 
chilliness, succeeded by dry, feverish heats, and stiffness of the 
joints. The nostrils discharge a fluid, at firsts thin and acrid, 
but which afterwards becomes thicker, and often purulent. 

Treatment. — The treatment of a common cold is usually a 
simple matter. Confinement to the house for a day or two, a 
warm foot-bath, diluent drinks, abstinence from animal food and 
vinous or other fermented liquors, and a dose or two of some 
gentle laxative, are usually sufficient to remove the disease. 
There is also what is called the dry method of cure, which has the 
advantage of not requiring conlincmont to the house, though 
otherwise some might be inclined to regard the cure as worse 
than the disease. It consists simply in abstinence from every 
kind of drink, no liquor, or next to none, being allowed until tlio 
disease is gone. Dr. Williams, its inventor, states that the 
necessary privation is not hard to bear, and that a cure is ef 
fected, on an average, in forty-eight hours. He allows, without 


recommending, a tablespoonful of tea or milk for t^e morning 
and evening meals, and a wineglassful of water at bed-time. 
The principle acted upon is that of cutting off the supply of 
watery materials to the blood, and thus leaving nothing to feed 
the secretion from the inflamed mucous membrane. The best 
preventive against cold is the daily use of the cold bath, and 
this is the best means that can be adopted by those who have 
an habitual tendency to this disease. It should, however, be 
begun in summer, and the water ought to be at first tepid; 
but, after being begun, the practice may be continued through- 
out the winter, 

Chronic Catarrh. (Ulceration of the Nose). — This is usu- 
ally the result of neglected common catarrh, and is exceedingly 
troublesome, lasting sometimes for years. 

Symptoms. — When the inflammation has continued, and 
ulceration taken place, matter is secreted, which falls down into 
the throat. This is one of the worst features of this disease, as 
the matter often finds its way into the stomach, causing a gen- 
eral derangement of the system. In the morning, on rising, 
great difficulty is experienced in clearing the head and throat. 
The smell is impaired, and sometimes destroyed. Loss of ap- 
petite and general emaciation frequently occur. 

Treatment. — The treatment consists chiefly of local washes 
or injections. If no syringe or douche is at hand, they may be 
snuffed up the nose. A solution of chloride of potassa, soda, or 
lime, is higlily recommended, where the discharge is offensive. 
An injection composed of acetate of lead, sulphate of zinc, sul- 
phate of copper, or nitrate of silver, has been found very bene- 
ficial, as has also the inhalation of the vapor of creosote, tar, and 
vinegar. Common salt is also a good remedy. Alum has been 
known to arrest the most violent attack in a few minutes. 
Place about half a dram in the mouth and let it dissolve grad- 
ually; swallowing a little occasionally. 

Eclectic or Herbal Treatment for Catarrh. — Promote a 
free perspiration, by taking every night warm .hoarhound or 
boneset tea, which may be drank cold during the day; if the 
cough is troublesome, take a tea made of slippery-elm bark, or 
fl,axseed. Add a little lemon-juice, and sweeten. 

The following is also an excellent remedy for a cough: 
Take the yolk of two fresh eggs; beat them up well in a basin; 
then add quarter pound of moist sugar, and beat them together. 
Take another vessel ; mix a wineglassful of white-wine vinegar 
and the juice of two large lemons. Stir all these ingredients up ; 
mix them and put the whole into a bottle and cork it close. It 


is fit for use at once. Take a tablespoonful when the cough ia 

Chapped or Cracked Lips. — The lips are often chapped 
and cracked by exposure to cold, and it is sometimes a diffi- 
cult matter to heal them. The following is a good form for lip- 
salve to be used in such a case : White wax, 2^ ounces ; sper- 
maceti, I ounce ; almond oil, 3 ounces. Melt together, stir well, 
and put by to cool; apply to the lips on going to bed at night. 
It may be made of a pretty pink color by tinting the oil first 
with a small piece of alkanet-root, which should be taken out 
before the other ingredients are introduced. When the lips 
heat and burn much, a little cold cream Avill be found a pleasant 
and serviceable application. 

Chilblains, are an inflammatory afi'ec#ion of the skin, 
generally confined to the extremities, and especially the fingers 
and toes. Exposure to sudden alternations of heat and cold 
usually gives rise to these troublesome visitations, which are 
rather characterized by itching and irritation than pain. Per- 
sons of scrofulous habit and languid cirnuiation are most subject 
to them, as are children and aged persons. It is a popular fal- 
lacy, that to keep the surface of the skin in a state of unnatural 
warmth, by hot bottles and woolen socks by night, and fur lin- 
ings and feet-warmers by day, is the best way to prevent chil- 
blains; but this only serves to keep up a constant perspiration, 
and so weakens the tone of the system, and increases the Hability 
to them. A nightly foot-bath of cold, or — for aged persons — of 
tepid salt and water, with plenty of friction with a rough towel, 
and exercise during the day, will bo most likely to keep chil- 
blains from the feet ; and for the hands, a careful rubbing so as 
to get them carefully dry after every washing or dipping in 
water, and an avoidance of" all unnecessary exposure to severe 
cold, are the best preventive measures. It is a good plan to 
have a pan of oatmeal ahvays at hand, and to rub them well 
over with that after they have been wetted, and wiped as dry as 
possible. This will absorb any moisture left by the towel, and 
have a softening and cooling effect. Bathing the feet and hands 
every night in warm water in which a small quantity of salt is 
dissolved is one of the best preventives against chilblains. 

Treatment. — Should chilblains come, as sometimes they 
will, in spite of all precautions, let them be gently rubbed 
every night and morning with some stimulant application; alco- 
hol, spirits of turpentine, or camphorated spirits of wine are all 
good for this purpose; but the ai)plication which we have found 
most efficacious is a lotion made of alum and sulphate of zinc — 


2 drams of each to half a pint of water, rubbed in warm : it 
may be made more stimulating by the addition of 1 ounce of 
camphorated spirits. When the chilblains are broken there 
must be a different course of treatment; the ulcers formed are 
often difficult to heal, especially in weakly and ill-conditioned 
persons ; there is generally a great deal of inflammation, which 
must be subdued by means of bread and water poultices applied 
cold, and ^afterwards by cooling ointments, such as the cerate of 
acetate of lead, or spermaceti ointment, with 40 drops of ex- 
tract of Goulard added to the ounce ; should there be a dispo- 
sition to form proud flesh, the ointment of red precipitate 
should be used. 

Chicken-Pox (Varicella). — Chicken-pox is a very mild 
form of eruptive disease, which affects a person but once in a 
lifetime, and which can generally be traced to specific contagion 
or infection ; it is mostly confined to children. 

Symptoms. — It is preceded — in most cases, but not in all — ■ 
by slight fever, which lasts for one or two days before the erup- 
tion appears, which at first is in the form of conical pimples 
with a white head, mostly on the shoulders, breast, and neck, 
and more sparingly over the face and body generally. These 
vesicles, on the second day, appear like little globular blisters, 
but with little or no surrounding inflammation ; they now be- 
come filled with a watery fluid, which is not converted into pus, 
as in small-pox — to the milder kind of which this disease bears 
some resemblance — and, about the fifth day, the bladders shrivel 
up and dry away, leaving only crusts or scales. The main dis- 
tinctions between chicken-pox and small-pox are the absence 
or extreme mildness of the premonitory fever in the former dis- 
ease, and the form and contents of the vesicles ; those of the 
latter eruption being filled with dark matter, and having, in- 
variably, a depression in the centre. 

Treatment. — On the first appearance of the eruptions, the 
patient should be put upon spare diet; this, and a dose or two 
of some cooling aperient, as rhubarb or magnesia, is generally 
all that is necessary ; but should the febrile symptoms run high, 
give a saline draught, as the following: Carbonate of potash, 1 
scruple ; citric or tartaric aoid, 15 grains ; essence of cinnamon, 
I a dram; syrup of orange peel, 1 dram; water, 10 ounces. 
Shake, and drink while sparkling a wineglassful as a refrigerant. 
To make it effervescing, add the acid after the draught is poured 
out. Grive plenty of cooling drink, anJ, if the bowels are at all 
obstinate, emollient injections. Care must be taken that the 
skin is not irritated by scratching — as it is, painfal an^ troub e- 


some sores may be produced — and also that the patient does not 
take a chill. If these precautions are observed, little or no dan- 
ger is to be apprehended from chicken-pox. 

Asiatic Cholera. — The Asiatic, malignant, or pestilential 
cholera is a very violent form of disease. It commonly comes 
on without any warning, and the patient is frequently a corpse 
in a few hours. 

Causes. — It depends upon a peculiar condition of the atmos- 
phere, not very well determined. Crowded towns and cities 
are the most liable to its ravages, as are also low and damp situ- 
ations. It may be caused by eating improper food, intoxication, 
sensual habits, or anything that undermines the general health. 
Fear will also cause it. 

Symptoms. — The attack usually begins with sickness and 
purging ; the discharge in this case not being bilious, but a thin, 
colorless fluid, like rice-water, accompanied with great pros- 
tration of strength and cold, clammy sweats. In a short time 
dreadful cramps assail the extremities, and afterwards the ab- 
domen and other parts of the body. The body becomes bent, 
the limbs twisted, the countenance cadaverous, the pulse almost 
imperceptible, the eyes sunken and surrounded by a dark 
circle; the patient sinks into a state of apathy, ana unless a 
favorable change speedily takes place, he soon expires. When 
reaction does take place, the pulse gradually returns, the natu- 
ral warmth of the body is restored, and the spasms and difficulty 
of breathing give way. Frequently, however, the reaction is ac- 
companied by fever, closely resembling typhus, and which often 
terminates fatally, in from four to eight days. 

Treatment. — In regard to the treatmeiit of cholera the 
views of medical men have of late somewhat ch^anged. Watson, 
who has recently modified the views expressed in the last 
edition of his lectures, says, that " one important and guiding 
rule of treatment is not to attempt by opiates or by other di- 
rectly repressive means to arrest a diarrhoea while there is 
reason to believe that the bowel contains a considerable amount 
of morbid and offensivo materids. The purging is the natural 
way of getting i-id of the irritant cause. Wo may favor the re- 
covery by directing the patient to drink copiously any simple 
diluent liquid — water (cold or tepid), toast-water, barley-water, 
or weak tea; and wo may often accelerate tlie recovery by 
sweeping out the alimentary canal by some safe purgative, and 
then, if necessary, soothing it by an opiato." A tablespoonful 
of castor oil maybe given for this purpose, and, after the oil 
has acted freely, " a tablespoonful ox brandy may be taken in 


seR'fle thin arrowroot or gruel, and if there be much feeling of 
irritation, Avith a sense of sinking, from five to ten drops of laud- 
gaum may be given in cold water. These means will suflQce 
for the sj^eody arrest of most cases of choleraic diarrhoea. If the 
•'liarrhoea has continued for some hours, the stools having been 
copious and liquid ; if there be no griping pain in the bowels, 
no feeling or appearance of distension of the intestines, the ab- 
domen being flaccid and empty, and the tongue clean, we may 
conclude that the morbid agent has already purged itself away," 
and there will be no need for any purgative, but the brandy and 
laudanum may be given immediately as above. " The rule in all 
cases is not to give the opiate until the morbid poison and its 
products have for the most part escaped, not to close the door 
until the 'enemy' has been expelled. In some cases of severe 
and prolonged diarrhoea it may bo necessary to repeat the oil 
and the laudanum alternately for more than once at intervals of 
three or four hours." If the diarrhoea be associated with vomit- 
ing, this should be encouraged, and assisted by copious draughts 
of tepid water. If there be nausea without vomiting an emetic 
may be given. The following preparation has been found very 
useful: chalk mixture, one ounce; aromatic confection, ten to 
fifteen grains ; tincture of opium, ten to fifteen drops. To be 
taken every three or four hours until looseness ceases. 

Eclectic or Herbal Treatment for Cholera. — Dr. Annesley, 
who had much experience in India with this epidemic, states 
that, if taken at its commencement or within an hour after its 
attack, it is as manageable as any other acute disease; but the 
alarming rapidity with which it runs its course, demands the 
most active treatment. The loss of an hour may prove fatal to 
life. As soon as the person is attacked, at once place him in a 
warm bath, and while there bleed from the arm. Let not less 
than twenty or thirty ounces of blood be taken. Then put him 
quietly into a warm ued. Mustard plasters should be applied 
to the feet, and brandy or other spirits should be administered 
to stimulate the system. The body should be frequently rubbed 
with a warm flannel sprinkled with a little starch or camphorated 
oil. If the stomach is too weak to bear spirits, give a strong- 
decoction of cloves or cinnamon, or of ginger, or Cayenne pep- 
per, a teaspoonful every half hour. 

The following has been very effectual in curing severe cases of 
virulent cholera : Tincture of" opium, tincture of camphor, and 
spirits of turpentine, of each three drams ; oil of peppermint, 
thirty drops; mix. Dose, one teaspoonful in brandy and water, 
for the mild form of cholera j and one tablespoonful for the more 


virulent. As a preventive the following may be taken in cholera 
times: Bicarbonate of soda, 1 scruple; ginger, 8 grains. Take 
in a glass of water, after breakfast and supper. 

Cholera Morbus, — This is a disease prevalent in warm 
weather. From the great amount of bile secreted, it is also 
called Bilious Cholera. 

Causes. — Excessive heat, sudden atmospheric changes, in- 
digestible food, unripe fruits. Dampness, wet feet, and violent 
passions will also cause it. 

Symptoms. — This disease begins with sickness and distress at 
the stomach, succeeded by violent gripings, with vomiting of 
thin, dirty yellowish, whitish, or greenish fluid, with discharges 
from the bowels similiar to that vomited. The nausea and dis- 
tress continue between the vomiting and purging, and the pain 
at times is intense. The pulse is rapid, soon becoming small 
and feeble, the tongue dry, the urine high-colored, and there is 
much thirst, though no drink can be retained on the stomach. 

Treatment. — Apply a large mustard poultice over the stom- 
ach and liver. Give large draughts of warm teas, by which 
means the stomach will be cleansed of all its solid contents. 
Every half hour give tablespoonful doses of the compound pow- 
der of rhubarb and potassa, until the vomiting is checked. 
Warm injections must be given frequently, and hot bricks ap- 
plied to the feet, while the whole body should be swathed in 
warm flannels. To get up a warmth of the body and the stomach 
is, in fact, the most important thing in this disease. Hot brandy, 
in which is a dose of cayenne, is excellent to quiet the vomiting 
and griping. A few drops of laudanum in the injections may be 
given, if the pain is excessive; but generally it is not needed. 

Either of the following have been found useful : Bicarbonate 
of soda, 12 grains; common salt, 6 grains; chlorate of potash, 
6 grains. Mix, and take in cold water. Or the following: Ace- 
tate of lead, 10 grains; opium, 3 grains. Make into 12 pills, 
and take one every half hour until looseness ceases. 

Eclectic or Herhal Treatment for Cholera Morhus. — ^No time 
must be lost in treating the severe stages of this disease. Give 
the patient copious drinksof Avhey, warm barley-water, thin Avater- 
gruel, or weak chicken-broth. Bathe the feet and logs in warm 
salcratus-water, and apply warm fomentations of hops and vine- 
gar to the bowels. In addition to these, apply a warm poultice 
of well-stewed garden-mint, or a poultice of mustard and strong 
vinegar will be found of much service. The vomiting and 
purging mav bo stopped by the following: Ground black pep- 
per,! tablespoonful; table salt,! tablespoonful; warm water, 


^ tumblerful ; cidor vineg-ar, h, tumblerful. Dose, a tablespoon- 
ful every few minutes. Stir and mix each time until the whole 
is taken. 

The evacuations, however, should not be stopped till the 
patient feels very weak. Nourishing diet should be taken by the 
patient. A wineglass of cold camomile tea once or twice a day 
would be very beneficial, as would ten drops of elixir of vitriol 
three or four times a day, or a tea made of black or Virginia 
snake-root. Flannel should be worn next the skin, and the warm 
bath should be frequently resorted to. 

Inflammation of the Pharynx, or Clergyman's Sore 

Throat {Pharyngitis). — This is an inflammation of the back part 
of the throat, as seen when the mouth is stretched open. There 
is also an inflamed condition of the vocal cords, and other por- 
tions of the larynx. 

Causes. — Over-exertion of the voice, inhaling impure air, 
exposure to cold winds when heated will also produce it. 

Symptoms. — Spitting, hoarseness, coughing, sometimes loss of 
voice, difficulty of swallowing, etc. 

Treatment. — Avoid the night air, and loud talking or singing 
in the open air when walking. Let the diet be nourishing, but 
abstain from all spicy and acid foods that irritate the mucous 
membrane. Spirituous liquors, strong beer, and other heating 
liquids, must be entirely avoided. The local treatment consists 
of applying solutions of nitrate of silver, or alum, or carbolic 
acid, to the diseased parts, by means of a sponge or brush. 

Colic. — Colic is a name given to several diseases which are 
characterized by severe pain of the bowels, Avith distension or 
flatulence, but without looseness or diarrhcea. Medical men dis- 
tinguish no fewer than seven different kinds of this complaint; 
as, 1, Spasmodic, in which the principal symptoms are sharp and 
spasmodic pains about the navel ; 2, Stercoraceous, when the 
pain is accompanied with constipation of the bowels; 3, Acci- 
dental, when occasioned by indigestible food, or by acrid mat- 
ter in the intestines ; 4, Bilious, when accompanied with vomit- 
ing of bile, or with obstinate costiveness ; 5, Flatulent, when it 
arises from flatulence in the bowels ; 6, Inflammatory, when 
accompanied with heat and inflammation ; 7, Lead, Painters', or 
Devonshire colic, the dry bellyache, which is attributed to the 
poison of lead. 

Causes. — Among the most frequent causes may be named 
worms, poisonous or unwholesome substances, long undigested 
food, redundancy of vitiated bile, internal gout and rheumatism, 
intense cold, hard or acid fruits or vegetables. 


Symptoms. — The symptoms of colic, in general, are a painful 
distension of the lower region of the belly, with a twisting round 
of the navel, and very commonly vomiting, costiveness, and 

Painters' Colic. — Lead, or painters' colic ia characterized 
by obstinate costiveness, and vomiting of acrid bile ; the pains 
come on in paroxysms. The spasms gradually become more 
violent, and if not frequently alleviated, the bowels become 
perfectly intractable. 

Treatment, — Give immediately from thirty to forty drops of 
laudanum, and apply a hot bath; afterwards give the following 
mixture : Sulphate of magnesia, one ounce ; powdered alum, two 
drams; tincture of opium, half a dram; water, six ounces. Dose, 
one-fourth every four hours. 

For the treatment of paralysis, or palsy arising from 
the absorption of lead, which is generally confined to the 
wrists, use galvanism, friction, and shampooing, with chalybeate 
waters. Those engaged in the manufacture of lead, or in oc- 
cupations in which one or other of its preparations are fre- 
quently handled, may generally escape its baneful effects by 
strict attention to cleanliness. They should never take their 
meals where they work, or with unwashed hands. Let them 
eat fat meat, and butter, and take acidulous drinks, especially 
those rendered so by sulphuric acid. The men employed at the 
Birmingham white lead works have been almost free from this 
disease, to which they were much subject before, since they 
have mixed a little of the above acid with their molasses-beer. 
From the first attack of lead colic patients generally recover ; 
but unless they change their occupations, or observe the above 
precautions with scrupulous care, the attacks are repeated, each 
time with greater violence, and they will become, eventually, 
miserable cripples. 

Wind Colic. — Wind colic is a severe and distressing pain 
in the bowels, sometimes a stoppage, and swelling about the pit 
of the stomach and the navel. The complaint may be caused 
by weakness in the digestive organs, by indigestible food, un- 
ripe fruit, or costiveness. 

Treatment. — If the pain is caused by having eaten anything 
indigestible, an emetic should be immediately taken. If this 
does not bring relief, a dose of salts, or sweet tincture of rhu- 
barb may. If there is no sickness at the stomach, a little essence 
of peppermint in water, or brandy, or gin, in hot water, may bo 
sufficient to expel the wind and give relief. If there bo costive- 


ness, and continued pain, a stimulating injection should be 

Bilious Colic. — Bilious colic is a dangerous disease. 
There is griping, twisting, tearing pain about the navel, or 
sometimes over the whole bell^y. 

Causes. — It is caused by irritating articles taken into the 
stomach, vitiated bile, long' exposure to cold, torpid liver and 
skin, great unnatural heat, etc. 

Symptoms.— It comes and goes by paroxysms. Sometimes 
the abdomen is drawn in, at other times swelled out, and 
stretched like a drum-head. At first the pain is relieved by 
pressure, but after a time the belly grows tender to the touch. 
There is thirst and heat, and a discharge of bilious matter from 
the stomach. In the ^vorst cases, the pulse is small, the face pale, 
the features shrunk, and the wdiole body covered with a cold 

Treatment. — Adminiator an active purgative injection im- 
mediately. Give a mixture of pulverized cain]dior, four grains; 
cayenne, one grain ; white sugar, one scruple. This, divided 
into eight powders, and given once in fifteen minutes, will relieve 
tlic pain, at the same time a mustard-poultice should be laid 
u])on the belly. The sickness of stomach may be allayed by hot 
drafts over tlio stomach, in which are a few drops of laudanum; 
also on the feet. Croton oil, one drop done up in a crumb of 
bread, will often purge successfully; or castor-oil and spirits of 
turpentine, ecpial parts, in two tablespoonful doses, may bo used 
before trying the other. A warm bath is good, and bottles filled 
wMth hot water, placed at the feet and sides, to promote per- 

Eclectic or Herbal Treatment for Colic. — A good remedy for 
bilious colic is the tincture of ground walnut, made by stirring 
wulnuts in sufficient diluted alcohol or Avhisky to cover them. 
Let the mixture stand eight or ten days. Dose, a tablespoonful 
every half hour until relieved. 

A decoction of equal parts of skull-cap and high cranberry 
bark, to which is added a tablespoonful of the compound tinc- 
ture of Virginia snake-root has been found very useful. Apply 
over the stomach and bowels hot fomentations of wormwood 
and boneset, or hops, stramonium leaves, or hops and lobelia. 

In flatulent colic the legs should be bathed in warm water, 
and poultices of mustard or hot salt placed over the bowels and 
stomach. The bowels may be opened with a dose of castor-oil, 
and ginger or peppermint tea may be drank freely. To ease 
ithe pain, from thirty to sixty drops of paregoric may be given. 


In very severe cases, a mixture compoimded of equal parts of 
laudanum, tincture of camplior, and essence of peppermint, in 
teaspoonful doses, may be given. In some cases, a teaspoonful of 
spirits of turpentine, taken with a teaspoonful of castor-oil, has 
been found to give immediate relief. For painters', or lead colic, 
the following is highly recommended: Sulphate of magnesia, 
^ pound; powdered alum, 1 ounce; sulphuric acid, 1^ drams; 
boiling water, 1^ pints. Mix. Dose, a tablespoonful in a wine- 
glass of water; repeat every hour until it operates upon the 
bowels. To prevent the acid from injuring the teeth, the so- 
lution may be sucked through a quill or a glass tube. After 
the bowels have been freely opened, the medicine should be con- 
tinued for weeks or months, m doses suflScient to produce one 
or two passages every twenty-four hours. The sulphuric acid, 
by uniting with the oxide of lead in the system, forms the sul- 
phate of lead, which is a harmless salt. 

The following is recommended to be taken by persons who 
are exposed to the bad influence of lead: Elixir vitriol, ^ ounce,* 
tincture of prickly ash berries, 1 ounce. Dose, a teaspoonful in 
a gill of water, and repeat three or four times a day. 

Clouded, Thick, or Dark-colored Urine. — Take the fol- 
lowing antacid diuretic mixture: Liquor potash, two drams; 
tincture of cubebs, two ounces ; infusion of buchu leaves, thir- 
teen ounces ; mix, take two tablespoonfuls four times a day. 

The following will usually effect a cure : Dilute nitric acid, 
two drams ; syrup of lemon, four drams ; water, eight ounces ; 
mix, take one tablespoonful three times a day ; or take half a 
teaspoonful of citric acid in water four times a day. 

Concussion or Inflammation of the Brain. — Is nearly 

always produced by a blow or a full ; it is one of thy most frequent 
injuries to which this part is exposed ; it may be either slight or 
severe, in proportion to the intensity of the exciting cause ; in 
the former case the effect is but momentary — the patient is 
stunned, but very soon recovers consciousness, and perhaps feels 
no more of it, except a little tenderness of the part struck ; in the 
latter case he remains unconscious, witliout the ])Ovver to move 
or speak ; the ])ulso is slow and feeble, the breathing diflicult, fre- 
quently there is vomiting, and an unnatural contraction or dila- 
tion of the pupils of the eyes ; in this case but little can be done 
beyond putting the patient to bed, and keeping the surface of 
the skin warm bv frictions and hot ap]dications ; when there is 
extreme depression, a little brandy or sal volatile may be given, 
but very sparingly, because, if death does not ensue, tliere will 
be reaction, with an inflamed state of the organ. If it is simple 


concussion, a fatal termination is not likely ; but sometimes the 
shock causes rupture of the substance of the brain itself, or its 
enclosing membranes, or of one or more of its blood-vessels, caus- 
ing effusion ; in this case the patient may never rally from his 
state of stupor, or, if ho does, it will be but for a short time ; 
there will probably be convulsions, paralysis, and apoplectic 
termination of his sufferings. All these are characteristic of in- 
flammation. In so acutely sensible an organ as the brain, it 
must bo evident that an inflamed state of the tissue is by all 
possible means to be avoided ; hence, when reaction sets in after 
the stunning and depressing effects of concussion have passed 
off, the most active measures should at once be taken. 

If a medical man is not Avithin call, and the alarming symp- 
toms increase in intensity, there may be sufficient warranty for 
an unprofessional person to bleed ; eight, ten, or twelve ounces 
of blrxid may bo taken from the arm, or a dozen leeches may be 
applied about the head, or the patient may be cupped in the 
nape of the neck ; the latter is, perhaps, the best mode oi depletion, 
as it is effected quickly, and very near to the seat of disease. 
The hair of the head should also be cut or shaved off, and rags 
wet with cold water applied , if iced, so much the better. A thor- 
ough purging should be given, as the following : Pulverized 
gamboge, 12 grains* pulverized scammony, 12 grains; olateriuin, 
1 grains; croton oil, 4 drops; extract of stramonium, 3 grains. 
Mix ; make 24 pills, and give 1 pill every three hours till it ope- 
rates. To reduce the pulse and cause perspiration, give 4 drops 
of tincture ol" veratrum, in a little sweetened water, every hour, 
till the desired results are produced. 

Among the symptoms of inflammation of the brain, or its 
investing tissues, may be mentioned as prominent : shivering, 
succeeded by heat in the skin; great thirst; tongue furred; pain 
in the head ; intolerance of light ; bloodshot eyes, with a wild, 
wandering look ; sickness, and delirium. There may be violent 
and obstinate vomiting, as a first symptom, followed after a time 
by the others, or some of them. It should be borne in mind that 
concussion of the brain is not always the result of a blow; it may 
be produced by a violent shock to the nervous system, such as 
that caused by coming doAvii heavily on the feet from a leap. 

Congestion. — Applied to undue fullness of the blood-ves- 
sels; those of the brain are most usually so affected, owing to the- 
unyielding nature of the bones of the cranium,which do not admit 
of expansion for any increased quantity of blood which may flow 
in. Most of the other important viscera are contained in cavities 
with yielding walls, and in them a greater fullness of the veins 


than usual is not generally attended with such dangerous 

Causes. — Congestion may be anj^thing which impedes the 
whole circulation so as to increase the action of tlie heart ; any pres- 
sure on tlie veins which obstructs the passage of tlie blood through 
them ; a dilation of the coats of the veins from debility ; cold ap- 
plied to the surface of the body, or a dry state of the skin ; a 
decay of the colls in the small secreting cavities, blocking them 
up, causing local congestion, which, if not relieved, ma}^ lead to 
that of the whole system. It is caused by morbid accumulation 
of blood in the vessels, and may proceed from various causes; 
persons of a full, plethoric habit are most subject to it. 

Treatment. — Quiet both of mind and body, wdth cooling 
aperient medicines, abstinence from all rich and stimulating 
food and drink, is the proper treatment; in those of spare, 
weakly habit, it is sometimes owing to want of vital energy, and 
in this case, the diet should be rich and stimulating ; and the 
aperients, if required, must be of a cordial nature; but all this 
should be left to the medical practitioner; the disease too 
nearly affects the issues of life and death, to be tampered with. 

Convulsions, or Fits. — Involuntary contractions of the 
muscles of a part or the whole of the body — generally with cor- 
responding relaxations, but sometimes witli rigidity and tension; 
in the former case they are called clonic spasms, as hysteria; in 
the latter tonic spasms, as lockjaw ; when the convulsions are 
slight and rapid they are called tremors. They are universal, 
affecting all the limbs more or less, and the muscles of the face 
and those of respiration, as in epilepsy, and the convulsions of 
children ; and partial when they only affect some of the muscles 
irregularly, as in chorea or St. Vitus' dance. 

Causes. — Convulsions in children are genera'lly caused by 
the lodgment of acrid matter in the intestines, flatulency, the 
irritation of teething, worms, water on the brain, the striking 
in of a rash, or the accession of some disease, such as small-pox, 
scarlatina, etc. A very trifling functional derangement will 
often be sufficient to produce them, and the younger and the 
more irritable the child is, the more liable will it be to their 

Symptoms. — Convulsions are violent spasmodic affections, 
with or without intermission. Previous to their coming on there 
is generally giddiness, coldness of the extremities, dimness of 
TJsion, tremblings, and a creeping chill up the spine. There are 
also, y)aiticularly in adults, anxiety of mind and dejection of 
spirit, nausea, and a sense of faintness, yawning, and a feeling 


of stretching, swimming in tlio head, and palpitation of the 
heart. When the fit is on, the teeth chatter, the tongue is 
protruded and often bitten, there is foaming at the mouth, the 
eyes roll wildly, there is a struggle for breath, and a clutching 
of the hands, which are often clenched so that the nails enter 
into the flesh; sometimes the lips and cheeks and the whole 
surface of the face and arms become purple, and the veins stand 
out as though they would burst; and so great is the muscular 
force exerted that several attendants are required to keep the 
patient from bodily injury. A violent paroxysm may last but a 
few minutes only, or for several hours, and may have longer or 
shorter intermissions. It is followed by extreme languor, fre- 
quently by headache and giddiness, but these often pass off very 
quickly, and leave no symptoms of constitutional derangement 

Treatment, — Treatment will depend greatly on the cause. 
If it be worms, give vermifuges and anthelmintics; if teething, 
scarification of the gums; if improper food and indigestion, a 
gentle emetic and afterward an aperient; if acrid matter in the 
bowels, a laxative clyster and aperient ; if flatulency, carmina- 
tives; if repelled eruptions, the Avarm bath; if effusion on the 
brain, cold lotions to the head, and small doses of calomel, fre- 
quently repeated, with purgatives, if the bowels are sluggish ; 
hot applications to the extremities, also, are advisable in this 
case, and sometimes leeches to the head ; but it is hazardous to 
apply them, except under professional direction. In all cases 
of infantile convulsions, and in some of adults, the warm bath is 
advisable; the temperature should be about ninety-eight de- 
grees, and in most cases opening medicines, Avith at least one 
dose of calomel put on the tongue. 

In adults, convulsions may be apoplectic, epileptic, hysteri- 
cal, or puerperal, as the case may be. Some narcotic poisons 
produce them, such as opium, prussic acid, some kinds of fungi, 
ardent spirits, and indigestible substances. In all these cases, 
emetics should be the first remedies, and the stomach-pump ; 
then volatiles and stimulants, as ammonia, valerian, and a stream 
of cold water poured upon the head from a considerable height. 
Convulsions may be caused by excessive mental emotion, and 
sometimes by long-continued diseases, such as dropsy, jaundice, 
and fever. 

When a person is taken with a fit, proceed thus : Loosen 
any part of the dress which may appear tight, especially about 
the neck and chest; if a female, cut the stay-lace, as tight- 
lacing often causes fits ; sprinkle cold water on the face, and ap- 


ply volatile stimulants to the nostrils ; rub the temples with eau 
de cologne, ether, or strong spirit of some kind, and blow upon 
them ; and as soon as the patient can swallow, give 30 drops of 
sal volatile in water, or the same of ether, or, if neither are at 
hand, a little cold brandy and water. 

When the lit is over, a gentle aperient should bo taken, to 
be followed by cold bathing, exercise, and, if possible, by a 
change of air. 

Consumption. — Phthisis, or consumption, is a disease which, 
unfortunately, is but too prevalent and fatal in this country, as 
in most others. It spares neither age nor sex, and its attacks, 
at first so insidious as almost to escape notice, but too frequently 
lead to a fatal issue. It is the result of the formation and de- 
velopment of tubercles in the lungs. These first appear in the 
form of small, gray, semi-transparent granulations, which gradu- 
ally enlarge and become opaque, and after a time empty them- 
selves into the bronchial tubes, and thus the substance of the 
lung is gradually destroyed. 

Causes. — Recent discoveries prove that very little was 
known of the real cause of consumption, even a decade ago. 
Great progress has been made recently in the study of this dis- 
ease by means of the microscope. Consumption was formerly 
regarded by all medical writers as more distinctly hereditary in 
origin than any other disease except syphilis. 

It is now believed that consumption is not hereditary, that 
what is inherited is simply a constitution feeble in its ability 
to resist disease, and a vitality more or less impaired. 

It may be regarded as well proved that the real cause of 
consumption is a specific disease germ known as the tubercle 
bacillus, the micro-organism discovered by Koch of Berlin. 

In all cases of tubercular lungs, this bacillus is found in 
the expectoration, and a suspected case in which it is not found 
is not true consumption. 

Symptoms. — Tho earliest symptom of consumption that 
usually manifests itself is a short, dry cough, exciting no par- 
ticular attention, being attributed to a slight cold. It, however, 
continues, and after a time increases in frequency. Tho breath- 
ing is more easily hurried by bodily motion, and the pulse be- 
comes more frequent, particularly after meals and towards even- 
ing. Towards evening there is also frequently experienced a 
slight degree of chilliness, followed by heat and nocturnal per- 
spirations. Tho patient becomes languid and indolent, and 
gradufilly loses strength. After a time tho cough becomes 
more frequent, and is particularly troublesome during the night, 


accompanied by an expectoration of a clear, frothy substance, 
which afterwards becomes more copious, viscid, and opaque, and 
is most considerable in the morning ; the sputa are often tinged 
with blood; or lu^moptysis occurs in a more marked form, and 
to a greater extent. As the disease advances, the breathing 
and pulse become more hurried ; the fever is greater, and the 
perspirations more regular and profuse. The emaciation and 
weakness go on increasing; a pain is felt in some part of. 
the thorax, which is increased by coughing, and sometimes be- 
comes so acute as to prevent the patient from lying on the af- 
fected side. All the symptoms increase towards evening: the 
face is flushed; the palms of the hands and soles of the feet are 
affected with a burning heat; the feet and ankles begin to SAvell, 
and in the last stage of consumption there is nearly always pro- 
fuse diarrhoea. The emaciation is extreme ; the countenance 
assumes a cadaverous appearance, the cheeks are prominent, the 
eyes hollow and languid. Usually tlie appetite remains entire 
to the end, and the patient flatters himself with the hope of a 
speedy recovery, often vainly forming distant projects of in- 
terest or amusement, when death puts a period to his existence. 
Tubercular deposits are also usually found in other organs of 
the body: the liver is enlarged and changes in appearance, and 
ulcerations occur in the intestines, the larynx, and trachea. 
These are so frequent and uniform as to lead to the belief that 
they form part of the disease. 

Treatment. — It is of the utmost importance to be able to 
meet and counteract the earliest approach of this disease. The 
constitutions that are most liable .to its attack are generally 
characterized either by a fair, delicate, rosy complexion, fair 
hair, clear skin, and great sensibility, or by dark complexion, 
large features, thick and sallow skin, and heavy general expres- 
sion. The development of the disease is preceded b}^ a pecu- 
liar form of indigestion, known as " strumous dyspepsia." It is 
specially characterized by a dislike of fatty food, sometimes 
also of sugar and alcohol, and is accompanied with heartburn 
and acid eructations after taking food. Unlike inflammation, 
tubercles almost invariably commence at the apex of the lungs, 
and it is here that they are usually most advanced. It is here, 
then, that the skillful physician, by means of auscultation and 
percussion, is able to detect the first direct symptoms of the in- 
cipient disease. The treatment of this disease is of two kinds, 
the one directed to strengthening the system for its prevention 
in those predisposed to it, or overcoming it in its incipient stages*, 
the other to arresting its progress after the tubercles have mani- 


fested themselves. The former chiss comprises a proper at- 
tention to the digestive organs, with wholesome diet, exercise 
in the open air, reguhir habits, attention to the skin, and, if 
necessary, change of air. Tlie diet should be nutritious, but 
not stimulant, and the exercise not violent or too prolonged. 
Sea-voyages, or residence at the seaside, are generally found to 
be very beneficial; and, as a general rule, those places that are 
least subject to variations of temperature are recommended. 
The practice, however, of sending patients in the last stage of 
consumption away from home — to Minnesota, Florida, or else- 
where — cannot be too strongly reprobated. Of the more di- 
rectly curative remedies unquestionably the most valuable is 
cod-liver oil. It should be taken in small quantities at first, 
probably a teaspoonful three times a day, during or immediately 
after meals; and the efiect is greatly to improve the appear- 
ance of the patient, and to counteract the progress of the dis-. 
ease. If taken early, the tuberculous deposit may be arrested, 
and the patient restored to a state of health; and, even where 
this is not the case, the progress of the disease will at least be 
retarded. Tonic medicines, such as bark, sarsaparilla, iron, and 
iodine, are also very beneficial in the treatment of phthisis; at 
least in those cases where inflMmmation or much febrile excite- 
ment does not exist. Where inflammation already exists, it may 
be subdued by counter-irritants to the upper parts of the chest. 
These are the general remedies to be employed; the more promi- 
nent special features of the disease require particular medicines. 
One of the most distressing and harassing of these is the cough, 
which may be alleviated by tho application of sinapisms or stim- 
ulating plasters to the chest, or by the internal use of muci- 
laginous mixtures, squills, conium, opium, ether, etc. The night 
perspirations, when very copious, are best checked by the use 
of mineral acids, as sulphuric acid given wnth quinine, or nitric 
acid in a decoction of sarsaparilla. Diarrhoea commonly sub- 
sides by a strict regulation of the diet, and the avoidance of all 
stimulating food and medicine; otherwise, small doses of chalk 
and oi)ium, or rhubarb and opium, may be administered. When 
the pulse is very frequent and the palpitation distressing, digi- 
talis may be used. The duration of this disease depends upon 
a great variety of circumstances, and varies from a few months 
up to four, five, or more years ; the average, however, may be 
taken at about two years; but many of the cases terminate 
fatally between the fourth and ninth month. The question as to 
whetiier consumption be contagious has often been discussed, 
and medical men arc by no means unanimous on the subject. 


The majority are probably in favor of its being non-contagious ; 
though there are not wanting Aveight and numbers on the other 
side, to which, indeed, the present writer believes that he has 
evidence for adhering. At all events, no one should be allowed 
to sleep with a consumptive patient after the disease has fully 
manifested itself. 

Eclectic or Herbal Treatment for Consumption. — Abundance 
of fresh air; light, nutritious food, and correct personal habits, 
are the best remedies to rely on. All others will be useless if 
these matters are neglected. There can be no substitute for 
air and exercise. Let the exercise be gentle, so as not to cause 
fatigue, and take special care after exercising not to get cool too 
quick by standing still or sitting in a draught of cold air, open 
window, or cold room. 

The cold or tepid bath should be used three or four times 
a week. Inhaling the fumes of tar made warm in a teapot is 
very useful. It will ease the violence of the cough, and produce 
a free discharge of the mucous matter. For night sweats, take 
sulphuric acid and nitric acid, of each one dram ; mix in a cup 
of water; dose, a teaspoonful in a pint of sage tea. During the 
day, a strong camomile tea is very useful; as is a decoction of 
common polypody and liverwort, drank freely during the day. 

A tablespoonful each of tar and honey beat up with' the 
yolk of an egg and mixed with milk, and taken once or twice a 
day, is very good. 

For females, especially when the menses are stopped, a 
wineglassful of decoction of elecampane once a day, has been 
found very useful. The diarrhoea may be checked "by infusion 
of blackberry root. 

Costiveness {Constipation). — An undue retention of the 
contents of the stomach, in which they are unusually hard, and 
expelled with difficulty and sometimes v/ith pain. 

Causes. — Neglecting the usual time in going to stool, extra- 
ordinary heat of the body, copious sweats, taking food that is 
dry, heating, and difficult of digestion; sedentary life, or a dis- 
eased state of the liver or spleen, sometimes from stricture in 
the rectum. 

Treatment. — The first thing to be done is to establish the 
habit of trying to evacuate the bowels every day at a certain 
hour; the best time for most people is just after breakfast. It 
matters not if the bowels do not act ; the practice of attempting 
should be persisted in, and in time it will break up the confined 
state of the bowels. Adopt a diet free from all astringents, 
taknig care especially that there is no alum in the bread, and 


using a coarser kind. Let the food consist of a due admixture of 
meat and vegetables for dinner ; the beverage, water. For break- 
fast stale l)read or dry toast, with a moderate quantity of butter, 
honey, fish, or bacon; cocoa is, perhaps, preferable to tea or 
coffee ; and porridge made of Scotch oatmeal, pj'obably better 
still. Reg'ular exercise, either by walking or on horseback, 
should be taken. Roasted or boiled apples, pears, stewed 
prunes, raisins, gruel with currants, broths with spinach, leeks, 
and other soft pot-herbs, are excellent laxatives. If the above 
mode of living fail to relax the bowels, inject warm water by 
means of an enema. If there be an objection to the use of the 
foregoing, take of castor oil four parts, and of tincture of jalap, 
aloes, or rhubarb, one part; mix, and diligently rub over the 
region of the stomach every morning before rising; it should be 
done under the bed-clothes, lest the unpleasant odor should 
sicken the stomach. Or take either of the following: Take 
from half a dram to a dram of dilute nitric acid in a cupful of 
Aveak ginger or dandelion tea, twice or thrice a day. Epsom 
salts, half an ounce ; powdered nitre one scrujile ; infusion of 
senna, four ounces ; peppermint Avater, four oiuices. Dose, two 
tablespoonfuls every morning. 

Where the bowels are weak, uneasy, torpid, and Avhere 
fhere is a general sense of coldness, and some aperient is ab- 
solutely required, have recourse to the folloAving: Tincture of 
rhubarb, 2 drams; tincture of senna, 2 drams; potash Avaler, or 
sal volatile, h dram. Mix in a Avineglassful of camomile tea, and 
take it every day at noon, or an hour before dinner, gradually 
reducing the dose, or leaving it off by degrees. The habitual use 
of purgative medicines is very injurious, and increase the evil 
they are intended to cure. ' 

Corns. — In the treatment of corns, the first object should 
be to remove the exciting cause ; comfortable, Avell-fitting boots 
or shoes should be substituted for those of an opposite charac- 
ter, and the corn, after the feet have been soaked in Avarm 
water to soften it, should be pared carefully aAvay, particular 
care being taken not to wound the more sensitive part. When 
the outer surface is removed, there Avill bo perceived in the 
centre a small white spot, Avhich should be carcfnlly dng out 
Avith a pointed knife or a pair of scissors. When this too is re- 
moved, cover the seat of the corn with a small circular })iece of 
thick, soft leather spread Avith soap or diac-hylon i)laster, and 
leaving a small hole in the centre, corresponding with that from 
Avhence the root of the corn has been taken. Siioiild any of this 
latter remain, so as to cause irritation, ap[)ly to it, every second 


or tliird day, a piece of lunar caustic, scraped to a point, and 
slightly moistened. Some persons apply strong acetic or other 
acid; but this is not so elfectual, :in(l more likely to cause in- 
flammation, which will be best allayed by a warm poultice of 
bread crumbs, jnoistened with Goulard water, the foot being 
held up as much as possible, and the system kept in a cool 
state with saline aperients, etc. 

Soft Corns, which form chiefly between the toes, are often 
very painful and troublesome; let them be cut away as close as 
possible with a pair of scissors, and then dressed with rags wet 
with Goulard water, or a solution of sugar of lead ; ivy leaves 
form, for such, a cool, pleasant protection from friction; they 
should be put on fresh every day. 

Beneath the corner of the nail of the great toe a peculiar 
kind of corn sometimes occurs; it should be, cut or scraped out 
with the finger-nail, and caustic applied as above directed. 
Mere callosities of the skin on the hands and fingers are not 
corns, although often called so; they have no roots and are not 
painful, therefore it is best not to interfere with them ; for if 
removed, others would come in their places, while the friction 
is kept up in which they originate. 

Cornea, Ulceration of the — To relieve pain, bathe with 
a solution of the pith of sassafras. Give attention to the bowels, 
to delay the progress of the case until aid can be obtained. 

Corpulence. — This, v/hen it arrives at a certain height, 
becomes a real disease. The accumulation of fat about the 
kidneys and mesentery, swells the belly and prevents the free 
motion of the midriff, and so causes, a difficulty of breathing. 

Causes. — x\. free indulgence in good living, with an easy 
mind, indolent or sedentary life, are the causes of corpulence 
in any one whose constitution predisposes them to feed. 

Symptoms. — The muscles of the body gradually enlarge, and 
the person is not so active as heretofore ; is exhausted or out of 
breath on less exertion than previously; and the circulation is 
impeded through the accumulations of oily or fatty matter. 

Treatment. — Gradually reduce the quantity of aliment; 
take less nutritious substances for food; drink sparingly, 
especially of malt liquors; use regular and daily active exercise, 
abstain from suppers, take short rest, sleep but few hours, and 
rise early every morning. By a rigid pursuance of these means, 
for a due length of time, the most corpulent and unwieldy man or 
woman will be reduced within moderate bounds, with an acqui- 
sition of health, strength, and vigor. In addition to active exer- 
cise, the body should be rubbed with a pomatum made of lard 

134 Diseases aNI) fflfiiE remedies. 

three and a quarter ounces, and camphor one ounce. This to be 
heated and mixed over the fire, and afterwards suffered to cool. 
Afterwards take five grains of aloes every four days, and employ 
the following clyster every morning: Linseed, 1 ounce; rose 
leaves, 1^ drams; bay salt, 3 drams. Boil the ingredients for 
twenty minutes in a quart of water. Just before taking the de- 
coction oft" the fire, add to it camphorated oil one and a half 

Cough. — Cough is a convulsive effort of the lungs to get 
relief of phlegm or other matter. It may be a symptom of bron- 
chitis, or catarrh, or croup, or influenza, or laryngitis, or phthisis, 
or pleurisy, or pneumonia, or relaxed uvula, or of hooping- 

We can here lay down but a few general principles with 
regard to the treatment of simple cough, without reference 
to the peculiar disease of which it may be symptomatic ; and first 
let us observe, that it may be either what is properly, as well as 
medically, termed dry or moist. In the former case, opium and 
its preparations are advisable; in the latter tliey should not be 
used. The irritation will bo best allayed by lienbane or hem- 
lock, either the tincture or extract, with demulcents, as barley- 
water, flaxseed-tea, etc., and liquorice, either the root boiled or 
extract. It is well also to add from five to ten drops of ipe- 
cacuanha wine to each dose. Inhalation also of the steam from 
boiling water will generally be found beneficial ; and especially if 
some medicinal herb, such as horehound or coltsfoot be infused 
in it. In moist coughs, there should not be so much fluid taken, 
and the use of demulcents must be somewhat restricted. Opi- 
ates may be administered, but not too freely, either separately 
or in cough mixtures. Paregoric elixir, in Avlych the opium is 
combined with benzoic acid and oil of aniseed (expectorants), 
and camphor (anti-spasmodic), is perhaps the best form of ad- 
ministration. A teaspoonful in a glass of water generally al- 
lays the irritation, and the frequent desire to cough which 
arises from it. In cases where there is difficulty of expector- 
ation, this mixture should bo taken: Compound tincture of 
camphor, 4 drams; ipecacuanha wine, 2 drams; oxymel of 
squills, 2 drams; mucilage of acacia, 1 ounce- water, 4 ounces. 
Mix, and take a tablespoonful when the cough is troublesome. 
For old people, 2 drams of tincture of benzoin, commonly called 
friar's balsam, may be added to the above ; and if there should 
be much fever, two drams of sweet spirits of nitre. For all 
kinds of cough, counter-irritants should bo applied, such as blis- 
ters and warm plasters, rubbing in of stimulant ointments on the 


chest and between the shoulders ; those parts also should be 
well protected by flannels next the skin. For coughs which 
are more particularly troublesome by night it is best to give 
the opium, henbane, or hemlock, as the case may be, at bed- 
time, in the shape of a pill ; of the extracts of either of the 
latter ^ grain may be given ; of the first, one or two grains 
of the gum, or one-quarter of a grain of morphine. A long 
experience of their efficacy among a large number of dispensary 
patients enables the author to recommend with confidence the 
following pills : Compound squill pill, 1 dram ; ipecacuanha 
powder, i dram ; extract of hyoscyamus, 12 grains. Mix, and 
make into twenty-four pills, and take one or two on going to 

Coughs should never be neglected, they are so frequently 
symptomatic of organic disease. If they do not yield to simple 
remedies, let medical advice be sought, whether the patient be 
old or young. 

Cramp. — Cramp is an affection usually caused by exposure 
to cold or damp. 

Treatment. — Foment the part affected with warm water, 
with a little mustard mixed in it. Drink nothing cold, and take 
a little brandy and water; put the feet in warm water, and en- 
deavor to produce a perspiration "iake, two or three times a day, 
a dose of Peruvian bark in a little wine, or a little ginger and 
water. Or the following: Water of ammonia, or spirits of 
hartshorn, 1 ounce; olive oil, 2 ounces. Shake them to- 
gether till they unite, and rub it on the affected part with the 
hand. In severe cases use the following: Strong liniment of am- 
monia, 1^ ounces; oil of turpentine, 1 ounce ; spirits of camphor, 1 
ounce; hard soap, 4 drachms. Mix the whole well together, and 
apply it to the part on flannels heated and moistened. When 
the cause of cramo is constitutional, the best preventives are 
warm tonics, sucn as the essence of ginger and camomile, 
Jamaica ginger in powder, etc., avoiding fermented liquor and 
green vegetables, particularly for supper, and wearing flannel 
next the skin. 

Cramp, or Spasm in the Stomach. — A violent pain, but 

generally of short duration 

Treatment. — Give a strong purgative injection. The sweet 
tincture of rhubarb and soda, four ounces of the first to two 
drams of the last, with a few drops of cayenne-tincture mixed 
with it, will often give relief. Dose, from a teaspoonful to a 
tablespoonful. A mustard poultice on the stomach is very good. 
Drink copious draughts of hot water, brandy and water, ether, 


or laudanum ; apply hot flannels moistened with compound cam- 
phor liniment and turpentine ; bathe the feet in warm water, or 
apply mustard poultices to them. 

Deafness (Surditas). — Deafness may proceed from any in- 
jury inflicted on the delicate organs of the ear by loud 
noises, violent colds, inflammation or ulceration of the membrane 
of the auditory passages ; hard wax, or other substances inter- 
rupting the transmission of sounds ; either over dryness, or ex- 
cessive moisture in the parts, want of tone in the general sys- 
tem from debility. Among one of its frequent causes, is some 
defect in the structure of the organ itself, which no medical 
treatment can obviate ; in this case there is generally dumbness 
as well. 

l\eatment. — The treatment depends to a considerable ex- 
tent on the cause. If there is an accumulation of hardened wax, 
or any defective or diseased action in the secreting glands of 
that substance, a few drops of a saturated solution of common 
salt, or of ox-gall and balsam of tolu, one part of the former to 
three of the latter, may be dropped into the ear, Avhile the head 
is held on one side, night and morning; or applied on a piece of 
wadding inserted by means of a probe. Before each appli- 
cation, the ear should be syringed out with warm milk and 
water, or soap and water. If there is a thin acrid discharge ac- 
companying the deafness, syringe the ear with warm water or 
a decoction of poppies. When deafness proceeds from cold in 
the head, diaphoretics, the warm foot-bath, and flannel wrap- 
pers, must be the remedies; if from debility and consequent 
loss of tone, drop stimulants into the ear, electrify or galvanize, 
and give tonics ; this will be the treatment, also, if it proceeds 
from defective energy of the optic nerve. 

Debility. — General debility is a falling oflF from the usual 
power of the individual to perform those exertions in which he 
has been habitually engaged. 

Treatment. — Nourishing food, change of air, careful regu- 
lation of diet, cold shower-bath, and the following forms of medi- 
cine: Sulphate of magnesia, four ounces; sulphate of iron, eight 
grains; sulphate of quinine, ten grains ; diluted sulphuric acid, 
one dram; infusion of gentian-root, eight ounces. Dose, two 
tablcspoonfuls twice or thrice a day. Or the following: Com- 
pound tincture of bark, one ounce; carbonate of ammonia, two 
scruples ; water, eight ounces. Dose, two tablespoonfuls three 
times a day. 

Defective Appetite. — The loss of appetite may arise 
from a variety of causes, as the excessive use of wines and 



spirits, the partaking immoderately of warm fluids, sedentary 
occupation, over-anxiety, excess of mental labor, impure air, etc. 

Treatment. — Regulation of diet and change of air will be 
frequently found more beneficial than medicine. But to restore 
the tone of the stomach, which is the chief aim, the followhig 
decoction may be taken: Peruvian bark, six drams; cascarilla 
bark, two drams. Bruise them in a mortar, and boil them in a 
pint and a half of water for a few minutes; strain off the liquor 
while hot, then add tincture of bark, two ounces ; diluted nitric 
acid, one and a half drams. Dose, four tablespoonfuls to be 
taken thrice daily. Bitter tonics are also advantageous. Rhu- 
barb chewed an hour before dinner-time is also advantageous. 
One or two four-grain compound aloe pills may be taken at noon 
with beneficial effect. 

Delirium Tremens. — Delirium ebriositatis, or mania-a- 
potu, is a disease of the brain, usually caused by an abuse of 
spirituous liquors, but sometimes also by great mental anxiety 
and loss of sleep; or it may result from bodily injuries or acci- 
dents, loss of blood, etc. Dollriuin sometimes makes its appear- 
ance in consequence of a single debauch ; but more frequently it 
is the result of protracted or long-continued intemperance. It 
usually supervenes on a fit of intoxication; but it not unfre- 
quently occurs, also, when the habitual drunkard omits his accus- 
tomed draught. 

Symptoms. — The approach of an attack is almost invariably 
preceded by the patient being remarkably irritable, with fret- 
fulness of mind and mobility of body. He becomes very nervous 
and uneasy ; is startled by any sudden noise, the opening of a 
door or the entrance of a visitor ;■ is restless ; the hands and 
tongue are tremulous; he complains of inability to sleep, and if 
he dozes for a moment, he is awakened by frightful dreams. 
Soon delirium manifests itself; if questioned, the patient often 
answers rightly enough; but if left to himself, he begins to talk 
or mutter; he is surrounded by frightful or loathsome animals; 
is pursued by some one who has a design upon his life ; has 
terrible and ghastly visions. Though most commonly of a fright- 
ful or terrifying character, the delirium is not always so : 
occasionally the appearances are droll and ludicrous, and the 
patient seems amused by them; at other times it turns on some 
matter of business, as settling of accounts or telling of money, 
and the patient is in a perpetual bustle, and his hands are con- 
stantly full of business. The predominant emotion with a de- 
lirious patient is fear, and in his efforts to escape from an imagin- 
ary enemy he may be guilty of a murderqus assault, or, as is 


more frequently the case, may take his own life ; and hence he 
requires to be very carefully watched. The delirium continues 
until the patient sinks into a sleep, from which he awakes com- 
paratively rational, or dies from exhaustion. In such cases 
death is often sudden, the patient rising for some trivial purpose, 
and falling in a faint, from which he never recovers; or at 
length, after passing many nights without sleep, he sinks into 
a state of coma, which terminates in death. This disease, 
however, is rarely fatal, unless where the strength of the patient 
has been seriously impaired by long-continued excesses. 

Treatment. — The great remedy is sleep, and the best means 
of inducing this is by chloral, which is to be given in large 
doses, and frequently repeated, until the desired effect follows. 
Sometimes it is necessary, in order to procure sleep, if the 
patient is in a very exhausted state, or if the disease has 
been brought on by the cessation of an accustomed stimulus, to 
allow the patient a certain quantity of his ordinary beverage ; 
but this should not be continued longer than he can do without 
it. Chloroform has also been recommended as a means of pro- 
curing sleep when opium fails ; or better probably than either 
will be found to be the hydrate of chloral, in doses of five to 
fifteen grains. Some medical men recommend large doses of 
digitalis, but the nature of this remedy renders it unadvisable 
in the hands of any but a medical man. 

If these efforts are successful and the nervous excitement is 
subdued, there will be great prostration of strength. The great 
object will then be to restore the tone of the stomach, and to 
enable the patient to overcome that craving ibr alcoholic stimu- 
lants which is sure to send him back into the paths of intem- 
perance if it is indulged. A bitter infusion of camomile is per- 
haps the best, but carbonate of soda, or potash, in six or eight 
grain doses, should be given with a small portion of alcohol ; it 
may be brandy mixed with the yolk of «in egg, beaten up raw, 
or with arrowroot, some bitter ale, and good nourishing food. 
A cold shower-bath affords great relief. 

This disease is to be carefully distinguished from inflam- 
mation of the brain, with which it has many symptoms in com- 
mon ; for bleeding, which is resorted to in the latter disease, 
would be of the utmost danger in this. 

Diabetes. — An immoderate flow of urine, distinguished as 
first insipidus (tasteless), when the urine retains its usual taste; 
and second, melitus (honied), when it is chariicterized by a sac- 
charine taste. Generally speaking, these may be consiclered as 
two stages of the disease, the urine being at first clear and with* 


out other tlian the usual taste, and afterv/ard becoming cloudy 
and sweet. 

Causes. — The chief causes of diabetes are intemperate liv- 
ing, excess of venery, copious evacuations of the bowels, long- 
continued, frequent use of diuretics and acrid drinks, or it may 
be hard labor iind poor living, or aught which tends to impover 
ish the blood. The best piiysicians consider it "an impaired 
action, or morbid change, in the natural powers of assimilation 
and digestion, which forms the proximate cause of the disease." 

Symptoms. — Frequent and copious discharge of urine, con- 
taining eventually, if not at first, a large proportion of sacclia- 
rine and other matter. There is gradual emaciation, voracious 
appetite, great thirst, weakness, and disinclination to motion ; 
the alimentary process is improperly performed, and thus the 
food taken does not yield its proper amount of nourishment, 
and constitutional derangement is the consequence. 

Treatment. — Tlie diet should be entirely animal food — all 
vegetable substances to be avoided — the bowels to be kept 
quietly open with pills of aloes and soap, emetics and diapho- 
retics occasionally administered, perhaps the compound ipecacu- 
anha powder, ten grains at bed-time, is the best ; alkaline drinks, 
such as soda water, may be given with advantage, and blisters 
and issues applied to the regions of the kidneys, covering the 
skin with flannel, anointing it with camphorated oil; using the 
warm b^ith and the flesh brush are also good, as are chalybeate 
and sulphurated waters. Tonics, astringents, and stimulants 
will be of service, especially preparations of iron with tincture 
of cantharides ; if in the summer, sea-bathing, and anything 
whicli may serve to invigorate the system. Such is an outline 
of general treatment; of course, constitutional peculiarities re- 
quire special and appropriate remedial measures, and of these 
only the professional adviser can judge. 

Diarrhoea. — Causes.— Tlie causes which produce diarrhrea 
are bad and indigestible food, or food taken in too great quan- 
tities ; acid fruits, or oily and putrid substances taken into the 
stomach; the abuse of active purgative medicines, the appli- 
cation of cold to the body, the suppression of perspiration, 
long-continued heat of the' atmosphere, a transfer of gout or 
rheumatism to the intestines, and depressing passions of the 

Symptoms. — This disease consists in a copious and frequent 
discharge of feculent matter from the bowels, accompanied by 
griping. There is a sense of Avei<rht and fullness in the lower 
part of the stomach, attended with a murnmring noise, arising 


from the presence of a great collection of wind. This feeling 
is relieved after every evacuation which takes place, and is again 
renewed before a second ensues. In addition to these symp- 
toms, the patient is troubled with nausea, sickness, vomiting, 
and, if the purging be not quickly arrested, by great exhaustion 
and depression of the vital powers, accompanied by spasm and 
cramp. It is distinguished from dysentery by the absence of 
fever, inflammation, contagion, and straining at stool, and also 
by the absence of blood in the motions. The appearance of the 
motions in the commencement of the disease is sometimes 
thinner than natural, in consequence of a large quantity of fluid 
being poured out by the intestines. They are sometimes 
slimy and of a green color; sometimes they are yellow, and 
sometimes of a dark brown, accompanied by a very fetid 
smell. As the disease advances the motions become very 
watery, and similar to collee grounds- the strength rapidly 
fails, the countenance turns pale, the skin is dry and stiff, great 
emaciation takes place, and dropsy frequently ensues. 

Treatment. — In the treatment of this disease, attention 
must be paid to the cause which produces it, and the remedies 
administered accordingly. If it arises from repletion of the 
stomach, or from indigestible food, a gentle emetic of ipecacu- 
anha should be given (say twenty grains). This should be fol- 
lowed by an aperient, to clear out any offensive matter that 
may remain in the intestines. The following will be a good 
draught: Powdered rhubarb, 6 grains; cinnamon water, 1^ 
ounces ; compound spirit of lavender, 2 drams. Make a draught 
to be given at bed-time. 

Should the motions be scanty and frequent, and accom- 
panied by some degree of bearing down, four or six drams of 
castor oil, with five drops of tincture of opium, will afford great 
relief. This treatment will also suit in cases where oily and 
putrid substances have been taken into the stomach. If it arise 
from the abuse of purgative medicines, the}^ must be discon- 
tinued, and the following mixture administered: Tincture of 
rhubarb, 1 ounce; tincture of opium, 30 drops; spirit of laven- 
der, 4 drams ; cinnamon water, 5 ounces. Make a mixture, and 
take two tablespoonfuls every four or six hours. 

If it has proceeded from the application of cold to the sur 
face of the body, or the suppression of perspiration, every ef- 
fort must be made to restore the secretion by the administration 
of medicines which determine to the skin, such as James' or 
Dover's j)Owder — five grains of the former, or ten of the latter, 
will be sufficient for a dose, which may be taken in a little gruel 


or arrowroot. Tlio patient should immerse his feet in warm 
water every night ; and should the looseness continue, he may 
take the following powder three times a day : Dover^s powder 
3 grains ; mercury Avith chalk, or grey powder, 2 grains. Mix. 
Wiien it arises from acidity in the stomach, which is known by 
frequent eructations of airj ditiusing a hot and disagreeable sen- 
sation in the mouth, griping pains in the belly, accompanied 
by motions of a clay color, which produce a burning sensation 
at the rectum in passing through, absorbents with opium must 
be employed. The following is a good mixture: Prepared 
chalk, 3 drams ; spirit of lavender, 2 drams ; compound tincture 
of cardamoms, 2 drams; tincture of opium, ^ dram; cinnamon 
water, 6 ounces. Make a mixture, and take two tablespoonfuls 
every three or four hours until the relaxation ceases. 

Should it arise from a transfer of the gout or rheumatism, 
fomentations of hot water, mustard plasters, or blisters, should 
be applied over the bowels ; the patient's feet should be im- 
mersed in hot water, and ten grains of Dover's powder adminis- 
tered to produce perspiration. At the same time he should 
drink plentifully of weak brandy and water, or wine whey. 

Should it arise from the presence of worms, which is recog- 
nized by the slimy motions, and the presence of the worms 
themselves, either in a living or dead state, the remedies recom- 
mended among the prescriptions for their expulsion should be 
had recourse to. 

When it arises from ulceration of the intestines, as often 
happens in consumption and other protracted diseases, the 
most effectual astringents, in addition to Avhat has been already 
recommended, should be employed, such as catechu, kino, alum, 
logwood, tannin, white and blue vitriol. The following is a 
good mixture in these cases: Chalk mixture, 5 ounces; tincture 
of catechu, 4 drams; tincture of kino, 3 drams; syrup of pop- 
pies, 2 drams ; tincture of opium, 30 drops. Make a mixture, 
and take two tablespoonfuls three or four times a day. 

The diet in these cases should consist of sago, arrowroot, and 
rice-puddings, made with or without milk, or they may be given 
in a liquid form; all solid food should for a time be suspended. 
It will be necessary for those persons who are subject to fre- 
quent attacks of this complaint, either from a peculiar Aveakness 
or irritability of the bowels, to live temperately, to avoid all 
acid fruits, most kinds of vegetables, unwholesome food, and 
meats hard of digestion. 

Eclectic or Herbal Treatment for Diarrkcea. — If caused by 
cold or obstructed perspiration, keep the patient warm ; drink 


freely of weak diluting drinks; use the tepid bath, and wear flan- 
nel next the skin. A little snake-root tea will also be found use- 
ful. If there Is much griping, a hot fomentation of garden mint 
should be applied to the stomach. Speedy relief has been ef- 
fected by talving twelve drops of laudanum in half a gill of the 
best brandy. Kepeat, if necessary, in about an hour. When 
diarrhoea is caused by excessive repletion, give an emetic com- 
posed of half a dram of ipecacuanha; work it off with warm 
water or thin grueL If, alter a day or two, the looseness con- 
tinues, give half a dram of rhubarb once or twice a day. 

In obstinate cases, the jelly of slippery elm and blackberry, 
in equal parts, mixed with a little powdered ginger or cinna- 
mon, may be used. For chronic looseness, the following de- 
coction is very good: Bistort root, bruised, three ounces; Avater, 
one quart. Boil twenty minutes; then add cloves, bruised, 
one ounce; cranesbill and wild mint, of each half an ounce; 
catechu, two drams. Boil ten minutes longer, strain, add loaf 
sugar, one pound. Dose, three tablespoonfuls three or four 
times a day. 

The following has also been used with excellent results: 
Take equal parts of tincture of rhubarb, spirits of camphor, 
essence of peppermint, and laudanum. Dose for an adult, one 
teaspoonful every hour, if necessary; less according to age of 
the patient and severity of the disease. 

Dilation of the Heart. — Dilation of the heart is some- 
times caused by excessive exertion and strong excitements of 
any kind. The whole s- '3stance of the organ, or one or more 
of the cavities, or smaller orifices, may be dilated, the walls be- 
ing merely extended, with t any increase of substance. In 
this case the muscular parietes being thinned and feeble, there 
will be want of vigor in the ' irculation, the muscular compres- 
sion and extension will be weak and irregular, and the valvular 
action incomplete, so that the blood will frequently escape out 
of its proper channels, and these hemorrhages, although trifling 
in themselves, will so reduce the patient that he will probably 
be carried off by one of them. Abstinence from the exciting 
causes of the disease, rest, and nourishing diet, with strict at- 
tention to the general state of the health, are the means to be 
taken in this case. 

Diphtheria. — Diphtheria is a very malignant and fatal dis- 
ease of the throat, which was first specially observed and de- 
scribed by M. Bretonneau, of Tours, in Franco, where it pre- 
vailed as an epidemic in 1818, though it doubtless has existed 
in the world from the earliest times. 


Symptoms. — It is characterized by a peculiar inflammation 
of the mucous membrane of the throat, or pharynx, accom- 
panied by the production of a false membrane. At first this 
membrane appears in the form of a white spot on the pharynx 
or tonsils, from which it gradually extends forward to the soft 
palate and into the nostrils, and backward into the oesophagus, 
sometimes into the larynx, but seldom into the trachea, produc- 
ing at length suffocation. It is usually accompanied by a fetid 
discharge from the nose and mouth, and hemorrhage frequentl}'- 
occurs. There is usually, also, a low and dangerous form of 
fever, with great depression of spirits, and rapid decrease of the 
patient's strength, which is still further accelerated by his in- 
ability to take food. There is no form of the disease, however 
mild to appearance, that is not attended with danger, and it is 
sometimes fatal in thirty-six hours, but more frequently in 
from three to twelve days. 

Treatment. — Diphtheria is a very depressing disease, and 
severe cases should not be treated by inexperienced persons. 
Mild cases may be successfully treated as here recommended. 
Poultices or warm fomentations may be applied externally to 
the swollen glands in the neck. Camphor liniment is also a 
good external application. The fumes of burning sulphur not 
too strong to distress the patient are serviceable. The powder 
of sulphur blown upon the throat is an old and well known 
remedy. Others speak well of a powder of equal parts of 
sulphur and quinine. The following has been a successful 
prescription : Muriate tincture of iron, one drachm, chlorate of 
potash, one-half drachm, simple syrup, one ounce, pure water, 
one ounce. Another modern method of treatment is the follow- 
ing : Biniodide of mercury, one-sixteenth grain, pepsin, six 
grains, or sugar of milk, six grains. Make one powder and 
give dry on the tongue every two hours for an adult, less for 
children. Do not give water for a few minutes after taking 
the powder. Nourishing food, tonics, and opiates are essential. 
Pieces of ice dissolved in the mouth are comforting. 

Discolored Skin. — As caused by moles, freckles, and sun- 
burn, is the result of diseased action. 

Freckles are brown spots on the face and hands, caused by 
exposure to the sun. Persons affected with these unsightly dis- 
colorations may remove them without using cosmetics (which 
are often dangerous by reason of their containing mineral 
agents), by merely stimulating the absorbent vessels of the skin 
to take them up and carry them away as refuse. Any smart 
stimulant will act in this way ; but it has been found that the 


safest are taken from the vegetable kingdom. One of the best 
and easiest is Withering's Cosmetic Lotion, which is made of a 
teacupful of soured milk, and a small quantity of scraped horse- 
radish ; let this stand from six to twelve hours, then use it to 
wash the parts affected twice or thrice a day. 

Moles in the skin, or, as they are commonly called, mother 
marks, are beyond the reach of surgical treatment; or, if they 
ever can be removed, it is only at the risk of causing a greater 
disfigurement ; therefore they had better be left alone, the more 
especially as they not unfrequently answer a useful end — that of 
positive identification. 

Dizziness. — Many persons are subject to a fullness and rush 
of blood to the head, either with or without any excitement. 
It is a symptom of a deranged system, and it may be a symptom 
of a tendency to apoplexy. 

Causes. — This condition may be caused liy heart disease, 
by debility arising from hemorrhages, indigestion, constipation, 
or excessive mental labor. » 

Treatment. — What has been said on congestion of the brain 
applies to this aflection ; a dose of some gentle purgative should 
be taken, as castor oil, salts, or salts and senna, should be taken 
at night, and the folloAving in the morning : Rochelle salts, 2 
drams; bicarbonate of soda, 2 scruples; water. \ pint. Mix. 
To this mixture add 35 grains of tartaric acid. Take the whole 
while foaming. 

Disorders of the Sweat Glands. — The proper action of 

the skin is of the greatest importance to the health. Too much 
or too little perspiration may produce serious consequences; 
but can generally be corrected by cold or warm baths, tonics, 
friction, and proper clothing. 

Disorders of the Oil Glands.— When the skin is not well 
taken care of, or when a person has very sedentary habits, the 
action of the oil glands becomes sluggish; the matter in the 
tubes become hard and dry and distends them, sometimes rais- 
ing them above the surface, and the ends become black. Again, 
the oily matter is poured out too profusely, so that the skin 
shines with it; or, at times, there may bo so little that the skin 
is harsh and dry. 

Treatment. — For roughness and harsliness of the skin, wash 
with soap and wat(ir every night, ond rub well into tlie skin 
after the bath; and in the morning, ;in ointment made of olive 
oil, 4 ounces ; white wax, 2 drams. Melt together, and then add 


honey, 2 drams; croton oil, 20 drops. Take a dose of sulphur 
and cream tartar twice a week. 

Where the oil tubes have hardened, and formed a horny 
growth, the body should be washed with a quart of water, in 
which a teaspooiiiul of saleratus is dissolved; and twice a day 
use the following ointment: Elder-flower ointment, 1 ounce; 
blue vitriol, 1 scruple. For grubs in the skin, stimulate it by 
washing in strong soapsuds twice a day, and rubbing briskly 
with a coarse towel, and by using this lotion : Corrosive sub- 
limate, 5 grains ; cologne, 2 ounces ; soft water, 6 ounces. Mix 
and apply. A spare diet will do much in some cases toward 
improving the skin. 

Dropsy of the Heart (Hi/drothorax). — This is a collection 
of fluid in the cavity of the chest, or the pericardium. It is 
never an idiopathic disease, but is consequent on some previous 
disorder of the viscera of the chest, it may be of the heart or 
lungs, or their investing membrane, the pericardium or pleura. 

Symptoms. — G-reat difficulty of breathing, especially after 
exertion, and when the body is in a horizontal position, with 
great weight and oppression at the chest; pallid, purpleish 
countenance, with an anxious expression, and the usual symp- 
toms of dropsy. It requires the same treatment as dropsy. 

Disease of the Valves of the Heart. — Disease of the 

valves so commoidy follows endocarditis, if of long continuance, 
that it may almost be considered as a chronic form of that dis- 
ease. It is a thickening of the internal lining of the heart, 
especially at the valves. It becomes not merely thickened 
uniformly, but is the seat of warty excrescences, and even 
cartilaginous and osseous formations of considerable size, ex- 
tending into the cavities of the heart. In old persons and 
especially those addicted to a generous mode of living, we most 
frequently meet with ossification, the effects of which are san- 
guineous and serous congestion, difficulty of breathing, apoplec- 
tic seizures, and other symptoms of embarrassed circulation. 

Dropsy. — Dropsy consists of an unnatural accumulation of 
serous or watery fluid, in various parts of the body. Persons 
of all ages are liable to it. It is divided into five kinds, accord- 
ing to the part affected: first, dropsy of the skin, generally 
called anasarca; second, dropsy of the belly, called ascites:/- 
third, dropsy of the chest, called hydrothorax; fourth, dropsy of 
the head, or water in the brain, called hydrocephalus; fifth, 
§crotal bag, called hydrocele. 

Qause^.— E^xcessiye and long-contin,ued eyacuatious, weakr 


ening the system; a free use of fermented or spirituous liquors; 
confirmed and incurable indigestion ; diseases of the liver, spleen, 
pancreas, mesentery or others of the viscera ; preceding diseases, 
as asthma, scarlet fever, etc. ; anything debilitating the diges- 
tive organs; sometimes from family predisposition. 

Symptoms. — This disease generally commences with swell- 
ing of the feet and ankles toward night, which for a time dis- 
appears in the morning. The swelling, when pressed, v/ill pit; 
it gradually ascends till the whole body is swelled, in the first 
sort, and the belly in the second sort; the urine scanty, thick, 
and high-colored; thirst is great, breathing ditlicult, especially 
in the third sort, and a troublesome cough ; the flesh wastes, 
and the patient weakens; in the fourth sort, pains on the top 
of the head, and often convulsion or apoplexy ; in the fifth sort, 
the scrotal bag is much enlarged, and much pain in conse- 

Treatment. — The diet must be of a dry, heating nature, 
using pungent vegetables, as garlic, mustard, onions, cresses, 
horseradish, shalots, etc., and the flesh of wild animals. Avoid 
drinks as much as possible ; quench the thirst with acid liquors, 
mustard whey, and the like; and take some of the following: 
Cream of tartar, 1 dram; sulphate of potass, 10 grains; rhu- 
barb in powder, 5 grains. Take in pumpkin-seed tea two or 
three times a day. Or use the following: Powder of dried 
squill-root, 2 grains; blue pill, 5 grains; opium, ^ grain. Dose, 
one pill at bedtime for four or five nights, followed by the above 
powder the morning after. 

In dropsy of the chest or head, blisters are almost indis- 
pensable, and are always applied to great advantage ; and, if 
kept running for some time, are very beneficial. After the 
water is removed, live well and temperately. ' Take tonics and 
strengthening food. 

Eclectic or Herbal Treatment for Dropsy. — Many cures have 
been effected by using a decoction of burdock. Boil two 
ounces of the fresh root in three pints of water till reduced to 
two. Drink the whole in the course of two days. 

Five grains of saltpetre taken every morning is said to 
have cured many. 

From one to four teaspoonfuls of the expressed juice of the 
inner bark of the elder, taken every four hours, till it operates 
freely, is of great service. 

To promote perspiration an adult may take every night at 
bedtime four or five grains of camphor, one grain of opium, and as 
much syrup of orange-peel as is sufficient to make into a bolus. 


Dysentery. — A disease accompanied l)y frequent and 
scanty motions, and great bearing down of the rectum. Stools, 
mucous or bloody, slimy, and containing little or no fecal 

Causes. — The causes which produce this disease are — a 
cold and moist state of the atmosphere, quic-kly succeeded by 
heat; the suppression of the perspiration, whereby the blood is 
thrown from the external upon the internal vessels ; immoderate 
use of spirituous liquors, unwholesome food, exposure to noxious 
exhalations, or to the efSuvia arising from the bodies of persons 
laboring under the disease. 

It is supposed that dysentery, when it proves infectious, is 
owing to the impure and vitiated condition of the atmosphere ; 
hence it frequently appears in hospitals which are not properly 
ventilated, and other places where a number of sick persons 
are crowded together ; while in situations where great attention 
is paid to ventilation and cleanliness, it seldom extends beyond 
the individual in whom it originates. It prevails epidemically, 
affecting numbers in a community, without being contagious. 

Symptoms. — This disease is ushered in by all the concomi- 
tants of inflammatory fever — such as cold shivering succeeded 
by heat of skin, frequency of pulse, loss of appetite, sickness, 
and costiveness. This stage is quickly followed by severe grip- 
ing pains, and pain on pressing the belly, frequent desire to go 
to stool, accompanied by great straining and painful bearing 
down of the rectum — the evacuations consisting of a peculiarly 
fetid matter, without containing any particle of healthy motion. 
These evacuations frequently vary in their appearance, being 
sometimes pure mucus, or mucus streaked with blood; some- 
times pure blood is passed, at other times pure matter, and it 
not unfrequently happens tlmt pieces of membrane, arising 
from ulceration of the lining of the intestines, are seen floating 
in the dejections. It is seldom that any natural feces appear 
in the course of this disease, but when they do, they are passed 
in hard, small balls, accompanied by great relief of the griping 
and bearing down. 

Favorable Symptoms. — A gentle perspiration over the sur- 
face of the body, the stools improving in color, and becoming 
less frequent; a sediment in the urine, and the strength little 

Unfavorable Symptoms. — The tenesmus, or bearing down of 
the gut becoming very intense, the inclination to go to stool 
more frequent, the discharge from the bowels being very scanty 
and of an unnatural color; much depression of the powers of 


life, a tense state of the belly, cold, clammy perspirations, ulcer- 
ation of the mouth and throat, a feeble pulse, and coldness of 
the surface of the body. 

Treatment. — It the fever be of an inflammatory character, 
accompanied with rigors and succeeded by heats and flushes, an 
emetic should be administered at once (say twenty grains of 
ipecacuanha and one of tartar emetic). This should be followed 
by a dose of castor oil, or some saline aperient, which should 
be repeated every second or third morning, so that evacuations 
of a natural character might be procured. The following is a 
good mixture for this purpose : Epsom salts, 1 ounce ; best 
manna, ^ ounce ; T)eppermint water, 5 ounces ; tincture of rhu- 
barb, 2 drams. Mix. Four tablespoonfuls to be taken every 
second or third morning. 

Should there be much pain on pressing the belly, leeches, 
in numbers according to the age and strength of the patient, 
should be applied, which should be followed b}' fomentations of 
the decoction of poppy-heads and camomile flowers. The pur- 
atives already reccmimended should be continued every second 
morning, and in the interval small doses of Dover's powder and 
calomel should be given every four or six hours. With the 
object of relieving pain and producing perspiration, five grains 
of Dover's powder and one of calomel Avill form a sufficient 
dose, which should be continued until the pain and irritation 
be tranquilized, or the mouth becomes tender. These remedies 
should be followed by mustard plasters, or blisters, to the 
stomach, which have the power of relieving pain and stopping 
the violent sickness which frequently takes place in this dis- 
ease. Relief will also be found from the application of soothing 
liniments over the abdomen, as the following : Camphorated 
oil, 1 ounce; tincture of opium, \ ounce. The belly to be 
rubbed with this oil several times a day. Camphorated oil is 
made by dissolving half an ounce of camphor in two ounces of 
sweet oil. 

In order to relieve the tenesmus or bearing down, in- 
jections consisting of starch, or mutton broth, and tincture of 
opium, say half a dram, or even a dram, should be thrown into 
the rectum ; or, should these not be retained, or fail to afford 
relief, two grains of opium, made soft Avith a little oil or con- 
servo of roses, introduced into the rectum, will be found very 
serviceable. In employing the injection, a small quantity of 
fluid should bo used, say not more than two ounces, as more in 
quantity will not bo retained ; and in introducing the opium, 
care should bo taken to put it beyond the sphincter muscle, at 


it;ast two inches from the verge of the anus. The bowels should 
be kept open with castor oil combined with small doses ot laud- 
anum, say half an ounce of the former, and ten drops ot the lat- 
ter. In the advanced stage of this disease great beneht will 
be derived from the following mixture: Diluted nitric acid, 2 
drams; laudanum, U drams; distilled water, 14 drams. Mix. 
A teasDoonful to be taken four times a day m a cup ot barley 

When there is acidity in the stomach, absorbents combined 
Avith opium will be required, such as chalk, kino, catechu, and 
logwood. The patient should at the same time drink port wine 
and water with his meals ; as a common drink, equal parts of 
lime water and milk have been highly recommended. 

In those cases where the motions are passed frequently,, 
from a weakened state of the bowels, the greatest benefit will 
be derived from the sulphate of zinc, alum, sugar of lead, and 
blue vitriol, in combination with opium. In a more advanced 
state of the disease, vegetable tonics should be administered for 
the purpose of giving tone to the muscular coat of the intestines, 
and of improving the health generally. The following is an ex- 
cellent mixture for this purpose : Infusion of cascarilla, 5 ounces; 
tincture of Colombo, 1 ounce; tincture of catechu, 2 drams; di- 
luted nitric acid, 1 dram. Mix. Three tablespoonfuls three 
times a day. 

In those cases where there is a tenderness over the region 
of the liver, and a dusky, sallow appearance of the countenance, 
and the motions are of a clayey color, a grain of calomel, with 
one quarter of a grain of opium, may be given twice or three 
times a day, with great advantage, which should be continued 
until all bad symptoms give way, or until the mouth becomes 

The patient should live, at the commencement of the dis- 
ease, on preparations of barley, rice, sago, flour, tapioca, and 
Indian arrowroot boiled in milk, and broths occasionally should 
be allowed. The juice of meat is preferable to broths or soups, 
which often sour on the stomach ; this may be obtained by 
chewing the meat, and rejecting all except the juice. He 
should avoid all spirituous and fermented liquors, and food of 
all descriptions which have a tendency to putrefaction. During 
his convalescence or recovery, meat of the lighter kinds, such as 
mutton, chicken, or beef, may be used, and he should drink 
port wine and water, or brandy and water at his meals. 

As dysentery is considered by most physicians to be con- 
tagious, the greatest care should be taken to secure a good ven- 


tilation, particularly where persons are crowded together, as on 
board ship or in hospitals. The sick should be immediately re- 
moved from the healthy; they should be placed in separate 
rooms, if possible ; their motions should he taken aw ay as soon 
as passed, the body linen and sheets frequently changed, and 
the rooms fumigated with the solution of chloride ol h'me or 
boiling vinegar. The following is a cheap and easy method of 
fumigating, for the purpose of destroying contfigion arising 
from dysentery, small-pox, typhus fever, or any other infectious 
disease : Peroxide of manganese, 2 parts ; common salt, 4 parts ; 
oil of vitriol, 3 parts; Avater, 1 part. This mixture should be 
placed in an earthenware vessel, and allowed to remain in the 
room until all vapors cease to rise. A greater quantity of this 
vapor, which is chlorine gas, may be obtained by putting the 
same mixture in an oil-flask and appljnng heat. Of course this 
method of fumigating cannot be resorted to until the patients 
are removed from the rooms or places about to be fumigated, 
as the vapor cannot be breathed without producing great irri- 
tation of the lungs ; and when existing in any great quantity 
in the atmosphere is fatal to life. 

Eclectic, or Ilerhal Treatment for Dysentery.- — An emetic 
composed of half a dram of ipecac in powder, must be given ; 
work off with weak camomile tea. After which take one ounce 
of Epsom salts, half an ounce of manna, and two and a half 
ounces of warm water, and the same of peppermint water. 
Dose: four tablespoonfuls three or four times a day. The fol- 
lowing has been Ibund very beneficial : Take one tablespoonful 
of common salt and mix it Avith two tablespoonfuls of vinegar, 
and pour upon it a half pint of Avater, either l^ot or cold, only 
let it be taken cold. A Avineglassful of this mixture in the 
aboA'O proportions, taken every half hour, Avill be found quite 
efficacious in curing dysentery. If the stomach be nauseated, 
a Avineglassful taken every hour Avill suffice. For a child, the 
quantity should be a teaspoonful of salt and one of vinegar in a 
teacupful of water. 

Blackberries are extremely useful in cases of dysentery: 
to eat the berries is very healthy. Tea made of the roots and 
leaves is very l)eneficial; and a syrup made of the berries is 
still better. The folloAving is also very useful: Bistort root, 
tormentil root, ginger root, each (sliced and bruised) one ounce; 
green peppermint and Avood sage, of each one ounce; Turkey 
rhubarb and gum myrrh, of cacli half an ounce ; cinnamon, Iavo 
drams; water, two quarts. Boil down to three pints; strain. 
Pour the boiling liquor on to loaf sugar, half a pound; bicar- 


bonate of potash, half an ounce. Then add tincture of myrrh, 
one ounce j spirit of camphor, two drams; oil of peppermint, 
twenty drops (put those together before adding to the liquor). 
Dose : a wineglassful every fifteen minutes until relief is got. 

Dyspepsia {Indigestion.). — This is one of the most common 
ailments to which mankind is subject, there being few individ- 
uals who have not experienced it oftener than once in their 

Causes. — Accidental fits of indigestion are of frequent 
occurrence, and arise for the most part from overloading the 
stomach with food, and indulging freely in wines, spirits, or 
other intoxicating liquors. Confirmed or chronic indigestion 
may depend on debility or want of tone of the stomach, or it 
may be caused by the lining or mucous membrane of this organ 
being in a state of irritation or chronic inflammation. One of 
the most frequent causes of indigestion is not masticating the 
food we eat properly, by which such food is bolted, instead of 
being reduced to a natural pulp, thereby presenting to the di- 
gestive organs a hardened mass, which it has the greatest diffi- 
culty to operate u])on. Another cause is habitual inattention to 
diet, both as regards tlio quality and quantity of food, irregular- 
ity in the times of eating, drinking large quantities of warm, re- 
laxing fluids, and using malt liquors too freely. A third cause 
is insufficient exercise; a fourth cause, impure air; and, beside 
these, there are numberless other causes, which in a greater or 
less degree exercise their baneful influence upon this vital and 
all-important function of our natures. 

Symptoms. — One of the most frequent signs of indigestion 
is a loss of appetite, no desire for food, perhaps even an absolute 
repugnance and disgust at the very thought of eating. Some- 
times the appetite is capricious and uncertain, or may even be 
morbidly craving and ravenous. Sometimes nausea comes on 
immediately after the food is swallowed ; and sometimes with- 
out any nausea, but after the lapse of some time, the food is 
ejected by vomiting. There is also usually an obscure feeling 
of uneasiness, fullness, distension, and weight in the region of 
the stomach, occasionally amounting to pain, or even severe 
pain, with flatulence and eructation. Some persons suffer pain 
when the stomach is empty, others immediately after taking 
food, or the pain may not begin for two or three hours after a 
meal, and then continue for some hours. Sometimes the pain 
comes on at uncertain intervals in the more violent paroxysms, 
accompanied by a sensation of distension, mucli anxiety, and 
extreme restlessness. Costiveness is a very frequent concomi« 


tant of dj^spepsia, but sometimes it is attended with diarrhoea. 
Among the innumerable disorders in more distant parts that 
are produced by dyspepsia are palpitations of the heart, irreg- 
ularities of the pulse, asthma, pain in the head, with the loss of 
mental energy, and some confusion of thought. One of the worst 
of the occasional concomitants of dyspepsia is that state of mind 
which is known as hypochondriasis. There is languor, listless- 
ness or want of resolution, with an apprehension of some great 
evil in the future. Such persons are particularly attentive to 
the state of their own health, and, from any unusual feeling, per- 
haps of the slightest kind, they apprehend great danger, or 
even death itself. 

Treatment. — Before we proceed to give the remedies appli- 
cable to this disorder, we will lay before our readers what is of 
equal consequence, both as regards prevention and cure — viz., 
diet and regimen. Rise early; sponge the body freely with 
cold water; breakfast without taking previous exercise. At 
breakfast, drink no more than half a pint of tea, neither too 
strong nor too weak, and black tea in preference to any other. 
Eat a slice or two of stale bread, together with a thin rasher of 
streaky bacon. After a short rest, exercise should then be taken 
for two hours or upwards. The dinner hour should be not later 
than four or five hours after breakfast, and the best time in the 
day for this meal is one or two o'clock. The food should be 
plain, without sauces. Roast mutton is the best of all meats, both 
as regards its nourishing properties and the ease with which it 
can be digested. For drink, water or toast-and-water are pre- 
ferable. After dinner, rest and quiet for an hour are desirable. 
About four or five hours after dinner, a cup of tea with a biscuit, 
or bread and butter, with fresh or preserved fimit. To bed be- 
tween ten and eleven o'clock. This mode of living will gener- 
ally render a person exempt from habitual indigestion ; never- 
theless, in spite of these precautions, occasional attacks of this 
derangement will make themselves felt, when either of the fol- 
lowing may be taken: Bay berries, 6 drams; grains of paradise, 

2 drams ; socotrino aloes and filings of iron, of each 2 scruples ; 
oil of turpentine, 2 drams; simple syrup, sufficient for an elect- 
uary. Take a piece the size of a nutmeg night and morning. 
Rhubarb, 15 grains; sulphate of potass, 30 grains; tincture of 
senna, -J a dram; peppermint water, li ounces. Mix, and take 
twice a week until relief is afTordcd. Columl)a root in powder 
8 grains; rhubarb, 10 grains; ginger, 2 grains; ipecacuanha, 

3 grains; carbonate of ])otass, 5 grains; dill water, 1| ounces. 
Mix for a draught, take twice a day on an empty stomach. In' 


fusion of gentian, 12 drams; epsom salts, 3 drams; tincture of 
cascarilla, 1 dram; tincture of orange peel, 1 dram. Mix for a 
draught, which may be taken in the morning on rising, and re- 
peated in six hours. Quicklime, slaked with a little water, ^ 
ounce; water, 1^ pints; bruised cinchona bark, 1 ounce. Cover 
and macerate for three hours, occasionally stirring them ; de- 
cant the clear liquor, and add the following: Tincture of bark, 
2 ounces; nitric ether, 3 drams; syrup of orange peel, 1 ounce. 
Mix, and keep closely corked. Dose, one wineglassful. 

Ear-ache (Otalgia). — Ear-ache may proceed from abscess 
in one or more of the passages, or it may be altogether neural- 
gic. In children it is not uncommon during the period of den- 
tition, and is especially severe in cutting the permanent teeth. 
Grown persons sometimes suffer from it when producing their 
wisdom-teeth. It is often brought on by exposure to cold or 
draughts. There is not often much constitutional derangement, 
although the pain is sometimes excruciating, unless it is long 

Treatment.— In children, during dentition, lancing the swol- 
len gums will often atford relief, especially if an aperient be 
given, such as rhubarb and magnesia combined with a little 
ginger. Elder children may have three or four drops of olive 
or almond oil, with one or two drops of laudanum dropped into 
the ear, and take compound senna mixture, repeated until the 
bowels are freely opened. Should these remedies not prove 
effectual, a fomentation of camomiles and poppies should be ap- 
plied, and a warm poultice afterwards. The heart of a roasted 
onion applied warm to the external orifice will sometimes afford 
relief If the case is very obstinate, two or three leeches be- 
hind the ear, followed by a blister, may be tried, Avith the 
following anodyne saline aperient: Acetate of morphine, I 
grain; solution of acetate of ammonia, 3 ounces; sulphate of 
magnesia, 1 ounce ; water of camphor mixture, 5 ounces. Mix, 
and take two tablespoonfuls every four hours. 

When ear-ache is caused by an abscess, and is attended with 
much swelling and severe pain, hot fomentations and poultices 
wdl be the treatment, syringing the external passage with 
warm water; and after the abscess has discharged, with a solu- 
tion of sulphate of zinc, in the proportion of eight grains to the 
ounce of plain, or rose water, attention being paid to the bowels. 
With some persons anv derangement of the general health will 
cause the formation of these abscesses, and in such cases the 
treatment must be rather general than local. Ear-ache, no doubt, 


often proceeds from derangement of the digestive organs, and 
may be relieved by active purgatives and emetics. 

Where a tonic is required, the following will be found very 
good : Citrate of iron, 1 dram ; strychnine, 1 grain ; syrup of 
orange-peel, 2 ounces; soft water, ^ pint. Mix. Dose, one 
teaspoonful three times a day. 

Enlargement or Swelling of the Uvula. — The pendu- 
lous body which hangs down from the middle of the soft palate 
is subject to several kinds of enlargement, in which it becomes 
both longer and more bulky than natural, or is simply elon- 
gated. Under these diseased conditions, it becomes trouble- 
some in swallowing, as well as in speaking. It causes a dis- 
agreeable tickling at the root of the tongue, with an inclination 
to retch, and an irritating and annoying cough. When things 
have reached this pass, medicines are often of no avail, and the 
only resource is to remove a portion of the uvula, which must be 
done by a surgeon. Before, however, excision is resorted to, and 
indeed before the uvula increases so much as to render this neces- 
sary, astringent gargles and applications should be tried, such 
as the following: White oak bark, one ounce; water, one pint; 
boil till reduced one quarter, then add alum, one scruple. Ap- 
ply to the parts several times a day with a solt sponge. 

Enlargement of the Ventricles of the Heart {Hyper- 
trophy). — This is the result of an excess of nutrition, the nutri- 
tive process appearing to go on more rapidly than the absorb- 
ent. In this way the heart is often greatly enlarged in bulk, and 
its operations seriously interfered with. It is usually distin- 
guished into three kinds : first, simple, when the walls of the 
heart or its divisions, are thickened, without any diminution in 
the capacity of the cavities; second, eccentric, or aneurismal, 
when the walls are thickened, and the cavities likewise enlarged ; 
and tliird, concentric, when the cavities are diminished in pro- 
portion to the thickening of the walls The first of these is the 
least common, and the second the most frequent; and any of 
them may affect a single cavity or the whole heart. From the 
force with wliifh the blood is propelled in such cases being 
greatly increased, the tendency is to produce hemorrhages, 
aneurism of the aorta, apoplexy, etc. Tlie pu]sati(ms_ are fre- 
fpiently regular, but strong, sometimes even visibly raising the 
bed-clothes, and the chest is bulged out over the part. 

Treatment. — Rest, abstinence, and more or less depletion, 
according to circumstances, are the proper means to be em- 
ployed in such a case ; and usually, with care and perseverance, 
the symptoms will be much alleviated. 


Epilepsy. — Epilepsy is a form of disease wliich receives 
its name from the suddenness of its attack. It is also called 
the falling sickness, from the patient, if standing, suddenly fall- 
ing to the ground. By the ancients it was called the sacred 
disease, from being supposed to be due to the influence of the 
gods or evil spirits. 

Causes. — Among the causes which give rise to epilepsy 
are external injuries done to the brain by blows, wounds, frac- 
tures, and the like ; or internal injuries by water in the brain, 
tumors, concretions, and polypi. Violent affections of the ner- 
vous system, sudden frights, strong mental emotions, acute pains 
in any part, worms in the stomach or intestines, teething, sup- 
pression of accustomed evacuations, excesses, masturbation, etc., 
are causes which also produce epilepsy. Sometimes it is hered- 
itary, at other times it arises from a predisposition, occasioned 
either by plethora or a state of debility. When it arises from 
hereditary predisposition, or comes on after the age of puberty or 
when the attacks are frequent and of long duration, it is usually 
difficult to effect a cure ; but occurring in early life, and oc- 
casioned by worms or any other accidental cause, it may, in gen- 
eral, be remedied. 

Symptoms. — The attack is usually sudden, without any 
warning. The patient may be in his ordinary health, engaged, 
perhaps, in his usual occupation, when all at once he utters a 
piercing scream, and falls to the ground. Immediately there- 
after the face becomes violently distorted, the head is usually 
drawn to one side, the eyes are set and staring, or roll wildly 
about, the color of the skin becomes dark and livid, and the 
veins swollen and turgid; there is frothing at the mouth; 
the muscles of the lower jaw act violently, producing gnashing 
of teeth, and frequently the tongue is thereby grievously in- 
jured; the arms are sometimes thrown violently about, and the 
lower limbs may be agitated in a similar manner, while the 
fingers with great power clutch at whatever comes in their way. 
The breathing is at first heavy and difiScult, but afterwards it 
becomes short, quick, and stertorous, and is often accompanied 
with sighing and moaning. One side of the body is commonly 
more agitated than the other. After a longer or shorter period, 
the convulsive movements gradually diminish, and the patient 
seems to recover a faint glimmering of consciousness; but the 
look which he casts around is stupid and heavy, and he goes off 
into a lethargic sleep, from which he does not awake for some 
hours. There is no consciousness of anything that occurred dur- 
ing the paroxysm. On coming out of the fit, there is generally 


headache, and always languor, and it may be days before he 
fully recovers from the efi'ects of the attack. The duration of 
the paroxysm is usually from five to ten minutes ; but sometimes 
several attacks follow each other in succession, and it may then 
be protracted for several hours. The most frequent, perhaps, of 
the consequences of confirmed epilepsy is insanity, either in the 
form of acute mania or monomania following the attacks, or 
of gradual imbecility, without any acute seizure. Though 
the fit, as Ave have said, usually comes on suddenly, yet there 
is sometimes distinct warning of its approach. These vary in 
different individuals, and may be lowness of spirits, irritability, 
dizziness, noises in the ear, floating specks before the eyes. 
There is, however, a particular sensation which is said to be felt 
by some immediately before the attack, and Avhich is knoAvn as 
the au7'a epileptica It is variously described as resembling a 
current of air, a stream of water, or a slight convulsive tremor, 
commencing in one of the limbs, and proceeding upwards to the 
head, when the patient is deprived of all consciousness. Epi- 
lepsy is commonly divided into idiopathic, Avhen it is a primary 
disease, depending on some affection of the cerebro-spinal sys- 
tem ; and sympathetic, when produced by an affection in some 
other part of the body — as the stomach, bowels, liver, circulat- 
ing system, etc. 

Treatment. — During the attack, the principal thing is to 
see that the patient does not injure himself — especially a piece of 
cork or other gag ought to be placed between his teeth, to pre- 
vent injury to the tongue; the dress should be loosened about 
the neck and chest; the head, if possible, a little raised; and a 
free circulation of air maintained. Where tliQ disease can be 
traced to any special exciting cause — as injuries of the head, 
worms, teething, etc. — the treatment should be first directed 
to its removal. Where, as is often the case, a plethoric state 
appears to occasion the disease, the patient is to be restricted 
to a low diet, frequent purgatives are to be exhibited, and every- 
thing avoided that may determine the blood to the head ; and 
to counteract such a tendency, occasional cupping, blisters, 
issues, etc., may be useful. If, on the contrary, there are marks 
of inanition and debility, a generous diet, with tonic medicines 
and other means of strengthening the system, will be proper. 
The cold shower-bath is recommended if it can bo well borne, 
otherwise the tepid bath. The oil of turpentine, in frequent 
doses of a half to one dram, is said to be of service in many cases. 
Bromide of potassium is a very valuable remedy, given in doses 
of ten to twenty grains, three times a day. It is worthy of re- 


mark that when aura has preceded an attack, it has sometimes 
been prevented by intercepting its progress by means of a lig- 
ature. Stimulants, particularly ether, are said occasionally to 
keep off an attack. In this disease great care is necessary in 
the matter of diet, and moderation in quantity and simplicity in 
character are material points. When the appropriate remedies 
are judiciously employed, and the proper regimen strictly ad- 
hered to, epilepsy is of"ten permanently cured, and the suffering 
is greatly mitigated even in those forma which do not admit of 

Eclectic, or Herbal Treatment for Epilepsy. — Observe the 
same general treatment as before recommended. Give an 
emetic. The following is a good one : Pulverized lobelia, 1 
ounce ; pulverized blood-root, ^ ounce ; seneca, 1 scruple ; ipecac, 
6 drams; cayenne, 4 scruples. Mix. Dose, half a teaspoonful 
in warm water ; repeat three or four times, at intervals of fifteen 

Bathe the feet and legs in warm water; apply mustard 
poultices to the nape of the neck; keep the bowels open; and 
remove all tight bandages, and give plenty of fresh air. An 
excellent preparation is the following : Peony, 1 ounce ; Peruvian 
bark, 1 ounce ; valerian, 1 ounce ; snake-root, ^ ounce. Simmer 
them together in two quarts of water till reduced to one ; add 
one pound of sugar. Give the patient from one-half to a wine- 
glassful three times a da}'. 

On the approach of a fit, give a teaspoonful of fine salt 
three times a day ; it will shorten the patient's sufferings. A 
silk handkerchief thrown over the face is said to bring a person 
immediately out of a fit. A person liable to this affliction 
should exercise the greatest caution in regulating the passions. 

Eruptive Diseases of the Scalp — Are commonly very 
obstinate and difficult to cure ; keeping the hair cut short off, 
great cleanliness, and regular application of the prescribed 
remedies, are essential to success in the treatment of^such; the 
head should be washed at least once a day with a strong lather 
of yellow or Castile soap. The red precipitate ointment is often 
of essential service in these scalp eruptions, but its application 
is useless over scabs ; they should be removed previously by 
means of poultices. Alkaline lotions have been used with good 
effect — about 2 drams of subcarbonate of soda, dissolved in 1^ 
pints of water, is perhaps the best form ; a piece of lint satu- 
rated with it should be laid over the head, and covered with 
oiled silk or thin gutta-percha. 

It often happens that an eruption of this kind is thrown 


out to relieve the system of morbific matter, and if in tliis case 
it is stopped too suddenly, convulsions and other ill conse- 
quences may follow/ the patient should be put under a course 
of alterative medicine, and these, with strict attention to 
cleanliness, etc., will effect a cure as quickly as is safe and de- 

When there is a full habit, with a tendency to eruptions of 
the scalp, tlie diet should be somewhat lowered. Mild and fari- 
naceous food should be in a great measure substituted for flesh. 
But if the habit be weakly, the diet must be rendered more 
nourishing and stimulating ; in all cases of the kind salted pro- 
visions should be avoided. 

Erysipelas, — This disease has been popularly known as 
the Rose, from its red color ; and as St. Anthony's Fire, partly 
from its burning heat, and partly because the saint whose name 
it bore was supposed to have the power of curing it with a 
touch. There are several species of this disease; but Avithout 
going into the particular characteristics of each, ii: will be suffi- 
cient for us to state what are the general symptoms of erysipe- 
latous inflammation, and best remedial measures. 

Causes. — Changes of cold and heat, causing peculiar con- 
ditions of the atmosphere, may be named among the most com- 
mon causes of this disease, which frequently appears to origi- 
nate in the slightest puncture or scratch of the skin, as also from 
wounds or sores; it is very contagious, and its appearance in 
an hospital Avard is greatly dreaded, as wounds and amputated 
parts, which up to the time of this visitation have been going 
on extremely well, frequently assume an inflamed, probably 
a gangrenous character, which leads to a flital termination of 
the case. In a house where a confinement is taking, or is likely 
to take place, erysipelas should be carefully guarded against, as 
tliere is undoubtedly a close connection between that and child- 
bed fever, which is so frequently fatal. On systems debilitated 
by any disease, wliether acute or chronic, this inflammatory 
aifection appears to seize Avith peculiar avidity, and to spread 
through the tissues of the skin most rapidly; it is Avhen extend- 
iijg beneath this that it constitutes what professional men call 
pldegmon, meaning, literally, to burn, then it is that purulent 
matter forms, the parts slough or mortify, and gangrene ensues. 

Among the predisposing causes of erysipelas may be also 
mentioned want of cleanliness, insufiiciency or bad quality of 
the food, and irregularity of living; there may bo hereditary 
and constitutional j)redisposition, and where tliis exists the in- 
flammation is very easily excited, strong mental emotion, or ^ 


iSt of inebriety, being sometimes sufficient to bring on an attack ; 
it often co-exists with or immediately follows some fevers, in 
which it may be presumed that purulent matter enters into the 
venous circulation. 

Symptoms. — The symptoms of an attack are usually of a fe- 
brile character, such as shivering, headache, furred tongue, ac- 
celerated pulse, and often derangement of the stomach for a day 
or two previously ; then there is a tingling and burning sensa- 
tion, with stiffness and pain, at some particular part, followed 
by a discoloration of the skin, and a slight elevation of the sur- 
face; the red or purplish tint is confined at first to one spot, 
but soon extends itself, and includes the limb or part affected ; 
frequently this is the head, whicli, with the face, becomes so 
swollen and disfigured that the patient cannot be recognized; 
the eyelids puff" out and entirely close the eyes, and each avenue 
to the senses is for a time closed. In very bad cases delirium 
and coma come on, and death ensues from effusion on the brain ; 
sometimes the patient dies from suffocation, the glottis being 
closed, on account of the internal swelling of the throat; and all 
this may take place in a few hours, so rapid is the progress of 
the disease. In the milder forms, the patient may be tranquil ; 
until the swelling subsides, there will be a little wandering of 
the mind probably, more particularly at night, and uneasy rest- 
lessness from the pain and inconvenience of the swelling. As 
the redness extends from the part first affected, that part be- 
comes paler, the swelling there subsides, and sometimes blisters, 
like those caused by a scald, appear on the surface; if the in- 
flammation is merely superficial, it is neither very troublesome 
or^ dangerous ; but when it becomes phlegmonous — that is, dips 
down and affects the deeply-seated tissues, there is great cause 
for alarm ; when this is the case the color is generally very florid, 
the tingling and the burning sensation severe, and the surface 
hard and firm to the touch. The young and sanguine are most 
likely to be aff"ected in this way; those of a feebler habit more 
commonly suff"er from the edematous form of the disease ; in this 
the parts affected are of a paler red, and softer and inelastic, so 
that they pit on pressure. 

There is a variety of erysipelas called infantile, which 
affects infants at birth : it commences generally at the navel, 
and extends quickly to the extremities, which are hard, firm, 
and much swollen, and prone to become gangrenous. 

The chief characteristics of erysipelas are its sudden appear- 
ance, red color, tendency to spread, febrile symptoms, heat and 
tenderness of the skin, and blistered surface. We call especial 


attention to these, because many affections of the skin are 
thought to be this, although they bear but a slight resem- 
blance to it. 

Treatment. — Havino; a certain course to run, whose period 
cannot be shortened, tiie great object will be to conduct the 
patient safely through it. First administer a cooling aperient. 
When the aperient has operated freely, give the following saline 
mixture : Sweet spirits of nitre, 2 drams ; sulphate of potash, 2 
drams; liquor of acetate of ammonia, 2 ounces; camphor mixture, 
6 ounces. Take two tablespoonfuls every four hours ; or, if the 
stomach be irritable, give this effervescing mixture : Bicarbonate 
of potash or of soda, 2 drachms; water, 6 ounces; syrup of 
orange peel, 2 drams. Pour out two tablespoonfuls in a wine- 
glass, and add 15 grains of citric or tartaric acid — the former is 
best of the two; but better still is a tablespoonful of fresh 
lemon juice; stir and drink while effervescing. The patient 
during this treatment must be kept on low diet, taking nothing 
but mild diluent drinks; but, should the strength rapidly de- 
cline, tonics must be administered. Quinine is the best, in two 
or three grain doses every four hours; let the vehicle be wine ; if 
the stomach will not bear this, try an enema of thin starch, 
with three grains of the above tonic in it. To allay the burning 
and itching, arrowroot, flour, powdered starch, magnesia, or rye 
meal should be dusted over the parts affected; should these not 
afford the desired relief, try bathing with tepid water, poppy 
fomentations, or a tea made of buckwheat meal ; a line drawn 
round the diseased part with caustic, so as to make a band 
about one inch in breadth, will frequently stop the spreading 
of the inflammation ; care must be taken that no skin untouched 
by the caustic is left in tjie breadth of the band, or it may 
render the precaution nugatory. A lotion of I'unar caustic, in 
the proportion of 1 scruple to 1 ounc© of water, may also be 
applied with a camel-hair brush over the whole inflamed surface. 
In phlegmonous erysipelas, hot fomentations and poultices, 
leeches, and other depletive measures, must at once be resorted 
to, and this, as before mentioned, should be under the direction 
of the medical adviser. 

The proper treatment of infantile erysipelas is to foment 
the inflamed parts with a strong and hot poppy decoction, and 
give every hour or two a tablespoonful of decoction of bark, or 
of this mixture : Sulphate of quinine, 6 grains ; diluted sulphuric 
acid, 12 grains; tincture of gentian, 2 drams. A teaspoonful to 
be giv(!n every two hours. An enema of beef-tea or mutton- 
broth should be thrown up if the patient se.Qms to req^uire it^^ 


Directly erysipelas sets in, and especially if it appears 
likely to assume a severe form, all the hair should be cut or 
shaved off the parts near where it commences. If not severe, 
it is best not to discolor the skin by applying caustic, but to 
use a lotion composed thus : Sugar of lead, 1 dram ; rain or dis- 
tilled water, 1 pint. Mix. Add tincture of opium, 1 dram. 
Wet rags to be kept applied. 

Eclectic or Herbal Treatment for Erysipelas. — A poultice of 
cranberries has been found of great service. Boil till soft, mix 
with flour, and apply to the part affected. Poultices of elm 
bark and hop yeast have produced marked relief in allaying 
pain and healing the ulcerated surface. In chronic erysipelas, 
where it breaks out every few months, the following is very 
beneficial : Take one ounce each of blue flag root, yellow dock 
root, burdock root, bark of bitter sweet root, sassafras bark, and 
2 ounces of elder flower. Add 6 pints of boiling water ; cover the 
vessel, and let it steep for twenty-four hours; press the herbs; 
strain and sweeten. Dose, a wineglassful three times a dav. 
Washing the parts affected two or three times a week in weak 
lye water is very beneficial. 

Exhaustion. — The diminished power either of the body 
generally, or one or more of its organs, to continue its natural ac- 
tive operations, until it has been recruited by a period of repose. 
Treatment. — As this derangement is commonly induced by 
excess of labor or continued exertion, in these cases the stomach 
is not receiving its full supply of nervous stimulation, and there- 
fore its work must be made as light as possible, consistent with 
conveying proper nourishment into the system. Small quantities 
of food should be taken at a time,-tind more frequently repeated. 
In the majority of instances, the most efficient nourishment will 
be strong concentrated animal soup, either alone or with bread; 
and next in utility will be coffee or cocoa, along with bread 
or biscuit, or with the yolk of an egg beaten into them. The 
use of wines and spirits should be avoided as long as possible. 
But if extreme exhaustion exist, these latter will be found ex- 
cellent agents for restoring the vital powers. A warm bath is 
also very grateful and efficacious in cases of exhaustion. Oc- 
casional doses of the following will stand in good stead : Pep- 
permint-water, 1^ ounces; sal volatile, \ dram; sweet spirits of 
nitre, 12 drops ; compound spirit of lavender, 1 dram ; syrup of 
cloves, I ounce. Mix. Dose, two tablespoonfuls. In cases of 
extreme exhaustion, the following may be used in aid of, or as 
a substitute for, stimulants ; chop some lean beef into small 
pieces, enclose it in a jar, and set it in an oven, or on the stove 


for an hour and a lialf. It will then separate into three por- 
tions, fat, fibre, and liquid essence. Strain oft' the last, and sep- 
arate the fat by means of a piece of blotting-paper, when a 
clear amber-colored liquid is obtained, of an intensely aromatic 
smell and flavor, very stimulating to the brain. 

Eyes. — Eclectic or Herbal Treatment. — These simple means 
are sometimes the most useful that can be employed in 
eye complaints. For inflammatory affections, keep the patient 
in a darkened room, and give the eyes perfect rest. Bathe them 
with a little warm milk and Avater. Poultices of hops or poppy 
leaves are very good. If the pain is verv severe, use stramo- 
nium leaves. The following is an excellent eye-wash: Yellow 
root, \ ounce; green tea, | ounce; boiling water, 1 pint. Steep 
together, and add sulphate of zinc, 1 dram. When cold, sti-ain 
through a white flannel. When the inflammation has decreased, 
use a Avash compound of 1 dram each of powdered white hazel 
and golden seal leaves, with one gill of boiling water. Let the 
T)owders remain about ten or fifteen minutes, then strain ; bathe 
die eye frequently during the day. 

For chronic inflammation of the eyes, an excellent remedy 
is the following : Dissolve one ounce of gum camphor and two 
ounces of turkey oil ; pour a few drops of alcohol on the cam- 
phor to cause it to pulverize ; then add the oil, and rub them in a 
2nortar till dissolved. Anoint the eyes two or three times a day. 

For weakness of the sight and imperfect vision, a powder 
made of dried barberry-root and used as snuff, has been found 
very beneficial ; as has also one grain of cayenne steeped in one 
ounce of water, a little dropped in the eye occasionally. 

On the Care of the Eyes. — The eyes are in such sym- 
pathy with the body that a disordered stomach,' enervating pur- 
suits, or unwholesome diet or air Avill at once affect them. 
These matters should be studiously attended to. In,reading or 
sewing always let the light strike from behind, and not in front 
of the eyes. Many eyes have been ruined by not attending to 
this matter. Glasses should be worn Avhen diniculty is experi- 
enced in reading a book held loss than eight inches from the 
eye. Glasses, if properly selected, Avill not injure, the sight, but 
preserve it. It is better, however, not to use glasses till they 
are absolutely indispensable. Avoid (juack eye ointments and 
washes. If the eye is diseased, consult a respectable surgeon. 
Priictice temperance in all things. 

Fainting (Syncope). — This is a state of total or ])artial un- 
consciousness, occasioned by diminished iiction of tlie heart, caus- 
ing less rapid circulation of blood through the brain. 


Causes. — The causes of it are various, and sometimes very 
peculiar, such as a particular smell ; that of a rose, for instance, 
has been known to occasion it; certain objects presented to the 
sight; surprise, joy, fear, or any sudden emotions; loss of blood, 
or anything which tends to debilitate the system by diminish- 
ing the vital energy. 

SYMPTOMS. — The first sensation of ftiinting to the patient 
himself is generally a singing in the ears ; then the sight be- 
comes confused, and all the senses deadened ; a clammy sweat 
breaks out over the person, the countenance becomes deadly 
pale, and the limbs refuse to support the weight of the body, 
which sinks to the earth as helpless and motionless as a corpse ; 
indeed, the condition so closely resembles that of death, that it is 
difficult to distinguish it therefrom. This is a complete faint; 
frequently the fits are only partial, and very limited in duration. 

Treatment. — Place the patient in an horizontal position ; free 
the face, neck, and upper part of the chest from all incum- 
brances ; let the fresh air play freely upon them, and sprinkle 
the former with cold water ; holding to the nostrils from time 
to time some volatile stimulant, such as hartshorn or ammonia; 
as soon as swallowing can be accomplished, administer about 
thirty drops of spirit of wine, or sal volatile, in water. The 
after-treatment will of course depend on the cause. 

As the first stage of some forms of apoplexy and paralysis is 
one of faintness, a little discrimination should be used in the 
administration of stimulants. Where the seizure, too, is in con- 
sequence of loss of blood, no violent efforts at restoration should 
for a time be made, as this state is necessary for the patient's 

Persons subject to faulting should be careful in frequent- 
ing crowded rooms, or going anywdiere where the air is bad. 
Tight dresses should be avoided ; and no exciteuxcnt be allowed. 
A well regulated diet, cold bathing, and vegetable tonics wih 
usually cure this distressing infirmity. 

Falling of the Fundament. — Prolapsus of the lower gut 
at the fundament most frequently occurs with children and aged 
persons, although it does occur at all ages, and commonly in 
connection with piles, irritation from worms, or stone in the 
bladder; much straining at motions of the bowels will also 
occasion it. 

Treatment. — The gut may generally be returned without 
difficulty, by means of gentle pressure with the fingers, covered 
with a piece of greased rag. If allowed to remain down long, it 


will become swollen with congested blood, and require ^^'^- ^^■ 
the aid of a physician. Children so affected should have 
their bowels kept in a lax state with gentle aperients, and 
they should not be suffered to remain long on the stool ; 
the loins should also be bathed Avith cold water ; and an 
enema, consisting of a grain of sulphate of iron, dissolved 
in an ounce of rain-water, should be thrown into the 
bowels after each motion. 

For this kind of prolapsus a pessary is seldom neces- 
sary, but a bandage like Fig. 94 may be used with advan- 
tage. Here we have a centre-piece, tolerably broad, to 
which is attached an oval pad of some smooth, hard mater- 
ial ; a back-strap passes up, and fastens to a belt around 
the body; and another strap, in two divisions, goes up the front, 
and also histens to the belt. This, if properly managed, will 
exert all the pressure necessary to keep the gut from protruding. 

Felons. — As soon as the disease is felt, put directly over 
the spot a tly blister, about the size of your thumb-nail, and let 
it remain for six hours, at the expiration of which time, directly 
under the surface of the blister may be seen the felon, which 
can be instantly taken out with the point of a needle. 

Another speedy cure is, take half a teaspoonful of soft soap, 
and stir in air-slaked lime until it is thick as putty. Make a 
leather thimble, fill it with the mixture, and wear. 

Fevers in General. — A fever is the most general disease 
incidental to the human race. It attacks all ages, sexes, antj 
constitutions, and affects the system throughout both body and 
mind. Fevers may be divided into three classes, viz., con- 
tinual, remitting, and intermitting. A continual fever is that which 
never leaves the patient during the whole course of the disease. 
This kind of fever is divided into acute, sloio, and malicjnant. 
The fever is called acute when its progress is quick and symp- 
toms violent; but when these are more gentle, it is called .slow. 
When livid spots appear, showing a putrid state of humors, it 
is called malignant, jmtrid, or black fever. A remitting fever dif- 
fers only from a continual in a degree: it has frequent increases 
and decreases, but never wholly leaves the patient during the 
course of the disease. Interynitting fevers (agues) are those 
which, during the time the patient may be said to be ill, have 
evident intervals and abatements of the rarious symptoms. 

A fever is an effort of nature to free the body from some 
offending cause, and it only rofiuires attention to observe the 
way nature points, and endeavor to assist her operations. Our 
bodies are framed so as to throw off, or expel, whatever is in- 


jurioiis to the health. This is generally by urine, sweating, 
stool, vomit, expectoration, or some other evacuation; and there 
are many reasons to believe if the efforts of nature were at- 
tended to and promoted at the begining of fevers, they would 
seldom last twenty-four hours ; but if the efforts are neglected 
or counteracted (as they often are), is it to be wondered at if 
the disease is to be prolonged, and in many cases made fatal ? 
We liere give a few general causes, symjitoms, and remedies 
which are applicable to most fevers at the commencement. 

Causes. — The causes are mostly obstructed perspiration, 
neglected colds, intemperance, and sometimes infection. 

Symptoms. — Sickness, squeamishness, sense of weakness or 
languor, pains in the head, back, and limbs ; chillings or sliiver- 
ings, alternately with hot fits, thirst, a foul, furry tongue, un- 
pleasant taste, a dry hot skin, and a quick pulse. 

Treatment. — If the stomach is oppressed or overloaded, 
take a vomit, as follows : Flour of mustard, one ounce ; warm 
water, half a pint. Mix. Take half of it, and if it does not act 
in fifteen minutes, take the other half; drink Avarm camomile 
tea to help its operation; Avhen it has acted freely, take a mild 
purgative. When the bowels have acted freely, take the fol- 
lowing : Solution of acetate of ammonia, 3 ounces ; cinnamon 
water, 2 ounces; wine of tartarized antimony, 2 drams; syrup 
of orange peel, 1 ounce ; pure water, 6 ounces. Mix, and take 
three tablcspoonfuls every four hours. 

Fever and Ague^ (intermittent Fever). — A fever is said to 
be intermittent when it consists of a succession of paroxysms, 
between each of which there is a distinct and perfect intermis- 
sion from fever symptoms. Agues are of three kinds, called 
quotldan (the fit comes on about every twenty-four hours) ; ter- 
tian (or the fit comes on every forty-eight hours) ; quartan (or 
the fit comes on about every seventy-two hours). 

Causes. — Living or being exposed amongst stinking stag- 
nant water, especially when acted on by heat ; poor, watery diet, 
great fatigue, sleeping in damp rooms or beds, wearing damp 
or wet linen ; being exposed long and often to a moist atmos- 
phere, suppression of eruptions, etc. 

Symptoms. — The cold stage commenceo with a sense of lan- 
guor and debility, and slowness of motion; frequent stretching 
and yawning ; pain in the head and loins ; sometimes sickness and 
vomiting ; pulse small, frequent, and irregular ; urine pale ; to 
this succeeds a violent shivering and shaking ; the patient feels 
very cold, and the breathing small, frequent and anxious, sensibil- 
ity is much impaired. After a time these symptoms abate, and the 


second staji^e commences, with an increase of heat and fever all 
over the body, redness of the lace, dr^-ness of the skin, thirst, 
pain in the head, throbbing- temples, the tongue furred, the 
pulse becomes dry, hard, full, and regular ; when these have 
continued some time, a moisture breaks out on the forehead, 
which by degrees becomes a general sweat all over the body, 
the fever abates; the water deposits a sediment; the breathing 
and pulse are free, and the fit is over, but leaves the patient in 
a weak state. 

Treatment. — In the cold stage, give warm diluent drinks, 
such as barley-water, weak tea, or weak wine and water. Ap- 
ply external warmth by means of extra clothing, hot bottles to 
the feet, mustard foot-baths, bags of heated bran, baked salt, 
etc. In this stage, an opiate is often beneficial ; give twenty- 
five to thirty drops of laudanum, Avitli an equal quantity of 
ether, in a glass of water. During the hot stage, an opposite 
mode of treatment must be adopted. Sponge the surface with 
tepid or cold water, give cold diluent or iced drinks, and ad- 
minister a full dose of laudanum. When the hot stage has 
subsided into tlie sweating stage the action of the skin 
should be encouraged by tepid drinks; and if the system is 
much exhausted, weak spirit and water in small quantities may 
be occasionally ventured on. During the intermissions, admin- 
ister active aperients, as five grains calomel, Avith three grains 
of compound extract of colocynth, followed by a mild purgative. 
Give bark to an extent as great as the stomach will bear, and 
combine Avith it wine and aromatics, accompanied by a gener- 
ous but light diet, and moderate exercise. Quinine is a very 
powerful agent in ague ; two or three grains of this medicine, 
administered twice or thrice daily, Avitli such nourishing diet as 
the patient can take, will, in ordinary cases, put a speedy end 
to the disease. In cases of long standing, which resist the usual 
modes of treatment, the folhnving remedy may be liad recourse 
to : Iodide of potassium, one and a half drams ; peppermint 
water, twelve ounces ; take two tablespoonfuls every four hours. 
One or two grains of sulphate of quinine may be added to each 
dose. Agues are liable to return, and the persons subject to the 
complaint are always made awaie of its approach. In such 
cases, tlie fit may be rendered milder by taking one scruple of 
ipecacuanha in an ounce of water, as an emetic, an hour pre- 
viously. Sick persons should also take occasional doses of 
sulpliate of (juinine twice a day for three or four weeks, in 
spring and autumn, especially, night air must be avoided ; and 
the early morning air not attempted, until some warm fluid or 
food has been introduced into the stomach. 


Bilious or Remittent Fever. — When a fever is accom- 
panied with a frequent or copious evacuation of bile, either by 
vomit or stool, the fever is denominated bilious, most frequent 
in the country at the latter end of summer or beginning of au- 

Causes. — Exposure to damp or night air; frequently from 
intemperance, when the body is disordered from cold or expo- 
sure, or similar to ague. 

Symptoms. — Frequent flushings and shiverings, with vomit- 
ing, bilious phlegm, and sometimes purging, same as bilious 

Treatment. — Cleanse the otomach with the following: 
Emetic tartar, one grain; powdered ipecacuanha, fifteen grains; 
water, three tablespoonfuls ; mix and take ; drinking Avarm cam- 
omile tea till it operates; and the bowels with this: Epsom 
salts, six drams ; glauber salts, three drams ; infusion of senna, 
seven ounces; tincture of jalap, half an ounce; compound tinc- 
ture of cardamoms, one ounce; mix, and take two tablespoonfuls 
every four hours till it operates freely. Then take for a day 
or two the following : Subcarbonate of potash, four drams; puri- 
fied nitre, one dram; syrup of saff"ron, six drams; camphor mix- 
ture, twelve ounces ; mix, take two tablespoonfuls every four 
hours, with one of the following powders each time in the dose ; 
citric acid or tartaric acid, half an ounce ; divide into twelve 
powders, mix in the draught, and drink whilst eff"ervescing. 

When the fever has subsided, take for a week or two the 
following pills : Sulphate of quinine, two drams ; extract of gen- 
tian, three drams ; mix well ; divide into sixty pills, and take 
one every four hours. Then use the following excellent drink : 
Take well-crushed pale malt, three lbs.; dried wormwood, dried 
century, dried horehound, dried buckbean, dried betony, dried 
camomile, dried ground ivy, of each one ounce (but if fresh two 
ounces); gentian root, sliced, one ounce; Virginia snake root, 
sliced, one ounce; infu'^e all in two gallons of hot water, in a 
warm place, two hours, then boil together fifteen minutes, then 
strain off the herbs, etc., squeeze as dry as possible, put in two 
pounds of sugar, and boil again ten minutes ; when cool enough, 
put in some fresh yeast ; work it well for two days, then bottle 
in sound bottles, putting two tablespoonfuls of brandy to each 
quart. This is remarkably good for weakness, etc. Take three 
tablespoonfuls three times a day, with a teaspoonful of the com- 
pound tincture of bark in each dose. 

Acute or Inflammatory Fever. — This mostly attacks 
the young, or those about the prime or vigor of life, especially 


such as live well, and are full of blood. It attacks at all periods 
of the year, but is most frequent in spring and the beginniny of 

Causes. — Anything that overheats the body, as violent ex- 
ercise, sleeping in the sun, drinking strong liquors, &c._ It may 
also be caused by lying on the damp ground, drinking cold 
liquor when hot, being exposed to the night air, and the like. 

Symptoms. — It usually commences with a chilliness, which is 
soon succeeded by a burning heat, quick, full pulse, pain in the 
head, redness of the eyes, florid, flushed countenance, dry skin, 
pain in the back, loins, &c. To these succeed difficulty of 
breathing, sickness, inclination to vomit, no appetite, restless, 
tongue iDlack, furred, and rough, urine very red. Delirium, 
great oppression of the breast, laborious breathing, frequent 
startings, hiccups, and cold clam'Tiy sweats are very dangerous 

Treatment. — Sometimes bleeding is necessary, especially if 
there be much inflammation. If vomiting be indicated, give an 
emetic. About three hours after, give a purging _ draught. 

The next day take the following: Tartrate of antimony, 12 
grains; loaf sugar, 2 drams. Powder, and mix well together, 
and divide into twenty-four powders. Take one every three 
hours, in three tablespoonfuls of the following : Nitrate of potash 
(saltpetre), 1 dram; solution of acetate of ammonia, 3 ounces; 
syrup of orange peel, 1 ounce; pure water, 8 ounces. Mix. 
Take three tablespoonfuls as above directed. The thirst being 
very great, we recommend the following: Pearl barley, stoned 
raisins, and figs, of each, 4 ounces ; liquorice-root, sliced, 1 ounce ; 
Avater, 4 quarts. Wash the barley well ; boil a few minutes, 
then strain off"; tlirow the water away, and put' into four quarts 
of boiling water; boil the barley an hour, then add the raisins, 
figs, and liquorice, and boil down to two quarts; when boiled, 
add to it purified nitre (saltpetre), half an ounce. A teacupful 
occasionally to quench the thirst is very serviceable. The diet 
low and light — oatmeal or sago gruel, tapioca, or the like. Wash 
tlie patient occasionally with lukewarm water, especially the 
hands and feet, and sprinkle the chamber occasionally with 
vinegar, more especially if the weather be hot; and have some 
vinegar in a jar, and occasionally plunge a red-hot iron in it. 
This will purify the air much, and refresh tlie patient. 

Slow or Nervous Fever. — Tins is a very common fever 
amongst tlic sedentary, or those of weak, relaxed habits. 

Causes. — WliateVer depresses the spirits, or impoverishes 
the blood, as grief, fear, anxiety, want of sleep, intense thought, 


living on poor, thin diet, unripe fruits, or cold moist things, as 
cucumbers, melons, mushrooms, or the like; also damp, confined, 
unwholesome air. Hence it is common in rainy seasons, or 
amongst those who live in low, damp, close places. 

Symptoms. — Low spirits, want of appetite, weariness after 
motion, watchfulness, deep sighing and dejection of mind are 
mostly the forerunners of this disease. These are succeeded by 
a low quick pulse, a dry tongue, without great thirst, chilliness 
and flushing alternately. After some time the patient feels a 
giddiness and pain in the head, a sickly feeling, Avith retching and 
vomiting; the pulse is quick and intermittent, the urine pale, 
looking like dead small beer ; the breathing difficult, with op- 
pression of the breast, and sometimes slight delirium, — when 
towards the ninth, tenth, or twelfth day, the tongue becomes 
moist, with a plentiful spitting, a gentle purging, or moisture on 
the skin, or some eruption takes place about the nose, lips, or 
ears. Then mostly all danger is past ; but if there be excessive 
looseness, wasting sweats, with frequent fainting fits, the tongue 
when put out trembles much, the extremities feel cold, with a 
fluttering pulse, then great danger exists. 

Treatment. — If the sickly feeling is great, give the following 
emetic: Powdered ipecacuanha, 20 grains; wine of antimony, 
1^ drams; pimento-water, 1| ounces. 

Cleanse the bowels with the following purge : Powdered 
rhubarb, 2 drams; carbonate of magnesia, 1 dram; tincture 
of ginger, 3 drams; compound tincture of cardamoms, 6 
drams ; cinnamon water, 9 ounces. Mix. Take four tablespoon- 
fuls every three hours till it operates freely. 

Take the mixture recommended for acute fever. When the 
fever is subdued, and the patient appears low, give the following 
cordial : Carbonate of ammonia, \ dram ; compound tincture of 
cinnamon, 3 drams ; syrup of ginger, 6 drams ; compound spirits 
of lavender, ^ ounce ; pure water, 3 ounces ; camphor mixture, 8 
ounces. Mix. Take three table-spoonfuls three times a day. 
If delirious, a blister at the back of the neck may be of much 
service. The diet must be mostly light, but nourishing and 

Typhus fever. — Typhus fever is a kind of continued 
fever, characterized by the ordinary symptoms of other fevers, 
accompanied with debility in the nervous and vascular systems, 
and a tendency in the fluids to putrefaction. 

Causes. — Any of the ordinary causes of fever may give rise 
to typhus, but by far the most common cause of typhus is con- 
tagion, or febrile miasm, the activity of which is much increased 


by the crowdins^ in close and ill-ventilated places, filth, insuffici- 
ent nutriment, and other causes tending to depress the vital 
power. It is eminently contagious and infectious, and often pre- 
vails epidemically. 

Symjjtoms. — The symptoms are great prostration of strength, 
heat intense, pungent, and more biting than in any other fever; 
pulse hard, small, weak, and irregular ; luuisea, vomiting, some- 
times a greenish or blackis4i cohn-ed bile, countenance tiushed, 
tongue parched and black furred, and thirst is excessive. In 
the worst cases black or purple spots appear, the urine is but 
little changed, and there is a peculiar foetid smell, in cases of 
true typhus ; and sometimes there are discharges of blood. The 
duration of this fever is uncertain : sometimes it terminates be- 
tween the seventh and fourteenth day, and sometimes it is pro- 
longed five or six weeks. Its duration depends greatly upon 
the constitution of the patient, and the manner of treating the 
disease. The most fjivorable symptoms are a gentle looseness, 
after the fourth or fifth day, with a warm sweat. These will 
continue some time, and carry off the fever. Hot scabby erup- 
tions about the mouth and nose are good signs, as are also ab- 

The unfavorable symptoms are excessive looseness, with a 
hard swelled belly, black or livid blotches breaking out, sore 
mouth, cold clammy sweats, change of voice, inability to put out 
the tongue, a constant inclination to uncover the breast, dif- 
ficulty of swallowing, sweat, and spittle tinged with blood, and 
the urine black, or depositing a black sediment, shows great 

Treatment. — In the early stages of this disease it is best not 
to interfere much with nature's operations. The principal aim 
ought to be to keep tlie patient alive until the fever-poison has 
expended itself. When seen early, however, it is often of ad- 
vantage to administer an emetic or a purgative ; and the 
patient's uneasy sensations Avill be much soothed by sponging 
the surface of the body ■with cold or tepid water. Directly the 
pOAVcrs of life begin to fail, a stimidating course of treatment 
should be commenced, — such as strong bec^f or chicken tea, with 
wine or brandy fro(|ucnt]y administered, taking care that it does 
not aggravate the febrile symptoms. When there is much 
general irritability and sleeplessness, a dose of opium may be 
given. The patient should bo in a large, well-aired apartment, 
and the Avindows kept open as much as possible. As the pa> 
tient begins to recover, a course of tonics will be necessary to 
expedite his restoration to health. 


Typhoid Fever. — Typhoid fevei- resembles in its main 
features that of typhus ; and until very recently the two Avere 
generally regaided as but two stages of the same affection. 

Symptoms. — Typhoid fever usually commences more insidi- 
ously and more gradually than typhus. The snilcrer is less dull 
and stupid, but more anxious, and during the delirium decidedly 
more active, and even vivacious. Diarrhoea is almost always pres- 
ent in typhoid fever (often accompanied with haemorrhage), very 
rarely in typhus. In the former the eruption consists of rose- 
colored spots, thiidy scattered, and often entirely absent. Ty- 
phoid fever is most common in youth, and rarely attacks persons 
after forty, while typhus may occur at any age ; and the former 
does not reach its height for a week latter than the later. 

Treatment. — In general the treatment required in both cases 
is alike, except in one or two particulars. At the commence- 
ment of typhoid, emetics are of service ; but aperients should 
rarely be given, in consequence of the tendency to diarrhcea. 
The intestinal irritation and diarrhoea require for 'their treat- 
ment astringents, combined with opium, which may be admin- 
istered either by the mouth or rectum. If there be hasmor- 
rhage from the bowels, cold ought to be applied carefully over 
the abdomen. During convalescence, the patient requires to be 
carefully attended to, as relapses are apt to occur; and the re- 
turn to a generous diet must be very gradual. 

Yellow Fever. — This is a disease of hot climates, a species 
of typhus, which takes its name from one of its symptoms, but 
which is not, however, an essential one. 

Causes. — Probably a vitiated state of the atmosphere, from 
putrid exhalations, arising from, putrifying vegetable or animal 
substances in hot, sultry weather. It is an epidemic, and very 

Symptoms. — Costiveness, dull pain in the right side, defect of 
appetite, flatulence, perverted tastes, heat in the stomach, gid- 
diness or pain in the head ; dull, watery, yellow eye ; dim or 
imperfect vision, hoarseness, slight sore throat, and the worst 
features of typhus. 

Treatment — In this disease, good nursing is indispensable. 
Let the patient have perfect rest and quietness, in a well- 
ventilated room. In the early stages of the disease, the diet 
must be confined to preparations of sago, arrow-root, barley, 
etc. ; but as the disease advances, give animal broths made of 
lean meat, thickened with bread-crumbs, oat-meal, or barley. 
The strictest attention must be given to cleanliness, and the 
linen changed frequently. If the stomach be very irritable and 


the vomiting violent, give the following preparation : Powdered 
rhubarb, 20 grains; powdered saleratus, 20 grains : powdered 
peppermint, 1 teaspoonful ; laudanum, 15 drops ; brandy, 1 table- 
spoonful; boiling water, 1 gill. Mix. Sweeten with loaf-sugar, 
and give a tablespoonful every hour till the symptoms change. 
The bowels must be kept open, as m all fevers. For this pur- 
pose use the following: Ginger, 2 ounces; bayberry bark, 4 
ounces; cayenne pepper, ^ ounce. 

Dose, a teaspoonful in a little milk, with half a teaspoonful 
of powdered rhubarb every hour till it operates freely. 

Captain Jonas P. Levy, who has had an extensive exper- 
ience with yellow fever, states that he never know a case of 
yellow fever terminate fatally, under the following treat- 
ment: — 

Dissolve a table-spoonful of common salt in a wineglass of 
water ; pour it into a tumbler, and add the juice of a whole 
lemon and two wineglasses of castor-oil. An adult to take the 
whole at one dose. Then give a hot mustard foot-bath, with a 
handful of salt in the water. Wrap the patient in blankets 
until he perspires freely. Remove to the bed, and well Avrap 
the patient's feet in the blanket. Afterward apply mustard 
plasters to the abdomen, legs, and soles of the leet. If the 
headache is very severe, they may be applied to the head and 
temples. After the fever has been broken, take forty grains of 
quinine and forty drops of elixir of vitriol to a quart of water. 
Give a wineglassful three times a day. Barley-water, lemonade 
and ice-water may be used i i moderation. 

Fistula. — This is an abscess degenerating into an ulcer near 
the anus, which ulcer has often a connection with the lower 

Causes. — Persons who follow occupations constantly sitting, 
are most liable to them; tliey are also produced by blows over 
the part, sometimes by intemperance. 

Treatment. — Sometimes a cure Avill be effected by attending 
to the general health, and the injection of some astringent lotion 
as solution of sulphate of zinc (forty grains to one pint of water). 
Failing this, it will be necessary to make a complete division 
with the knife of the Avhole of the parts between the fistula and 
the bowel, and the edges of tlie wound kept apart by lint, in 
order to allow the cavity to fill up by granulation. 

Foetid Breath. — The odor of "the breath is a pretty cor- 
rect index of the state of the body, When tainted it is so not 
tmcommoidy from decayed teeth, or from a morbid secretion of 
the tonsils; but more frequently, in children especially, it is in- 
dicative of disordered stomach and loaded bowels. 


Treatment. — Rinse the mouth out two or three times a day 
with a weak solution of soda or chloride of lime, or take half a 
tumbler-full of camomile tea on rising every morning, or wash 
the mouth with salt water in the morning, and clean the teeth 
afterwards with water mixed with wood ashes (a pinch of ashes 
to a glass of water), — The following is very efficient: Take of 
white sea-salt one and a half ounces ; tartrate of potass and es- 
sential oil of bergamot or mint, of each two drachms; white 
sugar and gum-tragacanth in powder, of each eight ounces. 
Dry the salt, sugar, and gum by the fire, and reduce them to a 
very fine powder in a very hot mortar; make the powder into a 
paste Avitli a little water and the essential oil; roll the paste 
out to about the eighth of an inch, and divide it into lozenges. 
Dry them in a dish or basin in the oven; when perfectly dry, 
cover them with a coating of gum-tragacanth, and dry them 
again afterwards quickly by the fire. Keep them in a well- 
closed box. These lozenges are simply chewed, and not taken 
internally, nOr ought the saliva to be swallowed that is secreted 
Avhile chewing them. When you have finished chewing, rinse 
the mouth with water. These lozenges will not only cure foulness 
of breath but will take away the smell of tobacco, onions, &c. 

Grall Stones. — Gall stones are calculous concretions, some- 
times formed in the bladder ; they vary greatly in size, some be- 
ing smaller than a pea, and some as large as a walnut; they often 
remain in the bladder without causing any uneasiness; but, 
when one of any considerable size passes into the duct, it gives 
rise to violent spasmodic pains, which cease only when the 
stone has effected its passage into the bowels. The gall duct is, 
in calibre, no larger than an ordinary goose quill, and therefore 
this operation is often a difficult and protracted one; its symp- 
toms are agonizing pain in the region of the bladder, often ac- 
companied by shivering and vomiting; when the obstruction 
has passed into the common duct, and so stopped the flow of 
bile from the liver, there will be jaundice, with white and 
chalky evacuations. When there are these symptoms, with ab- 
sence of pain on pressure, and no fever, we may safely conclude 
that inflammation is not the exciting cause, but gall stones; 
their presence in the feces may be easily detected, as they float 
upon water. 

Treatment. — The proper treatment in an attack of this kind 
is hot applications over the seat of pain, or a warm bath. 
A draught should at once be given of laudanum, a full dose of 
tliirty drops, following it up with twenty drops every half hour 
or so, until the severe pain is reheved; if the patient retches 


much, and liquids cannot be retained, pills of solid opium, one 
grain each, had better be administered. There is commonly 
great acidity of the stomach while gall stones are passing; hence 
an alkaline draught is of service, say half a teaspoonful of carbon- 
ate of soda in a good quantity of warm water; the laudanum may 
be added to this. Should the stomach reject these remedies, 
the anodyne must be administered in a clyster, of about forty 
drops of laudanum in a pint of thin gruel. Hot bran poultices, 
sprinkled with laudanum, may be applied to the seat of pain. 

The following is a good solvent mixture where gall stones 
are known to be present: Castile soap, two drams — melt by heat 
in half a pint of water; add spirits of turpentine and ether, of 
each two drams, take a tablespoonful three times a day. 

Gangrene {Mortification). Gangrene is the first stage of 
mortification, so called from its eating away the flesh. Gan- 
grene may be considered as a partial death — the death of one 
part of the body wliile the other parts are alive. 

Causes. — Tlie causes are excessive inflammation, sometimes 
from hurts or injuries. 

Symptoms. — All pain and sensation ceases in the part ; and, 
if extensive, it turns from red to purple, livid, or black, with a 
quick low pulse and clannnv sweats. If internal, there is a ces- 
sation of pain, but the body sinks and changes to a livid color, 
and often hiccu})S and other distressing symptoms attend. The 
face is pinched with cold, and the tongue brown. 

Treatment. — When the result of cold, the part becomes first 
Avhite, and a restoration of the suspended circulation should be 
attempted by rubbing with snow, if it can be procured; if not, 
with a coarse cloth or flesh brush. No heat myst be applied; 
even that of the bed-covering will sometimes set up inflamma- 
tion. Camphorated spirit of wine is, perhaps, the best liniment 
that can be used. Alter the rubbing, if it appears to be at all 
effectual, apply cold poultices. If, in spite of these cfibrts, a 
discoloration of the skin shows that gangrene lias really com- 
menced, apply to the j)ait a ])oultice of flax seed with a little 
powdered charcoal in it, and also spirit lotions, to keep the 
disease from spreading. The constitution of the patient must 
be soothed and supported by some anodyne and stimnlent. 
Cooper recommends from 7 to 10 grains of carbonate of ammo- 
nia, with 20 or 80 drops of tincture of opium, two or three times 
a day, or more frequently if required, A bolus composed of 5 
grains of carbonate of ammonia, with 10 grains of musk, may be 
given every four hours, with excellent ellcct. When the gan- 
grene has proceeded to a sloughing sore, a port wine poultice 


is a good api)lication, as is spirits of turpentine, to stimulate 
the parts. 

If, however, the gangrene is not stopped in its first stages, it 
can seldom be after ; and the only chance of saving the patient's 
life is to amputate the limb ; and this must be done before the 
morbific influence has spread far towards a vital part. 

Hospital Gangrene is a combination of humid gangrene 
with phagedenic ulceration, sometimes occuring in crowded hos- 
pitals, and causing a fearful mortality among the patients. 

Glanders {Farcy). — This is a malignant disease occuring 
in the horse, the ass, and the mule, which man is liable to con- 
tract, by inoculation, or by simple contact with the skin. It is 
a horrible and loathsome disease, and very commonly proves 
f\ital. An animal affected by it should at once be killed, and 
the body buried. 

Symptoms. — The chief symptom of its presence in the animal 
is inflammation of the lining membrane of the nostril, Avhich be- 
comes ulcerated, and emits a bloody, foetid, sticky, yellowish 
discharge. Shortly after the person contracts the disease there 
will be febrile symptoms, probably vomiting and diarrhoea; 
small ulcerating tumors will form under the skin in various parts 
of the body, and the peculiar viscid disharge from the nostrils, 
Avliich is the characteristic of the disease, will commence. No 
domestic treatment will be of service here. A physician should 
at once be consulted. 

Glandular Swellings. — Weak and scrofulous persons are 
frequently troubled with these swellings. They often occur in 
the neck, and under the arm, as well as elsewhere. 

Treatment. — Stimulent applications, and a general tonic 
course of treatment should be resorted to in such cases. Salt 
water bathing, and drinking mineral waters, are among the 
most efficacious remedies. If these cannot be obtained, let the 
patient take a mixture like this: — Sulphate of iron, 12 grains; 
sulphuric acid (diluted), 1 dram; sulphate of quinine, 24 grains; 
tincture of ginger, 2 drams; distilled Avater, sufficient for 12 
ounces. Take a tablespoonful three times a day, witli good 
nourishing food. If the bowels are at all confined, add to tlie 
mixture 6 drams of sulphate of magnesia. Paint the swollen 
part with tincture of iodine every night. 

Gonorrhea. — Gonorrhea or clap is not, as its name im- 
plies, a discharge of true semen, but consists of a purulent dis- 
cliarge from the urethra, being the effect of inflammation of a 
specific character attacking the extremity of that passage, and 
in certain cases extending through its whole course. 


Symptoms. — This disease begins to make its appearance in 
some persons about the third or fourth day, and in others in a 
week or two after connection, but the average time is from 
three to twelve days. About the third day, generally speaking, 
the orifice of the urethra begins to swell, the patient feels a 
certain degree of uneasines in the parts, there is a sensation of 
itching in the glans of the male organ, and a soreness and ting- 
ling in the course of the urethra; the lips of t]\e orifice are, at 
first, drier and hotter than natural; but in a short time a white 
purtdent discharge makes its appearance, which as time advan- 
ces increases in quantity. There is now great pain and scalding 
in passing water, in consequence of such a fluid as the urine, 
Avhich is loaded with saline matter, passing over an inflamed 
surface; and from the inflammation of the lining membrane di- 
minishing the size of the passage, the urine is voided in a smaller 
stream than natural, and sometimes with difficulty. The dis- 
charge in the course of a few days considerably increases, and 
changes its appearance, being sometimes greenish and sometimes 
of a yellowish cast; the patient is troubled with frequent and 
painful erections, particularly when he gets warm in bed — this 
aftection is called chordee. In the mild form of this disease, it is 
unaccompanied by any constitutional symptoms, and will, by 
strict attention to diet, rest, and cleanliness, run itself off in the 
course of five or six weeks without the aid of medicine, or any 
treatment except that just recommended. 

In the severe form of the disease, arising either froiii natural 
causes, intemperance, or the use of strong astringent injections, 
the inflammation, instead of being confined to the first inch and 
a half of the urethra, may extend the whole length backward, 
implicating the prostate gland, neck of the bjadder, and the 
lining membrane of that organ. In these cases, the patient is 
tormented with a frequent desire to pass water, which is voided 
Avith great difficulty, and only by a few drops at a time. There is 
great constitutional disturbance, and fever of an inflammatory 
character. It is also frequently accompanied by enlargement 
of the glands of tlie groin, arising from inflammation of a set of 
vessels called absorbents, which lead from the diseased surfiice 
in the urethra into tlicm; these arc called sympathetic buboes, 
in consequence of their increasing or diminishing in size accord- 
ing to the amount of inflammation in the passage — they do not 
frequently proceed to suppuration. From the same cause — that 
is, extension of inflammation along the spermatic tube — there 
will be inflammation and enlargement of one or both testicles. 
In such cases the discharge will disappear for a time, and 


as there may be a good deal of constitutional disturbance and 
fever, all stimulating medicines and astringent injections should 
be suspended — this affection frequently arising from their im- 
proper use. It may also be accompanied by one or more ab- 
scesses along the urethra, which frequently communicate with 
that passage. 

Chordee is a most troublesome affection in this disease, 
and consists in the painful erection of the penis, the top being- 
bent downward: this arises from inflammation of tlie cells sur- 
rounding the urethra, which prevents its extension during erec- 
tion, when all the other parts of that organ are filled with blood. 
When the inflammation runs high, it sometimes happens that, 
in making water, a small blood vessel is ruptured, and a flow of 
blood ensues, wliich is of great service unless it should be too 
copious, when it must be stopped. 

In persons troubled with tight foreskins, the matter from 
the urethra becomes collected between the foreskin and glans 
of the penis, producing excoriation of the latter, and inflamma- 
tion and swelling of the former; so that the patient is unable 
to draw it back from the glans : this state is called phymosis. 
On the other hand, when the foreskin becomes inflamed and sw\il- 
len, and cannot be drawn over the glans so as to cover that part, 
it is called paraphymosis. Persons in whom the foreskin is 
naturally very tight, so that the glans of the penis is never 
exposed, are subject, when out of health or when the bowels are 
confined, to a discharge from beneath the foreskin, resembling 
in its character the discharge which takes place in gonorrhea: 
this discharge arises from irritation of a set of glands surround- 
ing the glans of the penis, wliich pour out a purulent secretion 
that produces excoriation and inflammation of the parts. Tins 
disease is called spurious gonorrhea, and must be distinguished 
from true gonorrhea, as the treatment of the two will essentially 

Treatment. — In the mild form of this disease, and in the 
first stage when the discharge is fully developed, and the inflam- 
mation confined to the first inch and a half of the urethra, the 
first thing to be done is to open the bowels briskly. This 
may be effectually accomplished by administering the following 
powder: Powdered jalap, 4 grains; calomel, 4 grains. Mix. 
To be given in something thick at bed-time. Animal food, all 
stimulating drinks, such as ale, spirits, and wine, should be care- 
fully abstained from. Great cleanliness should be observed, the 
penis should be bathed several times a day in hot water, allow- 
ing it to soak for a few minutes each time, and taking care to 


wash off all discharge which might be collected between the 
foreskin and glans of the penis. The patient should rest as 
much as possible, and he should wear a suspensory bandage to 
keep the penis out of the way of all friction. His diet should 
consist of light farinaceous food, such as arrow-root, sago, or 
bread puddings; and for his ordinary drink, barley water or 
toast and water. Brotlis of an unstimulating character, such as 
mutton and chicken, might bo both allowed occasionally. He 
should then take the following powder three times a day : Cubebs 
pepper, 1 dram; powdered gum arabic, 1 scruple; carbonate of 
Boda, 10 grains. Make a mixture. To be taken in a little milk 
or water. This treatment should be continued for a few days, 
after which the doses of cubebs might be increased to two 
drams three times a day. Should the discharge still continue 
after persevering in this plan for eight or ten days, and when 
the active stage of the inflammation has subsided, the following 
mixture may be administered with advantage: Balsam copaiba, 
3 drams; powdered gum arabic, 2 drams; camphor mixture, or 
common Avater, 6 ounces; spirit of lavender, ^ ounce; sweet 
spirit of nitre, ^ ounce. Mix. Rub up the copaiba with the 
gum arabic, first, in a mortar; then add the water by slow de- 
grees, and when the copaiba becomes incorporated with the 
water, add the other materials : a tablespoonful to be taken 
every day. Should this quantity disagree with the stomach, or 
produce pain in the back, the dose may be diminished according 
to the age, strength, and peculiar circumstances of the patient. 
The following is also a good form of mixture : Copaiba, 3 
drams; powdered cubebs, 6 drams; laudanum, 30 drops; pow- 
dered gum arabic, 2 drams ; common water, 6 ounces. A table- 
spoonful three or four times a day. Care must be taken to keep 
the bowels gently open during the treatment. The following is 
a good aperient pill for the purpose: Compound colocynth pill, 
1 dram; calomel, 6 grains; oil of caraway, 6 drops. Mix, and 
divide into twelve pills; one or two to be taken every second 
or third night. It sometimes haj)pens that the copaiba dis- 
agrees very much Avith the stomach, producing indigestion and 
eructation of a rancid fluid into the mouth ; also fever and nettle 
rash. In these cases it should be suspended for a time, or alto- 
gether omitted. 

In the severe form of this disease, Avhcn the inflammation 
extends as far as the neck of the bladder, bleeding should bo 
resorted to immediately ; the blood may be taken irom the arm of 
the patient, if he be of afuU stouthabit, or leeches may bo applied 
to the amount of ten or twelve along the perineum and urethra, 


wliicli niajbe repeated, according to necessity, once or twice a 
week. Fomentations, consisting of flannels wrung out of hot 
water, should then be applied, or large poultices of linseed meal, 
or bread and water, three or four times a day ; or the patient 
may sit in a hip bath once or twice daily; strict rest in tlie 
recumbent position should be enjoyed; and for the purpose ot 
keeping the bowels open, the following mixture should be ad- 
ministered: Epsom salts, 6 drams; tartar emetic,! grain; mind- 
ererus spirit, 1 ounce ; syrup, ^ ounce ; camphor mixture, 5 ounces. 
Twotablespoonfuls to be taken every two or three hours. In 
order to allay irritation, and relieve the pain, heat, and difficulty 
in making water, the patient should drink freely of barley water, 
linseed tea, or solution of gum in milk. Some recommend the 
use of soothing injections in this stage. The injection should 
consist of — Warm water, 8 ounces ; vinous solution of opium, 
60 drops. This should be thrown into the urethra several times 
a day. 

If the patient should be troubled with a frequent desire to 
make water opium administered by the mouth or rectum is of 
the greatest service. The following is a good draught in these 
cases; Tincture of opium, 30 drops; syrup, | ounce ;' camphor 
mixture, 1| ounces. Make a draught ; to be taken once or twice 
in twenty four hours, according to the intensity of the pain. 
Or an injection consisting of two ounces of thin, gruel, and halt 
a dram of tincture of opium, may be thrown into the rectum. 

Stricture is frequently the result of this form of the 
disease. When the active stage has been reduced by the means 
already laid down, the discharge maybe treated by astringents, 
both internally and externally. Tlie form of mixture already 
prescribed will answer. Astringent injections may be also em- 
ployed with advantage — either of the following may be used: 
Sulphate of zinc (white vitriol), 12 grains; Avine of opium, ^ 
dram; water, 6 ounces. To be thrown into the urethra three 
or four times a day. 

Or take: Nitrate of silver (lunar caustic), 1 grains; distilled 
water, 1 ounce. 

One of the most painful, and sometimes most troublesome 
consequences of gonorrhea, is inflammation of the testicle. 
This affection, usually termed " swelled testicle," may occur at 
any period of tlie disease; and although its occurrence may be 
favored by improper treatment or mode of living, is in most 
cases independent of such causes. It arises from extension of 
the inflammation from the uretlira down the spermatic canals 
to one or both testicles, but usually attacks only one at a time. 


It is best to be avoided by careful attention to regular living 
and quiet, during the inflammatory stage of the gonorrliea. It 
commences sometimes with pain in the testicle itself, and some- 
times the pain is felt first in the groin, in the situation of the 
spermatic cord. If its approach is thus perceived, the applica- 
tion of numerous leeches in the groin, or of cupping to the loins, 
with rest in the recumbent posture, and suspension of the scro- 
tum in a proper bandage, will frequently prevent the extension 
of the inflammation to the testicle itself. Should the inflamma- 
tion, however, have reached that organ, or commenced in it, the 
most immediate relief Avill be obtained by carefully surrounding 
the swelled testicle with narrow strips of adhesive plaster, to- 
gether with perfect rest, the testicle being further supported 
in a bandage ; and should the pain extend to the groin, the ap- 
plication of leeches in that situation will usually put a stop to 
the disease in a few days. As many, however, will be unable 
to apply the strapping in a proper manner, and as it is only ap- 
plicable in the early stages of the affection, it may be as well to 
say that usually the inflammation will subside spontaneously in 
a few days, if the patient Avill keep quietly lying on his back 
with the testicles supported in a proper bandage, and fomented 
either with hot water, and cool with cold water, as his feelings 
may dictate. The bowels should be kept open by saline purga- 
tives, such as Epsom salts, etc., and the diet should be low. If 
there is much pain in the groin, flank, and back, leeches should 
be applied in the former situation, or cupping in the latter, and 
a full dose of Dover's powder should be taken at bed-time. In 
extremely painful cases, great relief will be experienced by the 
the application of a tobacco poultice to the scrotum. This may 
be made by mixing equal parts of tobacco and meal together, 
and moistened with hot water. 

Mercury is never requisite in this affection, and leeches 
should never bo applied to the scrotum itself. The swelling of 
the testicle in most cases, leaves hard swelling on the back of 
the gland, which is gradually removed in process of time ; but 
during its existence, care should be taken to keep the testicles 
well supported in a suspensory bandage, as relapses under neg- 
lect of this precaution are not unfrequent. 

In phymosis, the glans of the penis frequently becomes ex- 
coriated from the irritation of the matter from the urethra, and 
warty excrescences grow between the glans and the foreskin. 
In order to prevent such effects, great cleanliness should be ob- 
served, the foreskin should be drawn back as far as possible and 
the matter washed off, and Avarm Avatcr should be thrown under 


the foreskin several times a day by means of a syringe. If ex- 
coriation or warts exist, black wash will be of the greatest ser- 
vice it should be used in a similar manner to the warm water. 

Black wash is made by mixing thirty grains of calomel with two 
ounces of lime water — to be well shaken when used. The bow- 
els should be kept gently open by means of the common black 

^Treatment of Chordee. — Wq have observed before that chor- 
dee consists in a painful erection of the penis, produced by the 
non-extension of the spongy cellular body surrounding the ure- 
thra, while all the other parts of the penis are distended Avith 
blood. This want of harmony between the parts occasions 
the penis to be bent downward, and also the pain which is ex- 
perienced by tlie patient during an erection. In order to obvi- 
ate this, the penis should be rubbed with strong solutions of 
opium, such as the tincture; or pledgets of linen, wet with the 
tincture of opium, should be constantly applied, taking care to 
change them as often as they become warm ; or it may be rub- 
bed with the following application, which is found of great ser- 
vice in this affection: extract of belladonna, 2 drams; camphor, 
10 grains. Rub up the camphor into a fine powder, having pre- 
viously dropped on it a few drops of spirit of Avine, then add 
the belladonna; about the size of a small pea of this, rubbed 
along under the surface of the penis, and upon the frronum and 
bridle, quickly brings down an erection and relieves pain. All 
lascivious ideas should be dismissed from the mind. The bow- 
els should be kept open by a mild aperient. As the erections 
generally come on more frequently when the patient becomes 
hot in bed, the best means of temporarily relieving it will be to 
bend the penis downward with the hand, and to apply cold; but 
the most certain means of preventing it will be to administer at 
bed-time the following draught: tincture of opium, 20 drops; 
camphor mixture, 1^ ounces. Mix. This draught to be taken 
at bed-time, and to be rcucated in three or four hours, if not 
asleep or if in pain. 

In the treatment of sympathetic buboes accompanying gon- 
orrhea, little will be required to be done, as they depend on the 
amount of inflammation in the urethra, and Avill increase and di- 
minish in size according as the original disease becomes better 
or worse ; however, as they sometimes enlarge very much and 
become very painful, it may be found necessary to apply leeches 
once or twice a week. The patient should rest as much as 
possible, and pledgets of linen wetted in Goulard water should be 
constantly applied. The bowels should be kept freely open. If 


they should not yield to this treatment, but should proceed to 
suppuration, poultices should be constantly applied until matter 
is lormed, when it may be evacuated by tlie lancet. 

In cases of retention of urine following gonorrhea, the pa- 
tient should be placed in a warm bath, and a large dose of lauda- 
num administered. If this treatment does not succeed in reliev- 
ing the bladder, the catheter should be introduced. 

Gout. — This is a disease of the blood, arising from a super- 
abundance of acid therein; the pains generally attack the small 
joints, arising without any apparent external cause, but is pre- 
ceded generally by an unusual affection of the stomach, infect- 
ing the articulations of the feet and hands, particularly the 
great toe, and the less inclined to shift, yet alternating with 
affections of the stomach or other internal parts. 

Treatment. — The patient ought to be kept quiet and easy ; 
the diet should be nourishing, without being stimulating, — 
broths, puddings, jellies, light meats, <fec., are therefore proper; 
but spirits or wine must be carefully avoided, as well as salt 
meats and all high-seasoned food. The patient should retire to 
rest early. Take on the first day half an ounce of castor oil; 
on the second day one drachm of tincture of hops in two ounces 
of the infusion of cascarilla, morning and night. The following 
has been found very useful: Rhubarb, guaicum gum, nitrate of 
potass, flow^ers of sulphur, of each one ounce ; molasses, one 
pound. Mix Avell together; take from one to two teaspoonfuls 
(according to its aperient effects) every night, with a little 
warm gin and water. As a preventive, the following is highly 
recommended: Infusion of gentian one and a half ounces; bi- 
carbonate of potash, fifteen grains; tincture of rhubarb, one 
drachm. Mix; to be taken at bedtime. ' 

Gravel. — A disease depending on the formation of stony 
matter in the kidney. 

Treatment. — The general treatment should consist in a hot 
bath and warm fomentations; a dose of castor-oil should be ad- 
ministered, and when the bowels have acted, if there be much 
pain, the following may be given: Solution ef acetate of mor- 
phine, one dram; spirit of hydrochloric ether, two drams; syrup 
of roses, half an ounce; camphor mixture, four ounces. One- 
fourth part to be taken at bed-time. Linseed tea or barley 
water should be drank freely. The following may also be used 
with good results: Infusion of buchu, seven ounces; tincture of 
musk seeds, one ounce; sal volatile, two drams. Mix; dose, two 
tablespoonfuls once or twice a day. Or this: Essential oil of 
spruce, one scruple; spirit of nitric ether, one ounce; mix; dose 


a teaspoonful two or three times a day, in a teaspoonful of the 
decoction of marshmallow root. Or the following may be used: 
Rectified oil of turpentine, sweet spirit of nitre, oil of juniper, 
balsam of sulphur, of each half an ounce; mix; dose, fifteen or 
sixteen drops in a wineglassful of water three times a day. Or 
this: Alicant soap, eight ounces; fresh lime, finely powdered, 
one ounce ; oil of tartar, one dram ; mix with sufficient quantity 
of water for a mass, and divide it into five-grain pills, from three 
to four of which should be taken daily. The following remedy 
his been highly recommended for this complaint: Parsley 
Blfikestono (of the herbalist), ten cents worth, stewed down in a 
pint of water to half a pint; Avhen cool, add a wineglassful of 
gin. Take a wineglassful of the mixture every morning, until 
relief is afforded. 

G-ray Hairs. — The sedentary, the studious, the debilitated 
and the sickly, are, with very few exceptions, those who are 
earliest visited with gray hair, Persons whose employment ren- 
ders much sitting necessar}^ and little or no exercise possible, 
are most likely to carry gray hairs. 

Treatment. — Mix thoroughly a small quantity of sub-nitrate 
of bismuth with any common pomatum, and brush a small 
quantity of it into the hair daily. 

GrUm-Boil, — This sometimes arises from exposure to cold, 
but is caused in the majority of cases by the irritation of a de- 
cayed tooth. 

Treatment. — Inflammation of the gum generally goes on to 
suppuration, to promote which, warm fomentations and poultices 
maybe applied externally. As soon as the matter is formed the 
abscess may be cut or lanced. Afterwards the mouth should 
be washed occasionally with an astringent lotion composed of 
tincture of galls and water, or of twenty or twenty -five grains of 
sulphate of zinc, dissolved in half a pint of rose-water. 

Weakness of the Hair. — The falling off of the hair is 
generally a sign of debility of constitution. 

Treatment. — The removal of the bodily weakness, and the 
general bracing up of the system, is the first step to take. 
Frequent cutting, and frequent brushing and washing, are the 
next methods. In addition to this, there may be applied, every 
morning and evening, a portion of the following lotion : Eau-de- 
Cologne, 2 ounces ; Tincture of Cantharides, 2 drachms ; Oil of 
Rosemary, 10 drops; Oil of Lavender, 10 drops. Mix. We 
append a number of the most approved remedies for weakness 
of the hair. Each should have a fair trial, till the right one is 
found : Clean the hair with rum every night on a soft brush ; 


then comb it very gently, and pour cold water on the head every 
morning, after which thoroughly dry it. A drop or two of 
sweet-oil twice a week should also housed. Or the following: 
Beef Marrow, 6 ounces; Nervine Balsam; 2 ounces; Peruvian 
Balsam, 2 ounces; Oil of Almonds 1^ ounces; Extract of Cantha- 
rides, 16 grains. Melt the marrow and nervine balsam with 
the oil; strain, add the balsam of Peru, and lastly the extract 
dissolved in a drachm of rectified spirit. Rub on the scalp once 
or twice a day for some Aveeks. If any soreness be produced, it 
should be less frequently applied. Or the following: Fresh 
Lemon-juice, 1 drachm ; Extract of Bark, 2 drachms; Marrow, 
2 ounces; Tincture of Cantharides, 1 drachm; Oil of Lemon 20 
drops ; Oil of Bergamot, 10 drops. Mix. First Avash the head 
Avith soap and Avater, Avith a little eau-de-cologne ; then rub it 
dry. Next morning rub it AAdth a small lump of pomade, and 
repeat it daily. In four or five Aveeks a cure will be effected. 
Or the folloAving : Burnt Alum, ^ drachm ; Biborate of Soda, ^ 
drachm; Beef-marroAV, 1 ounce; Essence of Bergamot, G drops. 
Mix. To be rubbed on the head night and morning. Or the 
folloAving: Oil of Mace I ounce; Olive-Oil, 2 drachms; Water 
of Ammonia ^ drachm; Spirit of Rosemary 1 ounce; Rose- 
Avater, 2| ounces. Mix. Or tho folloAving: Bay leaves, 2 
ounces; Cloves, j ounce; Spirit of Lavender, 4 ounces; Spirit 
of Thyme, 4 ounces. Digest for six days, filter, and add ether 
half an ounce. To be applied every morning. 

Hay-Asthma. — Hay-asthma, hay-fever, and summer bron- 
chitis, is a disease Avhich occurs about the time of the hay har- 
vest, and appears to be caused by the pollen of some AA'ild plants 
getting into and inflaming the bronchial passages. This theory 
is supported by tho fact that those aa^Iio live in situations Avhere 
there is little or no vegetation do not suffer from it. 

Symptoms. — A difficulty of breathing, and a burning sensa- 
tion in the throat, are the chief characteristics of this affection. 

Treatment . — Removal to a different locality is most effectual. 
The folloAving is a valuable remedy: — Citrate of iron, 1 drachm; 
sulphate of quinine, 1 scruple; extract of nux vomica, 8 grains. 
Mix, and make into thirty-tAvo pills. Dose, one pill three times 
a day. 

Headache. — There is no more common complaint than this, 
Avliich is symptomatic of so many diseases, that it is impossible 
to lay doAvn any general system of treatment. We Avill, there- 
fore proceed to enumerate some of the chief kinds of headache, 
Avith their symptoms and remedies. 

Bilious or Sick Headache is perhaps the most common of 


any. It generally comes on tlie first thing in the morning, and 
may often be relieved by a hot cup of strong tea or coft'ec ; prob- 
ably because this stimulates the digestive organs, from a defect- 
ive action of which the pain proceeds; This pain commences 
usually at one side of the head, most likely on the brow, just over 
the right or left eye, but when it continues it is diffused over the 
Avholo head, and is accompanied by an intolerable feeling of sick- 
ness, often by vomiting, and extreme languor and depression of 
spirits ; there is generally, also singing in the ears, dimness of 
sight, and confusion of mind, with great restlessness. Some- 
times, without any medicine being taken, the bowels, which 
have been previously constipated, will be freely evacuated, and 
the most urgent symptoms are quickly relieved ; but it is gener- 
ally desirable to take some active aperient, preceding or accom- 
panying it with the following: — Pulverized rlmbarb, 12 grains; 
carbonate of magnesia, 10 grains; aromatic spirits of ammonia, 
^ drachm ; syrup of ginger, 1 drachm ; spearmint water. 10 

This will generally prove effectual, especially if the diet is 
spare and simple. Take no solid food for twenty-four hours, 
only a cup or two of tea, or a little thin gruel, and the chances 
are that there Avill be no headache next day; although it will 
probably return as severe as ever in a few Aveeks, its recurrence 
in some cases being at almost regular periods. It can gen- 
erally be traced to some error in diet, such as taking food that 
is indigestible, or in too large quantities; or stimulating drinks, 
with insufficient exercise. Very often it arises from some de- 
rangement of the biliary secretions, either as to quantity or 
quality, or defective assimilation'; sometimes from the habitual 
abuse of purgatives, Avhich enfeebles the tone of the alimentary 
canal. Very commonly a simple dose of rhubarb and magnesia, 
witn about thirty drops of sal volatile, will remove a common 
sick headache ; but when there is nausea, and vomiting or purg- 
ing does not come spontaneously to remove it, the former should 
be excited by an emetic, composed of one grain of tartarized 
antimony and twenty of ipecac; and after this has acted, give 
blue-pill, one scruple; compound rhubarb pills, two scruples. 
Mix; divide into twelve pills; take one or two at a dose. Per- 
sons subject to this kind of headache should carefully abstain 
from fat meats, pastry, butter, and rich food generally. 

That which we have just been describing is one of the 
forms of Sympathetic or Dyspeptic Headache, sympathy with a 
disordered stomach being the immediate cause. Sometimes an 
excess of alkali, at others of acid, in the alimentary canal, will 


produce this : in the former case, a vegetable acid, such as vine- 
gar, will afford relief; in the latter case, in which there is likely 
to be heartburn and acid eructations, a dose of sal volatile, or of 
carbonate of soda or potash, Avill be the best remedy. In all 
these cases, it seems likely that the blood circulating in the 
brain is both mechanically and chemically affected by the de- 
fective action of the assimilative and secretive organs of the 
stomach. We sometimes find that the postponement of the 
customary evacuation of the bowels, for ever so short a time, 
will cause a sympathetic headache, and that this will be relieved 
directly the evacuation has taken place, — a clear proof of the in- 
timate connection there is between the head and stomach. 

Congestive Headaches. — So called, because they proceed 
from a congested state of the vessels of the brain, arising either 
from an over-fullness of blood or a Aveakness of the organ, or 
from an excessive nervous irritability, which frequently upsets 
the balance of the circulation. Whichever of these may be the 
case, there is nearly always a dull pain over the whole of the 
head, which is worst at the fore and hind parts. When it 
arises from an over-loaded condition of the vessels, there is 
usually a bloated countenance, with full red eyes, and a dull, in- 
animate expression; here we find, on inquiry, a sluggish liver, 
and inflammation of the brain, tending to apoplexy or paralysis. 

Leeches to the temples, or cupping on the back of the 
neck; cold applications to the head, with spare diet and active 
aperients, will be the proper treatment. A very effectual 
remedy for removing pain is two or three grains of oxalate of 
cerium, dry on the tongue ; repeat a number of times. 

A weak brain is generally a consequence of some long- 
standing discharge Avhich has debilitated the^ whole system ; 
and, in this condition of things, if from any cause there is more 
than common flow of blood to tho brain, there will be headache, 
with a pale, sallow Countenance, and a languid pulse; frequently 
swelled feet, excessive fatigue on the slightest exertion, with 
palpitation of the heart, and increase of the pain in the head. 
Here measures of depletion would be improper; we must soothe 
and sustain by means of sedatives and tonics, such as hemlock 
and quinine, either in the form of pills or mixture, as follows: — 
extract of hemlock, 24 grains; sulphate of quinine, 12 grains. 
Make into twelve pills, and give one three times a day; or, 
sulphate of quinine, 12 grains; sulphuric acid, diluted, 12 min- 
ims; tincture of hemlock. 2 drams; infusion of gentian, 6 ounces. 

Take a tablespoonful three times a day. Good nourishing 
food will be required in this case; and stimulants, such as ale 


and wine, in moderation. Where the headache proceeds from 
nervous irritability, the mode of treatment must also be sooth- 
ing and strengthening ; but in this case "\ve must avoid stimu- 
lants as much as possiijlo ; tonics are best here with plenty of 
fresh air and exercise, and all that tends to invigorate the frame. 
A course of hydropathic treatment will generally be found 

Rheumatic Headache is commonly caused by exposure to 
cold, especially a draught of air ; the pain is chiefly confined to 
the back and front of the head, and is felt most at night, when 
the patient is warm in bed; it is a remittent, shifting pain, 
shooting from point to point, following the downward course of 
the jaw, Avhose muscles are commonly implicated. 

Treatment. — Use light diet and abstain from animal food; 
give attention to the clothing ; keep the body and feet warm 
and dry. When the pain is great, use hot fomentations or mus- 
tard plaster on the back of the neck, and give a gentle purga- 
tive at night. The following liniment is found very bene- 
ficial: — soap liniment, 2\ ounces; liquor ammonia, ^ dram; 
laudanum, ^ ounce. Mix, and apply to the part. 

Periodic Headache, brow-ache, brow-ague, or neuralgia of 
the head, as it is variously called, is an intermitting pain, Avhich 
comes on at periods more or less regular, and is confined to the 
brow. It will nearly always yield to full doses of quinine, 
especially if combined witli hemlock. 

Organic Headache, resulting from actual disease of the head 
itself, is rare, and when it does occur, only a palliative mode of 
treatment can be adopted. Sedatives, such as opium and hem- 
lock, may, for a time, relieve the almost intolerable anguish, but 
they will not touch the disease itself. 

Citric acid, or lemon juice, is often of great service in eas- 
ing pain. Put a teaspoonful or two in a glass of cold water, and 
drink it. Lemonade has cured many cases of sick headache, as 
has also a tablespoonful of finely powdered charcoal, or of citrate 
of magnesia. Mix in a little cold Avater, or milk. 

Diseases of the Heart. — The heart, from the important 
part which it plays in the animal economy, is subject to various, 
serious and often fatal diseases. Like the other viscera, it is re- 
moved from the eye, so that but little knowledge of its condition 
can be obtained by inspection ; and hence we must have recourse 
to other means. The ear is the principal means of obtaining a 
knowledge of the state of the heart, and by auscultation and per- 
cussion we are enabled to detect the existence of various diseases. 
The heart gives out two sounds, known as the first and second, 


which are distinguished from each other. The first Bound is 
longer than the second, and the interval between the first and 
second sounds is shorter than that between the second and first. 
They have been compared to the two syllables ?w/jp, dupp. Any 
manifest alteration in these sounds is indicative of the existence 
of disease. They may be high or low, clear or dull, muffled, 
rough, intermittent, &c. Murmurs or regurgitant sounds may 
arise from disease of the valves. The power of distinguishing 
between the normal and abnormal sounds of the heart, and of the 
causes producing the latter, can only be obtained by lengthen- 
ed experience. Diseases of the heart are usually divided into 
two classes : first, functional or nervous ; and second, structural 
or organic. Chief among the former are palpitations, syncope 
or fainting, and angina pectoris. They are chiefly to be met 
within persons of a naturally nervous temperament, more espec- 
ially women suffering from liysteria, or other like complaints, 
and may be induced by great mental excitement. In such 
cases great attention should be paid to the general health, and, 
by means of tonics, sea-bathing, and gentle open-air exercise, the 
system is to be strengthened. Violent exertion, and strong men- 
tal excitement, are particularly to be avoided. Among the 
principal organic diseases to which the heart is sul)ject are peri- 
carditis, carditis, endocarditis, atrophy, hypertrophy, dilation 
and valvular diseases. 

Treatment. — In all cases of heart disease, the bod}" and 
mind should be kept as easy and cheerful as possible. The diet 
should be well regulated, — nourishing but not stimulating. 
Coffee, tea, liquors, and tobacco must be dispensed with. The 
feet should be constantly dry and warm, and occasionally rubbed 
with mustard. f 

For inflammatory diseases of the heart, the bowels, if cos- 
tive, may be moved with compound tincture of jalap. To each 
dose add ten grains of cream of tartar. Keep up a perspira- 
tion till the pain is relieved, by giving ateaspoonful of compound 
tincture of Virginia snake-root; also a warm infusion of pleurisy- 
root. Mustard-plasters over the chest and spinal column are 
also to be employed. If the patient is troubled with sleepless- 
ness, give eight to ten grains of compound powder of ipecac and 

For palpitation, the tincture of digitalis, ten or fifteen drops 
three or four times a day, has been found useful. When the 
nervous system is affected, give small quantities of Avine or 
spirits, or a few drops of laudanum or ether. 

For neuralgia, or breast-pang, give a teaspoonful of a mix- 


ture of equal parts of laudanum, ether, and oil of castor. The 
powder of Indian hemp-root may also be taken in doses of a 
small teaspoonful two or three times a day. If the stomach is 
acid, a teaspoonful of soda in half a tumbler of "water will cor- 
rect it. 

Heartburn. What is commonly called heartburn is not a 
disease of the heart, but an uneasy sensation of heat or acri- 
mony about the pit of the stomach, accompanied sometimes by 
a rising in the throat like water. 

Causes. — Debility of the stomach; the food, instead of be- 
ing properly digested and turned into chyle, runs into fermen- 
tation, producing acetic acid ; sometimes the gastric juice itself 
turns acid, and causes it; at other times, it arises from bilious 
humors in the stomach. 

Treatment. — Take : — One teaspoonful of the spirit of nitrous 
ether, in a glass of water or a cup of tea. Or : — A large tea- 
spoonful of magnesia, in a cup of tea, or a glass of mint-water. 

Hiccough, or Hiccup. — This is a convulsive catch of the 
respiratory muscles, causing spasmodic contraction of the dia- 
phragm, with a partial closure of the larynx. Generally, it is 
but trivial and transient, causing no permanent inconvenience ; 
but, sometimes when it occurs in the latter stages of acute dis- 
ease, it is very alarming, indicating a giving way of the nervous 
system. Young females of an hysterical tendency sometimes 
suffer from obstinate hiccup. 

Causes. — Long fasting, or the sudden introduction of some 
strong stimulant into the stomach, will often cause a common 

Treatment. — Cold water, continually sipped and swallowed, 
will often prove a remedy; but nothing is so likely to remove it 
as strong excitement of the mind. Most antispasmodic med- 
icines are likely to be of service, and we have used the follow- 
ing with good effect: — Carbonate of soda, 1 dram; sulphuric 
ether, 3 drams; tincture of ginger, 2 drams; tincture of gentian, 
4 drams; camphor mixture, 8 ounces. Take two tablespoonfuls 
every two or three hours. Sometimes hot applications to the 
upper part of the chest and throat will relieve the symptoms. 

' Hip-Joint Disease. — This generally occurs in children 
of a scrofulous habit. It prevails in cold moist climates, and 
attacks chiefly children between the ages of seven and fourteen, 
though it is not unfrequently met with both before and after 
that time of life. 

Symptoms. — The first symptom complained of is generally 
pain in the knee. Sooner or later, the patient is observed to 


walk awkwardly and less vigorously than usual, caused by the 
aftected limb being elongated and emaciated. Pain is felt in 
the hip-joint itself, and though aggravated by motion, often be- 
comes more severe from time to time, without any such cause 
of irritation. Collections of matter make their appearance, 
most frequently in the outer wall of the hip, but occasionally in 
the groin and hip. The patient, after a tedious illness, becomes 
hectic and dies, or recovers with a stiff joint, and wasted use- 
less limb, 

Treatment. — As this disease is generally pretty far advanced 
before it is discovered, but little can be done for it in the way 
of domestic treatment. A surgeon should be consulted. As a 
general rule, counter-irritants in the first stages, such as blisters 
and setons, with a leech or two, if the swelling and inflam- 
mation accompanied with pain, is great. Afterwards the same 
treatment as that prescribed under the head Abscesses. 

Hoarseness- — A disease of the air-passages. 

Causes. — From colds, or breathing a damp or dusty atmos- 
phere, or through exhaustion from protracted speaking, sing- 
ing, &c 

Treatment. — Put into a teapot one part of pyroligneous acid 
to six parts of boiling water ; introduce the spout of the teapot 
into the mouth, and inhale the vapor. Or, mix one teaspoonful 
of sweet spirit of nitre in a wineglassful of water. Take this 
two or three times a day. 

Hydrophobia {Babies). — This is the well-known canine or 
dog madness, whoso chief symptoms are spasmodic contractions 
of the larynx, preventing the patient, although thirsty, from 
swallowing any kind of liquid, — one of the most dreadful and 
fatal visitations that can affect humanity. 

It has been said that hydrophobia has resulted from the 
mere scratch of a cat; if so, the probability is that the crea- 
ture's talons had become imbued with the venom when the paw 
was put to the mouth, as it frequently would be if that part felt 
hot or uneasy. The knowledge that the saliva of a human be- 
ing affected with this disease is infectious, should teach us, while 
ministering to such an unhappy fellow-creature, and relieving 
his sufferings by all nieans in our power, to do so with duo cau- 
tion ; the more especially as such patients are sometimes ex- 
tremely violent, and prone to bite as a dog would. 

Treatment. — As no positive cure has been discovered for 
this terrible disease, all efforts must be merely preventive. 
Directly the bite has taken place, a free excision of the wound 
should bo made, taking care that every part of flesh that the 


saliva has touched bo reinovod ; then thorougly wash the wound 
with tepid water, keeping up this application for a considerable 
time. Some recommend stimulating dressings to the part, but 
the advisability of this is very questionable ; better to let the 
wound heal than to keep the system in a state of irritation. If 
there is any doubt about the poison being all removed, a strong 
solution of lunar caustic should be applied, or the caustic itself ; 
this is as likely to be as effective as the actual cautery, which 
some recommend. Youatt says he never saw the lunar caustic 
fail, and it may be used at any time before the disease manifests 
itself, although the longer it is delayed the less chance is there 
of success. 

The alleviating measures to be resorted to when the dis- 
ease has manifested itself, are — the application of ice to the 
spine and ftiuces ; the inhalation of chloroform, and prussic acid 
dropped on the tongue a drop or two at the time ; injecting in- 
to the bowels three or four ounces of starch jelly, Avith two or 
three grains of morphine ; and rubbing in about every four 
hours a dram of mercurial ointment, with two grains of pow- 
dered opium. 

When, as is often the case, the patient is violent, he should 
be restrained by a straight waistcoat, or some such contrivance, 
from injuring himself and others. Cokl affusion is a remedy 
always at hand, and one that has produced beneficial results; 
get some water at as low a temperature as possible, and pour 
it from a considerable height over the back of the head and 
along the upper part of the spine. This greatly reduces tlie 
action of the heart, and it is necessary to watch the pulse care- 
fully during the process, and stop it as soon as it sinks in a 
dangerous degree. Sedatives and refrigerants must be mainly 
employed in these cases, as the patient is suffering under a vio- 
lent excitement consequent on the introduction of a poison into 
the system, which excitement, if not subdued, will inevitably 
and quickly exhaust the vital powers. 

Does it follow, then, that all persons bitten by a rabid dog 
or other animal, must die ? Is there no hope for them ? As- 
suredly we Avould not promulgate such a doctrine as this. In 
the first place, a very small proportion of those who are so bit- 
ten have the disease at all ; and this partial immunity has sufficed 
to establish a false reputation for many of the nostrums vaunted 
as infallible remedies. It has been calculated that the propor- 
tion of persons bitten who suffer is about one in twenty-five. 

Hypochondria. — A disease characterized by extreme sensi- 
bility of the nervous system, leading the patient to believe 


himself to be suffering from some terrible and imaginary disease, 
or to be much worse than he really is. The ideas of such per' 
sons often partake of the most extravagant character. He may 
fancy that he is immensely tall, or inordinately small ; that he is 
heavy as lead, or light as a feather ; that he is composed of glass, 
or is a lump of butter. They are all extremely timid, and their 
fears are exercised upon trifles, or are altogether groundless. 
They dwell constantly upon their own sufferings, and are usually 
morose, peevish, suspicious, and misanthropic ; and frequently 
suspect their nearest and dearest friends of designs upon their 
life. There is frequently, also, functional derangement of cer- 
tain organs, especially of those connected with the nutritive 

Causes. — The causes of this disease are various, arising, as 
it does usually, from an impaired condition of the nervous sys- 
tem. Habitual costiveness, excessive venereal indulgence, and 
masturbation, are also prolific^ sources of this disease. Young 
men of studious habits are very apt to suffer from this disease. 
Those too, wlio, from want of occupation and a due amount of 
exercise, acquire a luxurious habit often fall a prey to it. 

Treatment. — The cure must of necessity vary somewhat, 
according to the nature of the disease. In general, the great 
thing is to withdraw the patient's mind as much as possible 
from himself. For this purpose, cheerful society and change of 
scene should be adopted. The system ought to be strengthened 
by tonics, and exercise in the open air. If it arises from idle- 
ness and luxury, the great cure is plenty of active exercise and 
a spare diet. In all cases the state of the digestive organs 
should be attended to, and the bowels kept in a strictly normal 
condition. If there is costiveness, cracked wheat should be 
eaten, or if this does not answer, give the following: — Pulver- 
ized rhubarb, 2 scruples; bicarbonate of potassa, 1 scruple; 
extract of nux vomica, 5 grains. Mix. Make into twenty pills. 
Dose, one pill twice a day. A teaspoonful of calcined magnesia, 
or an infusion of thoroughwort, drank cold, will often answer an 
excellent ]»urpose. 

Imperfect Sight {Amaurosis). — Loss of sight, proceeding 
from a paralysis of the optic nerve, which may be caused by 
disease of tlie nerve itself, or of that part of the brain with which 
it comes in contact. 

Symptoms. — Amaurosis generally comes on very gradually, 
with dimness of vision, and variations of color, or floating objects, 
called spectra. One symptom is dilation of the pupil and insen- 
sibility to light. This disease may be permanent or temporary, 


as it depends upon causes, which are remedial or otherwise. It 
sometimes is occasioned by an excess of bile in the system, or a 
disordered stomach ; and, in that case, resort would be first had 
to aperients and mercurials, such as a five-grain blue-pill at night, 
and a senna, or as it is commonly called, a black draught, in the 
morning; to be followed up by small doses of calomel and rhu- 
barb, or colocynth, according as the bowels are sluggish or 
otherwise. If the patient is strong, and of a full habit, he should 
keep to low diet, and avoid malt liquor or spirits. Should the 
symptoms not yield to this treatment, blisters should be applied 
behind the ears, or a seton opened in the back of the neck or 
temple, as the fair presumption is that the mischief lies in the 
brain or the nerve itself. 

Treatment. — Cold bathing is very useful; and this, in con- 
nection with out-door exercise and a strictly vegetable diet and 
abstinence from exciting pursuits, will usually efi"ect a cure if a 
cure is possible. 

InCOntinency of Urine. — This is rather a troublesome 
than a dangerous complaint, and young children and aged persons 
are most liable thereto. 

Causes. — Most generally from a relaxation of the governing 
sphincter muscle of the bladder, from weakness or paralytic 
afiection, but sometimes it is caused by some irritating sub- 
stance in the bladder ; in children, some say, from sleeping on 
their backs. 

Treatment. — Dash cold water on the loins and genitals ; and 
use the following : — Stimulant tonic drops : tincture of steel, six 
drams ; tincture of cantharides, two drams ; tincture of henbane, 
one dram; mix, take thirty drops, three times a day, in water. 
Or the following may be used with good effect: Sulphate of 
zinc, one dram ; powdered rhubarb, one dram ; Venice turpen- 
tine, two drams; mix, divide into sixty pills, take one three 
times a day, and therewith a wineglassful of the decoction of 
leaves of bear's whortle, or bilberry. 

Inflammation of the Pericardium (Pericarditis). 

Causes. — It may be induced by exposure to damp or cold, 
or by other causes, which .give rise to inflammation in other 
parts. It frequently arises from acute rheumatism, or from 
Bright's disease. 

Symptoms. — It is characterized by great tenderness over the 
region of the heart, amounting, when pressed, to sharp cutting 
pains, which prevent the patient from lying upon the left side. 
If, as is usually the case, the pleura is involved, there will be 
acute pain on coughing or drawing a deep breath. Sometimes 


the attack is not so severe, and only a slight pain is felt, or only 
a sense of heaviness and oppression. Generally the action of the 
heart is increased, sometimes so mncli so as to constitute palpit- 
ation. Frequently there is a considerable quantity of fluid ef- 
fused into the cavity of the pericardium, which is sometimes ex- 
ternally visible by the bulging out over that part. 

Treatment. — Its mode of treatment depends very much upon 
the particular circumstances of each case. Where the disease 
is rapid and violent, bleeding may be of great service ; but this 
course is not so much relied on or practised now as formerly. 
The bicarbonate of potash, in half-dram doses every two or three 
hours, is recommended, together with opium, to relieve the 
pain and restlessness. Poppy fomentations, or flaxseed-meal 
poultices, applied to the part, serve to relieve the pain, and the 
vapor-bath will usually be found beneficial. The diet should at 
first be light and nourishing ; but, if the patient is very weak, 
stimulants will be necessary, and afterwards the system should 
be strengthened by tonics. 

Inflammation of the heart (Carc^iVis) itself sometimes occurs, 
but it is usually accompanied Avith inflammation of the peri- 
cardium. The s^'mptoms in both cases are the same, and the 
treatment will, consequently, be similar in both. The like re- 
marks will also apply, in a great measure, to inflammation of the 
interior lining membrane of the heart, {Endocarditis) is usually 
accompanied by one or both of the above. In this case there is 
more or less of fever and anxiety, and a pe r sound of the 
heart is heard upon auscultation. 

Inflammatiou of the Liver. — This disease is known by 
a painful tension of the right side under the ribs, attended with 
some degree of fever, a sense of weight or fullness of the part, 
difficulty of breathing, loathing of food, great thirst, with a pale 
or yellowish color of the skin and eyes. 

Treatment. — Take care to avoid stimulating food and drinks ; 
partake freely of barley-water or linseed-tea. Keep the body 
and mind easy and quiet as much as possible. Let the bowels 
be gently opened; a decoction of tamarinds, with a little honey 
or manna, Avill answer this purpose very well. Foment the 
side affected by means of flannels wrung out in hot water. If 
the pain be very violent, apply a blister. Take three or four 
times a day in the beverage ordinarily drank a teaspoonful of 
the spirit of nitric ether. When there is an inclination to per- 
spire, let it be promoted by copious draughts of warm diluting 
liquors. If the disorder, in spite of all endeavors, should con- 
tinue obstinate, the greatest attention must be paid to the diet, 


avoiding fish, flesh, and salted and seasoned foods. The patient 
should live for the most part on vegetables and fruits, and 
drink whey, barley. water, or buttermilk. Gentle exercise must 
also be taken. 

Inflammation of the Spleen is often the result of chills 

and fever, and is very difficult and stubborn to cure. 

Symptoms, — A feeling of tightness and pain in the left side 
— the pain being increased on pressure, or by lying upon the 
left side. Sometimes the organ enlarges, so as to be felt by the 
hand. There is sometimes numbness, M'eakness of the legs, 
palpitation of the heart, difficulty of breathing, inability to exer- 
cise much, obstinate constipation, vomiting of food, piles, dry 
skin, tongue coated white or red, low spirits, and occasionally 
dropsical affections. 

Treatment. — Treatment should be about the same as in in- 
flammation of the liver. After the active inflammation is sub- 
dued, the warm bath may be used once or twice a week. In 
the chronic form of the disease, counter-irritation with the com- 
pound tar-plaster, with mustard poultices, croton oil, or tincture 
of iodine, will be particularly needed. Keep the bowels open, 
and, if the patient is pale and bloodless, give iron as a tonic. 

Inflammation of the Stomach — {Gastritis). — It is known 

by pain in the epigastric region, increased when anything is 
taken into the stomach, together with vomiting and hiccough; 
the pulse small and hard; and general prostration of strength, 
attended by fever and anxiety. It is produced by poisons of 
various kinds taken into the stomach, as arsenic or corrosive 
sublimate ; by food of an improper nature ; by draughts of any 
cold liquid when the body is much heated. 

Treatment. — A clyster, of about forty drops of laudanum in 
a pint of thin gruel. Hot bran poultices, sprinkled with laud- 
anum, may be applied to the seat of pain. 

The following is a good solvent mixture where gall stones 
are known to be present: Castile soap, two drams — melt by 
heat in half a pint of water; add spirits of turpentine and ether, 
of each two drams; take a tablespoonful three times a day. 

Inflammation of the Kidneys. — The existence of this 

disease may be known by a sense of heat and sharp pains about 
the loins, and a dull, benumbed feeling down the thigh. 

Treatment. — Avoid everything of a heating or stimulating 
nature, and let the diet consist chiefly of light, thin broth, mild 
vegetables, etc. ; drink plentifully of balm tea, sweetened with 
honey, decoction of marshmallow roots, with barley licorice, 
etc. Nothing so safely and certainly abates the inflammation 


as copious dilution. Should there be much pain in the back, 
heat should be applied to the part; and this is done by means 
of cloths dipped in hot water, rewarmed as they grow cool. An- 
other good plan is to fill bladders with a decoction of madders 
and camomile flowers, to which is added a little saflron, and 
mixed with about a third part of new milk. Should there be 
shivering and signs of fever, with considerable tenderness over 
the kidneys, and no medical advice at hand, a few leeches may 
be applied. After some time the bowels should be freely 
opened, and the best means of effecting this is with three grains 
of calomel, and two hours afterward half an ounce of castor-oil ; 
subsequently the following may be given: Carbonate of soda, 
two drams; spirit of nitric ether, tincture of henbane, of each 
two drams; syrup of tolu, mixture of acacia, of each one ounce; 
camphor mixture to eight ounces; mix, and take half a wine- 
glassful every four hours. A very good remedy is the following : 
Take of tincture of opium, liquor of ammonia, spirit of turpen- 
tine, and soap liniment, of each equal portions; mix, and rub 
well into the parts affected. In conjunction with this external 
application, take of infusion of buchu, eleven drfims; powdered 
tragacanth, five grains; tincture of buchu, one dram; mix for 
a draught, and take every morning. If there be much nausea, 
a clyster should be administered, consisting of a dram of laud- 
anum, with half a teacupful of thin starch ; this to be injected 
every two or three hours, or at longer intervals, according to the 
effect produced. Employ the Avarm bath, and afterwards warm 
fomentations to the stomach and loins; drink freely of linseed 
tea. Take also of sulphate of magnesia one ounce; solution of 
carbonate of magnesia, one ounce; tincture ,of henbane, and 
tincture of ginger, of each two drams; sulphuric ether, half a 
dram; water, four ounces; mix, and give three tablespoonfuls 
every six hours. Those who have once suffered from inflamma- 
tion of the kidneys are very liable to it again ; to prevent a re- 
currence of the attack, they should abstain from wine and stim- 
ulants; use moderate exercise; avoid exposure to wet and cold; 
eat of food light and easy of digestion ; not lie too much on 
the back, and on a mattrass in preference to a bed. 

Inflammation of the Bladder. Causes.— It is seldom a 
primary disease, but is in consequence of inflammation in the 
neighboring parts; it is, however, sometimes caused by reten- 
tion of the urine, and consequently over-distension of the 
bladder, or by a large stone in the bladder. 

Symptoms. — Acute pain and tension of the part, frequent 
desire to make water, but difficulty in passing it, or a complete 


retention of it; and tenesmus, and frequent desire to go to stool 
to no purpose. 

Treatment. — The diet must be light and thin ; the drinks in 
all bladder diseases must be linseed tea, barley water, solution 
of gum arabic, marsh mallow tea, and the like; bleeding by 
leeches, if very bad, and this anodyne clyster : Linseed tea and 
new milk, each half a pint; laudanum, forty drops; mix, and in- 
ject ; this foments the internal parts. The bowels may be kept 
open by this mild aperient draught ; Tartrate of potash, three 
drams ; tincture of senna, one dram ; manna, half an ounce ; 
warm water, one and a half ounces; mix and take at once. 

Inflammation of the Peritoneum. Peritonitis is an ex- 
ceedingly painful and dangerous disease, from its extent and 
connection with important organs. It may exist either as an 
acute or chronic disease. 

Causes. — Its causes are various, as cold, mechanical injuries 
of the peritoneum, the development of tumors, etc. Women in 
childbed are peculiarly liable to it. After the disease has con- 
tinued for a certain time, it is attended with tension and swell- 
ing of the belly, and if not checked it usually terminates in 
from five to ten days. 

Symptoms. — There is usually great pain and tenderness of 
the abdomen, accompanied with fever, and a frequent, small, 
hard pulse. Sometimes, at first, the pain is confined to one 
spot; but it generally soon extends over the whole of the abdo- 
men. It is very severe, and much increased by any motion, 
even coughing, sneezing, or drawing a long breath. Even the 
weight of the bedclothes is sometimes unbearable. It is acute 
and cutting, and sometimes occurs in paroxysms; and the pa- 
tient usually lies on his back Avith his knees drawn up. The 
bowels are usually constipated, but sometimes the reverse ; and 
commonly there are present nausea, vomiting, and hiccough. 

Treatment. — Tlie treatment consists in the application of 
warm fomentations to the abdomen, together with blister or 
leeches, if necessary. General bleeding is sometimes recom- 
mended, but this can only be adopted or of service Avhen the 
patient is strong and of full habit. As internal remedies, most 
reliance is usually placed upon mercury and opium. After a 
time, peritonitis sometimes assumes a chronic form. Here the 
symptoms are less marked. The pain is slight, or onlv dis- 
coverable on pressure, and the fever low; but the skin is hot 
and dry, the tongue foul, and appetite impaired. The treat- 
ment is local bleedings, with blisters and other counter irritants 
applied over the abdomen. A nourishing but unstimulating 


diet, and attention to the state of the bowels, are likewise neces- 
sary; and some recommend iodine, either taken internally or 
applied as ointment to the part. 

Inflammation of the Eye {Ophthalmia) Symptoms. — Its 
chief symptoms are a smarting- sensation, and a feeling like that 
caused by the presence of dust. There is also considerable 
stiffness, and the whites become tinged with red, owing to the 
veins being suffused. On a close examination, the red vessels 
may be distinctly traced; and it may be observed that they 
move with the surface, showing that the inflammation is but 

Treatment. — Warm bathing of the eye, combined with 
brisk purgatives, should first be tried ; mercury may be taken 
in a mild form, as in the grey powder, and combined with rhu- 
barb, say three grains of the former and eight or ten of the lat- 
ter, every other night; the diet should be low, and liglit exclud- 
ed as much as possible from the inflamed organ. Should the 
warm bathing not produce a good effect, in a couple of days or 
so, use the folloAving lotion: Wine of opium, 1 dram; sul- 
phate of zinc, 8 grains; acetate of lead, 16 grains; rose or 
plain distilled water, 8 ounces. Dip a piece of linen in this 
lotion, and bind it, not too tightly, over the eye, letting part of 
the fold hang down so as to cover it well. Keep this moisten- 
ed. Sliould it be necessary to resort to otlier measures, drop 
into the eye, from a quill, or a small glass tube, a solution of 
nitrate of silver, the strength about four grains to the ounce of 
distilled w^ater, two or three drops three times a day, and apply 

When this disease continues long, the inflammation extends 
deeper, and it becomes chronic, which has all the symptoms of 
the acute form of disease, except the feeling as of dui^t in the 
eyes. The latter of the above measures will generally reduce 
it, or, should not tlie nitrate of silver drops succeed, use wine of 
opium alone in the same way and a lotion made with green tea 
and about onesixth of its bulk of brandy, or other strong spirit. 
If, in spite of these remedies, the veins of the lids begin to swell 
on the outside, sliowing that the inflammation is spreading, 
blisters should be applied behind tlie ears, and the system yet 
more reduced if it safely can. In this case there is a plan of 
treatment, which generallv succeeds in giving relief and it is 
reallv not so dangerous and formidable as it may seem. 

Let the lid of the affected eve be carefully closed ; damp 
the outside with a sponge; then draw a stick of lunar caustic 
(nitrate of silver) gently and evenly across the moist surface in 


successive lines, taking care not to go over the same part twice. 
Suffer the application to dry without opening the lid, which in a 
few hours will begin to swell, and soon attain such a size as to 
cause total blindness. This may continue perhaps for a day or 
two, the cauterized surface during the time discharging a large 
quantity of serum. The swelling will then gradually subside, 
and, in a few days more, with the help of a dressing of simple 
ointment the skin will have resumed its ordinary appearance, 
and all symptoms of inflammation will probably be gone. 

Inflammation of the Larynx {Laryngitis) is, more par- 
ticularly, inflammation of the mucous membrane that covers 
the laryngeal cartilages, including the epiglottis. 

Symptoms. — This disease is characterized by a high degree 
of fever; the puls3 is frequent and hard, and the patient mani- 
fests a considerable degree of restlessness and anxiety; he like- 
wise complains of sore throat; and among the earliest symp- 
toms that bespeak danger is difficulty of swallowing, for which 
no adequate cause is visible in the fauces ; and to this is pres- 
ently added difficulty of breathing. The act of inspiration is 
protracted with wheezing, and the patient points to the 
Adam's apple as the seat of the disease. He speaks either 
hoarsely, or what is more common, all power of audible voice 
in the larynx is lost, and be speaks only by means of his lips 
and tongue, in a whisper. As the disorder advances, the pa- 
tient's general distress increases. His countenance, from being 
flushed, becomes pale or livid ; his looks anxious and ghastly ; 
he struggles for breath, and if he does not obtain timely relief, 
dies of strangulation. Its course is generally rapid, terminating 
fatally within the fifth day, and even, in some cases, within 
twelve hours. 

Treatment. — In the treatment of this disease, active remed- 
ies require to be promptly had recourse to. If a blister is ap- 
plied, it should be on the upper part of the sternum or chest, 
rather than on the front of the throat. Purgatives should also 
be administered, and warm fomentations applied to the throat. 
As the danger of this disease lies in its tendency to produce 
suffocation, wherever there is danger of this termination, trach- 
eotomy should be had recourse to, and an artificial opening 
made, through which the operation of breathing may be carried 
on, till the parts of the larynx acquire their natural" state. Nor 
should this operation be too long delayed. 

Inflammation of the Tonsils {Tondlitis). With en- 
larged tonsils, there is always, more or less, thickness of speech, 
and a great liability to sore throat or quinsy. Tonics and as* 


tringent gargles are required for such enlargement, and a long 
perseverance in the latter is necessary. The glands should be 
now and then brushed over with a solution of nitrate of silver, 
or rubbed with the stick itself; but this should be done very 
carefully, so as not to touch the surrounding parts. Should the 
enlargement become prominent, it is best to have the tonsils 
cut by a surgeon; this is not a dangerous nor very painful 
operation. In ulcerated sore throats, the tonsils generally be- 
come impaired, and are very painful and even dangerous. 

Inflammation of the Edge of the Eyelids.— The edges 
of the eyelids are sometimes very red and stiif in consequence 
of the inflammation of the small follicles or ducts which open 

Treatment. — The best remedy is a little red precipitate 
ointment rubbed into the roots of the lashes, when the lids are 
closed on retiring to rest. This may be repeated every night 
until no longer required. A little grey powder, combined with 
rhubarb, should be given, and the patient kept quiet and some- 
what low. When inflammation has been going on in the eyelids 
for a time, their insides, when inverted, will often present a 
rough granular appearance. In this case, they should be gently 
rubbed over with a smooth piece of dry sulphate of copper. 
The lid should be kept open after the application until the eye- 
ball is syringed with warm water, to remove from it any of the 
solution caused by the flow of tears acting on the sulphate. 
There will probably be great smarting of the eye, and increased 
redness of the white portion, which must be suffered to subside 
before the application is repeated, which it will, most likely, 
have to be many times. Sometimes the hairs on the lids grow 
inwards and cause great irritation of the bhlls. Collodion 
brushed over the lids will, as it dries, cause contraction of the 
skin, and so draw the hairs outward, but this is only a temporary 
relief, and the application must be frequently repeated. Surgical 
aid must be sought for the case. 

Inflammation of the Ear (Otitis). — This is characterized 
by an acute and increasing pain, with tenderness on pressure or 
moving the jaw, accompanied with fever. Sometimes the ex- 
ternal ear is the seat of the disease, sometimes the internal, or 
both may be involved. There is frequently impaired or con- 
fused hearing, and often the pain is so acute as to produce de- 
lirium. On examination, the meatus is observed to be more or 
less red, swollen, tender, and dry. After a time, if the disease 
progresses, suppuration takes place, and pus is discharged. If 
this happens in the inner ear, frequently the tympanum ulcerates 


and bursts, so as to aiFord exit to the collected matter. An ob- 
stinate discharge may remain after the other symptoms have 

Causes. — It is usually caused by cold, or exposure to cur- 
rents of cold air, injudicious bathing, violent syringing, or 
probing, or otherwise causing irritation of the ear. 

Treatment. — It is to bo treated with fomentations and poul- 
tices, and the repeated application of leeches. At the same 
time, active purgatives are to be administered. The ear should 
also be frequently syringed with warm water. 

Inflammation of the Iris {Iritis). — This is characterized 
by intolerance of light, but not the spasmodic closing of the 
eyelids before mentioned. The wliole colored part of the eye 
loses its clearness, and sometimes has on it white or yellow 
spots ; a pink zone invests the cornea, and seems to give a tinge 
to the whole front of the ball. This is a very rapid and violent 
form of eye disease. 

Treatment. — Keep the bowels open Avith some gentle aperi- 
ent. Place in the eye one drop of solution of atropia, one grain 
to an ounce of water, three times a day. Wash the eyes with 
an infusion of slippery elm bark, or marsh mallow. 

Inflammation of the Tongue {Glossitis). 

Causes. — Mechanical injury, exposure to cold, the use of 
mercury, &c. 

Symptoms. — The tongue becomes greatly swollen, and is 
painful to the touch ; respiration and deglutition are much in- 
terfered with ; and one of the chief dangers of the attack is 

Treatment. — In mild cases, ice and the use of purgatives 
will afford relief; but, in the more severe forms, leeches will 
have to be applied to the part, or the knife may have to be 
used, and pretty deep incisions to be made into the inflamed 
part, which will afford almost instantaneous relief. 

Inflamed and Ulcerated Nose. — When the lining mem- 
brane of the nose is inflamed and ulcerated, a solution of car- 
bonate of soda in warm water thrown up by a syringe will 
be of service. If the purulent discharge be offensive, a few 
drops of the solution of chloride of soda or lime should be 
added to this. 

Inflammatory Blush {Erythema), a morbid redness of 
the skin, and considered as a milder form of erysipelas — from 
which, however, it differs in not being contagious, and yielding 
more easily to medical treatment. Medical men enumerate 
seven different species of this disease, all differing in some pe- 


culiarity of form or color in the eruption. Thus sometimes 
the surfaces are smooth and shining and marginated, or they 
are like small pimples or tumors, appearing generally on the 
face, breast, or arms; again they appear as red shining patches 
on the the front of the legs, and sometimes on the arms, assum- 
ing a purplish tint after some days, like a bruise. This 
form appears to be almost peculiar to young women. Then 
there is the red gum or tooth rash of children, and the redness 
occasioned by irritating discharges, such as of the feces in diar- 
hoea or of tears when of an acrid character, or the chafing be- 
tween the folds of the skin of children, which results from want 
of proper care in frequent washing and drying tlie parts. 
Sometimes after dancing or any violent exercise, drinl'ing cold 
water when in a heated state, or eating too largely of fruit or 
other substances, red spots and patches will appear on the back, 
shoulders, and face, more particularly of young persons ; and all 
these are different varieties of erythema, one of whose peculiar 
characteristics is that the redness disappears on pressure of the 
inflamed part, but shows itself again in a second or two after 
the finger is removed. 

Treatment. — The proper treatment for children is bathing 
the part affected freely with hot water, and then drying 
thoroughly, aud applying powdered starch or violet powder; 
keep the bowels open with a senna draught, or a dose of castor- 
oil in the morning, following it up with small doses of quinine, 
according to the age of the child. Should the inflammation not 
yield to this treatment, after a few days, use the sugar of lead 
lotions recommended for erysipelas, and still proceed with the 
quinine, to which rapidly-spreading erysipelas scarcely ever 
fails to yield. This course of treatment must 'be applied in 
most of the common forms of the disease to patients of all ages; 
but there are one or two exceptional forms to which it is not ap- 
plicable such as the kind already alluded to as chiefly attacking 
young women, and of tliese such as are of a delicate constitution. 
It is especially likely to come on after scarlet fever or measles. 
As this is attendant on a debilitated state of the system, it re- 
quires nourishing food and strengthening medicine. For its 
removal some preparation of iron, with infusion of quassia, and 
an aromatic tincture, or cinnamon water, will make a good mix- 
ture ; or take the foUowing, sulphate of quinine, 12 grains; dil- 
uted sulphuric acid, 1 dram; compound tincture of cardamums, 
^ an ounce; infusion of roses, 12 ounces. 

Dose — Two tablespoonfuls two or three times a day; 
change of air is also desirable. 


Another not uncommon form of the disease generally shows 
itself on the face, especially of sedentary females. It is often 
called erysipelas, but it is usually unattended with febrile symp- 
toms, or constitutional derangement of any kind, and exhibits 
no tendency to spread rapidly. Local remedies are of little 
service in this case — indeed, they are more likely to do mis- 
chief, by inducing congestion. When the disease is acute, a 
brisk mercurial aperient, followed by cooling saline medicines, 
may be 3f service ; when it becomes chronic, arsenic is the only 
remedy likely to cure it, and this will not always ehect the ob- 
ject. It should be taken in the form of Fowler's solution. 
Plenty of walking exercise, with due care as to diet, and strict 
attention to the laws of health, are the grand specifics after all. 

Itch (Scabies). — A troublesome contagious eruptive disease, 
found generally in those of uncleanly habits. 

Cause. — It is caused by a minute insect lodging under the 
skin, and is readily communicated by contact. The only proof 
of the existence of itch is the presence of the insect, and this is 
readily detected by means of the microscope. 

Treatment. — Tlie itch is never got rid of without medical 
treatment; but to that it will always yield, provided proper 
cleanliness be observed. Sulphur is the grand specific for it; 
it may be applied in the form of ointment, prepared as follows: 
Flowers of sulphur, 2 ounces ; carbonate of potash, 2 drams ; 
lard, 4 ounces. To be rubbed well in, wherever the eruption 
appears, every night and morning — washing it off with soap 
and flannel before each fresh application. The most effectual 
plan is to anoint the whole body, from the nape of the neck to 
the soles of the feet, and out to the ends of the fingers ; put on 
socks, drawers, flannel wrapper, and gloves, and so remain in 
bed for thirty-six hours, repeating the anointing operation twice 
during that time ; then take a warm bath, and wash the whole 
person with soap and flannel. 

In mild cases, a sulphureous vapor bath taken twice in 
twenty-four hours, with warm soap and water washing, will 
generally be sufficient. 

Irritation, Itching (Prurigo). — A papulous affection of 
the skin, attended with troublesome itching. Sometimes it is 
attended with a sensation as of ants or other insects creeping 
over and stinging the skin, or of hot needles piercing it. This 
disease, although not dangerous, is a cause of great discomfort, 
and sometimes even misery ; it attacks persons of all ages, and 
is not easily got rid of, sometimes lasting for months, and even 


Treatment. — "Wash well, every evening before going to bed, 
with Castile soap, and allow it to dry in. Brandy or alcohol 
may be used in the same manner. An ounce of lemon juice in 
a pint of water, or vinegar used in the same proportion, will be 
found useful; also, water and spirits of camphor. The diet 
should be carefully regulated, and all stimulants avoided. 

Influenza. — The true disease seldom occurs, except as an 
epidemic, attacking many persons at once. It comes on quite 

Symptoms. — Its symptoms are those of a general fever. 
There is great prostration of strength, generally showing loss 
of appetite, heat and thirst, cough and difficulty of breathing, 
owing to the air valves and bronchial passages being clogged 
with mucus; there is also running at the nose and eyes, weight 
across the brow with throbbing pain, and great depression of 
spirits. The febrile symptoms do not commonly last more than 
four or five days, sometimes but one or two, but the cough 
generally remains for a considerable time, varying according to 
circumstances, such as exposure to cold or wet, predisposition 
to cough, &c. 

Treatment. — With the strong and healthy this is not a 
dangerous disease, but aged or weakly persons are frequently 
carried off by it. In the former case but little medical treat- 
ment is required. Keep the patient in bed, and let the temper- 
ature of the room be warm and equfible ; open the bowels with 
a gentle aperient, such as rhubarb and magnesia, or senna mix- 
ture, and follow this up Avith weak wine-whey, or some warm 
diluent drink, in a pint of which a grain of tartar emetic and a 
dram of nitrate of potash has been dissolved; give a wineglass- 
ful of this about every four hours. It is not generally safe to prac- 
tice much depletion ; butwhere there is great difficulty of breath- 
ing, and irritation of the throat, a few leeches may be applied 
just above the breast bone, in the hollow of the neck. Stimu- 
lating linaments may also be applied to the chest, and mustard 
poultices, but blisters are scarcely to be recommended. Hot 
fomentations may also be useful, and medicated inhalations, such 
as a scruple of powdered hemlock or henbane, sprinkled in the 
boiling water, from which the steam ascends into the throat. 
The fresh leaves of the above plants may be used, or a dram of 
the tincture, if these cannot be procured. When the fever is 
subdued, if there is still cough and restlessness, a five-grain 
Dover's powder may be given at bedtime, or one-eighth of a 
grain of acetate of morphine, with a five-grain squill pill, for 
the cough if required. If there is great feebleness, tonics must 


be administered ; infusion of calumba, cascarilla, or gentian, with 
carbonate of ammonia; one ounce of the former witli five grains 
of the latter, three times a day, with a mildly nutritious diet, — 
broths, arrowroot, sago, and a small quantity of wine. Such is 
an outline of the course to be pursued in most cases of influenza 
which really require medical treatment at all ; generally warmth, 
rest, and good nursing, will do all the business. Should the 
cough be very obstinate, and resist all efforts to remove it, 
change of air will generally prove effectual, and this is bene- 
ficial in most cases. 

Insanity. — This is one of the most terrible disorders to 
which the human race is subject. 

Causes. — The causes which may lead to insanity, particular- 
ly in those whose mental constitution is weak, are very numer- 
ous. In many cases, the tendency to insanity is hereditary, and 
transmitted from parents to children. One of the most tertile 
causes of insanity is drunkenness. Excessive study, strong men- 
tal excitement, grief, jealousy, disappointment, frequently also 
lead to it. Religious excitement is also not an unfrequent 

It is usual to distinguish insanity into different kinds, as,— 
1. 3foral Insanity, in which there is a morbid perversion ot the 
feelings, affections, and active powers, without any illusion or 
erroneous conviction impressed upon the understanding. 2. In- 
tellectual Insanity, a.ffect[ng the reasoning powers, and which may 
be either general or partial, the latter as in monomania. 3. Mania, 
or raving madness, in which the mental faculties are notoriously 
impaired, the patient gives way to all sorts of extravagances, 
and, if not prevented, will do mischief to himself or others. 
4. Dementia, imbecility, fatuity, when the mental powers become 
gradually impaired, the sensibilities diminished, and the person 
at length becomes careless, or dead, to all that is going on 
around him. 

Usually,however, two or more of these kinds occur together. 
Moral insanity frequently manifests itself in a desire to 
steal, or appropriate the property of others. In monomania 
the patient reasons correctly upon all matters except one, which 
forms the subject of his insanity. Imbecility usually commences 
with loss of memory and the power of concentrating the atten- 
tion, for any time, upon one subject ; then all control is lost 
over the thoughts, and the mind wanders meaninglessly from 
one subject to another; at length there is a carelessness to all 
that is going on around, and life may become a mere existence, 
the mental faculties being entirely lost, Idiotcy differs from 


imbecility in being congenital, while the latter is acquired, or prO' 
duced by disease. Idiotcy may be produced by various causes 
connected with the parents; as intermarriages of near relatives, 
intemperance, scrofulous habits, some powerful influence acting 
on the mother during pregancy. Idiots present every degree 
of mental imbecility, down to the lowest shade, without sense 
sufficient to satisfy the mere wants of nature. The head of the 
idiot is usually very small, particularly in the regions of the 
forehead; in some cases, however, it ma}' be quite natural, and 
in others large and misshapen. The beneficial efiects of at- 
tention to the physical health, and of education, are manifested 
even in the case of idiots. 

Treatment. — The chances of recovery depend greatly on 
the complication, or otherwise, of insanity with other diseases, 
particularly epilepsy or paralysis, with either of which it is 
nearly hopeless. It is also influenced b}' the form of the disease, 
the period of its duration, the age, sex, and constitution of the 
patient. The mean duration of cases terminating favorably is 
from five to ten months; after the latter period recovery is very 
doubtful. In advanced life, insanity if c encrally permanent, and 
imbecility is very rarely curable. While insanity may arise 
from some afiection of the brain which speedily teiminates in 
death; yet, in general, it is not necessarily a fatal disorder, for 
lunatics have been known to live thirty, forty or fifty years, 
after being seized with their disease. "When the malady pro- 
ceeds from, or is accompanied by, physical derangement, as it 
usually is, it is necessary to ascertain the nature of this, and to 
take means for its removal. If there be excitement and inflam- 
matory action, mild antiphlogistic measures will be necessary, 
together with aperients and a low diet. If, on the contrary, 
there is debility and prostration of strength, a nourishing diet 
will be required. When, as is often the case, want of sleep is 
an attendant symptom, opiates are to be given. In all cases, 
exercise, fresh air, and cleanliness are required. The moral 
treatment of the insane consists in diverting their thoughts 
by occupations and amusements, and in gaining their confidence 
by kind and conciliatory measures. 

Intoxication. — Intoxication is the state produced by the 
excessive use of alcoholic liquids or inebriating substances. 

Treatment. — Administer a teaspoonful of spirits of harts- 
horn in a wineglassful of water, or give a wineglassful of 
camphor mixture. When a person is found insensible from the 
effects of intoxication, he should be conveyed into a cool room 
and placed between blankets, with his head considerably raised, 


but the legs should hang down, and the feet be bathed in warm 
water. The clothes should be loosened, and barley-Avater or rice- 
water be given freely, though in small portions. Next, a gentle 
emetic is to be introduced, and the throat stimulated with a 
feather dipped in oil. After this the patient will probably fall 
into a sound sleep, and awaken some hours afterwards, partially 
if not wholly recovered. When the pulse and the breathing 
continue, and the body is hot, cloths dipped in cold water and 
applied to the head, neck, stomach, and breast, will frequently 
be of great service in restoring intoxicated persons to life and 

Irritation of the Spine is especially common in females, 
and often lies at the root of palpitations and the hysterical 
affections to which they are subject. lu this case a tender spot, 
or more than one, may generally be found on examination 
somewhere in the course of the spinal cord. Simple pressure 
on one of these spots will sometimes suffice to bring on an attack 
of hysteria and f linting. Debility of constitution is likely to be 
the cause of this; therefore tonics and invigorating measures 
are called for. Iron and quinine should be taken, and general 
and local bathing resorted to, with friction down the spine with 
a coarse towel or flesh-brush; in some cases a small blister over 
the tender part is advisable. 

Irritation of the Bladder. — In ordinary cases this may 
be relieved by warm fomentations applied to the affected part, 
or by warm bathing. It is also well to avoid undue exertion, to 
rest in a recumbent position as much as possible, to keep the 
bowels well open, and to abstain from eating and drinking such 
things as are of a heating and stimulating nature. When the 
complaint assumes a more severe form, medical advice should 
be sought without delay. 

Jaundice. — A. disease arising from obstruction to the 
passage of the bile into the intestines, from disorders of the 

Treatment. — The diet should be cool, light, and diluting — 
consisting chiefly of ripe fruit and mild vegetables ; the drink, 
barley water or linseed tea, sweetened with licorice; the 
bowels must be kept gently open. When the disease has 
abated, constant doses of Peruvian bark should be given, with 
good port wine ; plenty of exercise taken, and a mustard poul- 
tice occasionally placed over the liver. The following has been 
of great benefit: Remain in a warm bath, of one hundred de- 
grees, for twenty minutes. Take, every other night, five grains 
of blue pill, and five grains of compound aloe pill on those nights 


when the blue pill is not ordered. In addition, take twenty- 
drops of elixir of vitriol, in a wineglassful of infusion of gen- 
tian, twice a day. Or take either of these : Castile soap, 1 
ounce; oil of juniper, 30 drops. Mix well together, and divide 
the mass into ninety-six pills, two be taken twice a day. Hard 
soap, 4 drams ; compouncf powder of cinnamon, 1 dram ; rhubarb, 
2 drams; oil of juniper, 16 drops; svrup of ginger, sufficient. 
Form the whole into one hundred pills, of which tnree are to be 
taken morning and evening. 

Eclectic, or Herbal Treatment for Jaundice. — As the stomach is 
usually disordered, it is well to give an emetic, and after it has 
acted freely administer a gentle purge. Should there be 
coldness about the feet or body, use the hot bath, or bathe 
the whole body with hot vinegar and water. A decoction made 
of dandelion and barberry root may be drank freely. If these 
do not give immediate relief, take the following : Golden seal 
and capsicum, of each 1 dram ; bitter root and white poplar 
bark, of each 2 drams ; cover with boiling water. When cool, 
add half a pint of Holland gin. Dose: a wineglass three times 
a day. A strong tea of peach-tree leaves, about half a pint 
taken daily; or from ten to forty drops of the tincture of blood 
root, taken three times a day, either in water or herb tea, have 
been highly recommended. 

Leprosy. — Leprosy is an eruption on various parts of the 
body of raised circular patches covered with white scales of the 
outer skin. These patches are surrounded by a reddish ring. 
The patches themselves are generally of a ring-like form, the 
centre being apparently healthy skin. The patches begin in 
the form of small smooth spots, and often enlarge considerably. 
When the scales are rolled off, they leave a dull red surface, 
on which the scales are speedily reproduced. Leprosy commonly 
commences at the knee, thigh, elbow, or forearm, and will, if 
not checked, often extend over the whole body. 

Treatment. — Take of Fowler's arsenical solution five drops, 
in a wineglassful of water three times a day. The dose to be 
gradually increased to eight or ten drops. Rub into the spots 
every night an ointment formed of native orpiment, three grains; 
lard, 1 dram. Or, take of compound tincture of bark, ^ an 
ounce; solution of potash, 1 dram; peppermint-water, 6 ounces; 
take two tablespoonfuls three times a day. Also, apply exter- 
nally, every morning and night, the following lotion : Borax, 2 
drams: honey, 2 ounces; water, 6 ounces. Mix. 

Lice. — Tlicse disgusting vermin most commonly appear 
when cleanliness is neglected, and especially in cases where the 


body-clothing and bed-clothing are used continuously without 
change. But there appear to be certain habits of body, and 
certain seasons of the year, which are favorable to the genera- 
tion of this kind of vermin, — as, for instance, spring and autumn, 
and also during the prevalence of east winds. 

Treatment. — Wash the body well with vinegar and water, 
and afterwards rub in a lotion made as follows: Camphor, 
grated, \ an ounce; best Avhite-wine vinegar, 1 pint; water, 1 
pint. Mix, and apply night and morning. Or, take equal parts 
of garlic and mustard, moisten with vinegar, and rub into the 
skin twice a day. For lice in the head, pound parsley-seed to 
a fine powder, and rub it well into the roots of the hair. Per- 
sons who are liable to this visitation should, at the spring and 
fall of the year, take every morning, for a fortnight or three 
weeks, a teaspoonfnl of flowers of sulphur in a little warm milk. 
This serves to purify the blood, and correct the tissues. 

Lumbago. — Lumbago is a rlieumatic afiection of the mus- 
cles of the loins. When the pain attacks the hip-joint it is 
termed sciatica. It is indicated by stitfiiess and pain, and the 
pain is aggravated by stooping, sitting, or rising to the upright 
posture. It is most generally caused by exposure to wet or 

Treatment. — Nothing affords greater relief than hot moist 
applications to tlie back, continued from twelve to twenty-four 
hours at a time, and followed by tlio rubbing well into the back 
and loins of soap linament, combined with one-sixth part of tur- 
pentine. Take also at bedtime ten grains of Dover's powder, 
with two grains of calomel; and, on the following morning, half 
an ounce of castor-oil. Take also twice a day ten grains of car- 
bonate of potass, with one teaspoonfnl of sweet nitre in a wine- 
glassful of water. Should the pain be urgent, one of the best 
and most efficacious remedies for its relief is the compound 
powder of ipecacuanha and camphor, three or four grains of 
each of whicli made into two pills, may be taken occasionally. 
This will not interfere with the effects of any other medicine. 

In very severe and obstinate cases of lumbago a cure can 
only be effected by mechanical means, This is effected by an 
instrument termed the " Thermal hammer." As this instrument 
can be used by any non-professional person, and may be made by 
any blacksmith, Ave will give a description of it. Into an ordi- 
nary wooden handle there is inserted an iron rod about four and 
a half inches long, slightly bent at the end, and terminating 
with a disc, or round face, half an inch in diameter and a quar- 
ter of an inch thick. When this instrument is used, it is grasped 


SO that the forefinger may rest upon the bend near the disc. 
The disc itself is then to be introduced into the flame of a 
spirit-himp, or of a piece of burning paper, and hekl until the 
metal beneath the forefinger becomes uncomfortably hot; the 
handle is then to be grasped, and the disc applied lightly and 
momentarily, and at short intervals, to the skin, over the part 
afiected. Each touch of the disc produces a shining mark on 
the skin, and very shortly the whole surface becomes reddened 
and slightly inflamed. The application of this instrument is on 
the principle known in medical practice as " counter-irritation," 
and heat thus being applied to heat, the excited action going on 
within the body is counteracted or withdrawn. 

Low Spirits. — This is a state of mind generally associated 
with dyspepsia, in which all kind of imaginary evils are con- 
jured up, and the slightest pain or unusual feeling is looked upon 
as the precursor of some dreadful malady. Persons so aff"ected 
always fancy themselves on the verge of danger, and are fearful 
and irresolute in everything. 

Causes. — The causes are various. It may arise from intense 
study, some great stroke of afiliction, indolence and inactivity, 
or excessive indulgence in venereal or other excesses, or de- 
ranged digestion. 

Treatment. — Change of scene, cheerful society, engaging 
the mind in some art or pursuit, which, although not too labor- 
ious, requires the use of the mental powers ; exercise, tepid and 
shower baths, are among the remedial measures in this case. 
The bodily health must be carefully watched and preserved. 

Lockjaw {Tetanus). — This is a spasmodic seizure of a 
dreadful and generally fatal character. By this disease, not 
only are the muscles of the jaws, but those also of the whole 
body, thrown more or less into spasm, often so violent as to 
break the teeth or bones. 

Causes. — The cause of tetanus is frequent exposure to cold 
and damp, or it may be some local injury, such as a cut, punc- 
ture, or laceration. It more commonly results from either of 
tliese in warm climates, although intense cold alone has not un- 
frcquently produced it. It often affects a large number of the 
wounded on a field of battle, who are exposed to the vicissitudes 
of the weather. Lockjaw, which is produced by a wound, will 
sometimes show itself in four days ; sometimes not for two or 
three weeks after the wound has been received. 

Treatment. — The common treatment for it is the warm bath, 
or, if this cannot be had, enveloping the Avholebody inablanket 
wrung out of hot water; the administration of enemas, consist- 


ing of thin gruel, with an ounce each of castor-oil and turpen- 
tine. If the patient can swallow, give large doses of opium in 
the liquid form, say from thirty to sixty drops of laudanum every 
half hour, until it manifestly affects the system. Cold water, 
poured on the head from a considerable height, may also be of 
service; and friction with a stimulant liniment, such as turpen- 
tine and opodeldock, down the course of the spine. Inhaling 
ether or chloroform is also very beneficial. 

Loose Teeth. — The teeth may become loosened by external 
violence, or by the improper use of instruments when extract- 
ing diseased teeth in the neighborhood of sound ones. 

Treatment. — Press them as firmly as possible into their 
sockets, and keep them so with ligatures of catgut, Indian weed 
or waxed silk, the patient for the time being living on spoon 
food. When teeth become loose owing to an accumulation of 
tartar, no good can be effected until this is removed, and it 
ought to be done early, otherwise it will have no effect. Loose- 
ness of the teeth is frequently occasioned by a sponginess of 
the gums. To remedy this, scarify the gums deeply, and allow 
them to bleed freely, repeating the operation till the teeth be- 
come partially fastened. Afterwards wash the mouth fre- 
quently with water strongly impregnated with tincture of bark, 
and employ the teeth sparingly until the loosened teeth become 
perfectly firm again. Or the following mixture: — Borax, alum, 
bay salt, of each one dram ; spirit of camphor, tincture of myrrh, 
of each one ounce ; spirit of horseradish, four ounces; tincture 
of rhatany, two ounces. Mix, and shake occasionally for a day 
or two, then filter. Rinse the mouth occasionally with a tea- 
spoonful in a wineglassful of water. 

Masturbation {Self-Pollution, Onanism). This destructive 
vice is indulged in to a frightful extent by the youth of both 
sexes. Often tlie habit is indulged in without its victim having 
the slightest knowledge of its destructiveness, and only when 
nature is so outraged that the system refuses to perform its 
offices, does the victim become conscious of the evil. A grave 
responsibility rests upon parents toward their children in these 
matters. Every child, male or female, should be c.refully watch- 
ed, until it is old enough to understand the subject, and then it 
should be carefully explained to it. The earlier this is done, and 
the stronger the impression made upon the mind of the child of 
the wickedness of this abuse, the better. It is truly a matter of 
life and death, and squeamishness is as much out of place as if 
the child were really dying. 

The habit of self-pollution in boys leads to that of involun- 


tary seminal emissions, in itself a disease, and a continued cause 
of nervous exhaustion and final impotence. In girls the same 
habit causes leuchorrea, or mucus discharges from the vagina, 
falling of womb, irregular and painful menstruation, a loss of all 
pleasure in the sexual relation, difficult and painful childbirth, 
and a whole train of nervous and hysterical affections, wliich 
make the lives of women a curse to themselves and to all around 

It is supposed by many that the mischief of this practice is 
from the loss of semen. The loss of this secretion is certainly 
exhausting ; but this is far from being the greatest source of 
evil. Boys secrete no semen before puberty, and girls never 
secrete any. The real source of mischief is in the nervous 
orgasm — that vivid, ecstatic, and, in its natural exercise, most 
delightful of all sensuous enjoyments. The orgasm is almost a 
spasm. When prematurely excited, though then imperfect, it 
gives a shock to the whole system; and when often repeated, 
the nervous power is completely exhausted. All the vitality of 
the body goes to supply tne immature and too-early exhausted 
amative organs in the Drain and body. The cerebrum is robbed, 
and the child loses sense and memory ; the digestive system is 
robbed and wo have dyspepsia and decay, wath a terrific train of 
nervous and organic diseases. 

Treatment. — The habit must be abandoned at once ; unless 
this be done no treatment will be of any avail. The moral 
character must be strengthened. The motives of hope, man- 
hood, virtue, and religion must bo placed before the patient. 
All things of a sensational character must be avoided, the com- 
pan}^ of the good and virtuous cultivated, and the mind kept 
engaged in s me elevating study or useful employment. Avoid 
all stimulants — wane, coffee, liquors, novels, love pictures, balls, 
theatres, and sleeping on the back. Use a hard bed, light and 
not too nutritious food. Take whey, acidulous drinks, fruits, 
and a veg table diet. Take a bath morning and evening, and 
exercise till quite fatigued. Avoid all aromatic articles, fish, 
eggs, jelly, game, salad, mushrooms, cantharides, aloes, and all 
stimulants, except camphor. If there is irritation in the cere- 
bellum, by heaviness or heat, cut the hair very short, wear no 
cap, use a hard pillow, ice applications on the nape, with hot 
foot bath, dry or narcotic friction on each side of tlio vertebral 
column, also cold liquid applications. 

In extreme cases, where the habit has overcome the reason 
of the patient, ho should not bo loft alone day or night. Let 
him go to bod only when much fatigued, and rise the moment 


he awakes. Let the bed be hard and cool, with ligdit covering. 
Attend to the evacuating of the bowels and bladder. Dashing 
cold water on the genitals, with the free use of the vagina 
syringe for females, will assist much in restoring the tone of the 

Milk Sickness. — A disease chiefly confined to the West, 
where the cattle roam about at large in woods or over prairies. 
The plant the eating of which causes the milk to be poisonous 
is not known. 

Symptoms. — Sickness at the stomach, weakness and trem- 
bling of the legs. There is vomiting, and a peculiarly offensive 
breath. These symptoms continue for weeks, and are often all 
that are shown in this complaint; but in some severer cases 
there are chills and flashes of heat, great oppression about the 
heart, anxiety, deep breathing, heat in the stomach, violent 
retching and vomiting, alarming beatings of the heart, and 
throbbing of the large vessels, and cold extremities. In most 
cases, the vomiting returns every hour or two, attended by 
a great burning at the pit of the stomach, the substance thrown 
up having a peculiar bluish-green color, and a sour smell. As 
soon as tins discharge takes place, the patient falls back upon 
the pillow, and lies easy till another turn comes round. The 
tongue is covered with a whitish coat, and the bowels are ob- 
stinately costive. The pulse is small and quick. 

Treatment. — The treatment cannot vary mucli from that 
pursued for inflammation of the stomach, though the neutraliz- 
ing extract often suffices to allay the nausea and burning sen- 
sation. Some anti-bilious physic to move the bowels should be 

Neutralizing Extract. — Take two pounds of the best rhu- 
barb, one pound each of cinnamon and golden seal. Grind or 
bruise the articles, and mix them; macerate them for two days 
in a gallon of the best fourth-proof brandy. Then express the 
tincture with strong pressure, and add to it one fluid dram of 
oil of peppermint, previously dissolved in a little alcohol. Take 
the residue remaining after the pressure, and placing it in a 
sieve or percolator, gradually run warm water tlirough it until 
its strength is exhausted. Evaporate this infusion to four 
pints, and while the liquor is still hot, dissolve in it two pounds 
of bicarbonate of potassa and three pounds of refined sugar. 
Continue the evaporation, if necessary, until, when added to 
the first tincture, it will make a gallon and a half; then mix 
the two solutions. Dose : one fluid dram. Good for dysentery 
and cholera morbus. 


Mumps {Parotitis). — This disease, which is a contagious 
epidemic, consists of inflammation of the salivary or parotid 
glands, which are situated on each side of the lower jaw. 

Symptoms. — It commences with slight febrile symptoms of 
a general character. Very soon there is redness and swelling 
at the angle of the jaw, which gradually extends to the face and 
neck near to the glands. These sometimes become so large as 
to hang down a considerable distance, like two bags. 

Treatment. — But little medical treatment is required for 
this disease when at its height. The patient, from sheer inab- 
ility to move the jaw, must live chiefly on slops; and it is well 
for him to be kept low, unless very delicate, in which case a little 
good broth or beef tea, should be given. If there is much pain, 
the throat should have hot fomentations applied; and, in very 
severe cases, two or three leeches. Mumps is not a dangerous 
disorder, unless the inflammation should be turned inwards, in 
which case it will probably aflect the brain or testicles ; or, in 
the female, the breasts. Should the swellings suddenly disap- 
pear, and thereby aggravate the symptoms of fever, the follow- 
ing liniment must be applied: — Camphorated spirits, 1 ounce; 
solution of sub-carbonate of ammonia, 2 drams; tincture of can- 
tharides, ^ dram. Mix, and rub in until the swellings re-appear. 
Take also, internally, nitrate of potass, one dram ; tartarised an- 
timony, one and a half grain. Mix, and divide into six pow- 
ders, one of which is to be taken every four hours. 

Nausea- — A sensation of sickness, with an inclination to 
vomit. Although the feeling of nausea itself is referred to the 
stomach, and may be due to causes connected with that organ 
simply, it also frequently originates in disorder in other and dis- 
tant parts of the bod3^ 

Treatment. — Clear the stomach by an emetic of ipecacu- 
anha, and afterward the bowels by two or three grains of calo- 
mel at night, followed by a black draught in the morning; also 
take hydrocyanic acid, in doses of from one to three drops, with 
five grains of bicarbonate of soda, every two, three, or four 
hours, in a glass of water. If the foregoing should fail, two or 
three leeches may be applied to the pit of the stomach, and one 
grain of calomel, with three grains of chalk or magnesia, laid on 
the tongue in powder, and swallowed gradually every four or 
six hours. So long as the stomach is in a state of irritation, 
only small quantities of food should be introduced into it at one 
time, as a spoonful of milk or beef tea every hour. A teaspoon- 
ful of magnesia in a glass of sherry, or lemon juice in small quan- 
tities, taken from time to time, have proved beneficial. 


Neuralgia. — -^ painful aifection of the nerves. When it 
occurs in those of the face, it is termed face-ague or tic-dolo- 
reux; when it affects the great nerve of the leg, it is called sci- 
atica. Other parts, such as the fingers, the chest, the abdomen, 
<fec., are also liable to this agonizing pain, — one of the most se- 
vere and wearing to which the human frame is liable. 

Causes. — The exact nature of it is not very clear ; that is to 
say, the origin of the disease, for although its immediate seat 
is a nerve, or set of nerves, yet there must be some originating 
cause. It can frequently be traced to some decay, or diseased 
growth of the bone about those parts through which the nerves 
pass; and, in some severe cases, it has been found to depend 
upon the irritation caused by foreign bodies acting upon those 
highly sensitive organs. 

Among its exciting causes we may mention exposure to 
damp and cold, especially if combined with malaria; and to 
these influences a person with a debilitated constitution will be 
more subject than another. Anxiety of mind will sometimes 
bring it on, and so will a disordered state of the stomach ; more 
particularly, a state in which there is too much acid. Tea, coffee, 
tobacco, and opium are prolific causes of neuralgia, as well as 
other diseased conditions of the nerves. They should be dis- 
continued, and immediate benefit will ensue. 

Symptoms. — A violent, darting, and plunging pain, which 
comes on in paroxysms. Except in very severe and protracted 
cases, there is no outward redness nor swelling to mark the seat 
of the pain, neither is there usually constitutional derangement, 
other than that which may be caused by want of rest, and the 
extreme agony of the suffering while it lasts, which may be 
from one to two or three hours, or even more, but it is not com- 
monly so long. Tenderness and swelling of the part sometimes 
occurs, Avhere there has been a frequent recurrence and long 
continuance of the pain, which leaves the patient, inmost cases, 
as suddenly as it comes on. Its periodic returns and remis- 
sions, and absence of inflammatory symptoms, are distinctive 
marks of the disease. 

Treatment. — This must depend upon the cause. If it is a de- 
cayed tooth, which, by its exposure of the nerve to the action of 
the atmosphere, sets up this pain, it should be at once removed, 
as there will be little peace for the patient until it is. If co- 
existent with neuralgia there is a disordered stomach, suspicion 
should at once point thereto, and efforts should be made to cor- 
rect the disorder there. If the patient is living in a moist, low 
situation, he should at once be removed to a higher level, and 


a dry gravelly soil. Tonics, such as quinine and iron, should be 
given, and a tolerably generous diet, but without excess of any 
kind. In facial neuralgia, blisters behind the ears or at the 
back of the neck, have been found serviceable; and, if the 
course of the nerve which appears to be the seat of mischief, 
can be traced, a belladonna plaster, or a piece of rag soaked in 
laudanum and laid along it, Avill sometimes give relief; so will 
hot fomentations of poppies and camomiles, or bran poultices 
sprinkled with turpentine. In very severe cases, one quarter 
of a grain of morphine may be given to deaden the nervous 
sensibility, and induce sleep, which the patient is often de- 
prived of at night, the pain coming on as soon as he gets warm 
in bed. 

An application of chloroform on lint has sometimes proved 
very effectual in relieving severe neuralgic pains, and so has an 
ointment composed of lard and veratrea, in the proportion of 
six grains to one of lard. 

A mixture of chloroform and aconite has been recommended 
for facial neuralgia, the form of preparation being two parts of 
spirits of wine, or eau de cologne, one of chloroform, and one of 
tincture of aconite, to be applied to the gums of the side affected, 
by means of a finger covered with a piece of lint, or soft linen, 
and rubbed along them, — the danger of dropping any into the 
mouth being thus avoided. When the pain is connected with 
some organic disease, as a decayed tooth, or chronic inflamma- 
tion of the gums, or of tlio sockets, or superficial necrosis of the 
bone, substitute tincture of iodine for the spirit in the above 

We would caution our readers strongly against the careless 
inhalation of chloroform, as a remedy for neuralgia, which ap- 
pears to be growing into a general practice. Several deaths 
have resulted from it, the practice being to pour a little on a 
pocket-handkerchief, without much regard to quantity, and hold 
it to the mouth until the required insensibility is produced. 
This remedy should never be administered except under the 
supervision of the medical adviser. 

The shower-bath, plenty of exercise in the open air, and 
attention to whatever will build up the general health, must be 
carefully attended to. 

Persons at all liable to this painful affection should be ex- 
tremely careful not to expose themselves to wet or cold; above 
all, not to sit in draughts. A very slight cause will often bring 
it on, where there is the least tendency to it. 

One severe and troublesome form of neuralgia is ear-ache. 


It often occurs in children at the time of dentition. It may be 
distinguished from that of an inflammatory character, resulting 
from the formation of an abscess, by the symptoms above des- 

Neuralgia of the Heart {Angina Pectoris). — A disease 
Avhich is commonly connected with ossification, or other morbid 
affections of the heart. 

Symptoms. — It is characterized by a sudden and most vio- 
lent pain across the chest, which extends down the arms, and 
seems to threaten immediate dissolution. It sometimes comes 
on during rest, but most usually after violent exertion. The 
paroxysm does not commonly last long, but it has been known 
to continue for an hour or more. 

Treatment. — An anodyne combined with ammonia has 
sometimes been found very efiectual in relieving the spasm. 
The following is a good formula: Fetid spirits of ammonia, \ 
ounce; solution of morphine, 3 drams; camphor mixture, 6 
ounces. Take a tablespoonful every half hour until relieved. 
If the paroxysm is very violent, a little hot brandy and water 
may also be taken; or a teaspoonful of sal volatile or ether in 
water, and repeated at intervals. If the pain continue, fric- 
tions and mustard plasters applied to the chest, soles of the 
feet, and calves of the legs. Where there is extreme faintness, 
the horizontal posture should be adopted. Persons subject to 
these attacks would do well to provide themselves with the fol- 
lowing, as a medicine in case of need : — Half an ounce each of 
sulphuric etlier, spirits of ammonia, and sal volatile; two drams 
of tincture of opium. Mix, and take a teaspoonful in Avater; 
and repeat at the end of an hour if relief be not afforded. 

Nightmare (Incubus). — This is a distressing sensation ex- 
perienced during sleep, and usually accompanied by frightful 

Causes. — A heavy supper just before going to bed; d^^s- 
pepsia, mental irritation, great fatigue, lying in an uneasy posi- 
tion, may occasion it, as also the use of narcotic and intoxica- 
ting substances. 

Treatment. — Carefully shun all kinds of food likely to prove 
flatulent or of difficult digestion. Hot and heavy suppers are par- 
ticularly injurious, as also are acids. Excess of sedentary em- 
ployment should also be avoided. Take the following: Car- 
bonate of soda, 10 grains; compound tincture of cardamoms, 3 
drams ; simple syrup, 1 dram ; peppermint-water, 1 ounce. Mix, 
for a draught, to be taken at bedtime. Or take, on going to 
bed, a teaspoonful of sal-volatile in a wineglassful of cold water. 


Nocturnal Emissions, — These, to which young men are 
sometimes especially liable, often cause more alarm than there 
really is any occasion for ; they are involuntary discharges of 
the seminal fluid, and are likely to occur when the organs are 
excited by dreams, or imaginations of a certain character. 
Unless they become frequent and profuse, there is no reason for 
regarding them with the morbid feeling of anxiety which they 
commonly occasion; still such discharges should be attended to 
and checked as much as possible. They generally indicate a 
debilitated system, and are in most cases, perhaps, the result of 
criminal self-indulgence and venereal excesses, from which those 
thus affected should rigorously abstain. A course of tonic medi- 
cines should be taken; nothing is so good as the muriated 
tincture of iron with quinine, about one grain of the latter with 
ten drops of the former, in a little Avater three times a day. 
Sea bathing or the shower bath, regular but not excessive ex- 
ercise, a sufficiently nourishing but not a stimulating diet, with 
gentle aperient medicines if required (avoiding aloes), are the 
proper remedial measures. 

Persons affected in this way often get into a painfully ner- 
vous state, and, conscious that they are but reaping the reward 
of bad practices, are ashamed to state their cases to a respect- 
able medical man, and therefore fly to advertising quacks, who 
promise secrecy and a rapid cure. But this is a great mistake; 
there can be no rapid cure for involuntary seminal discharges, 
except it be by such powerful medicines as will do great mis- 
chief to the system of the patient, and probably render his 
organic weakness permanent. In nine cases out of ten a tempo- 
rary stoppage of the discharge, even, is not accomplished by 
the mucii-vaunted Balm of Syriacum, and other nostrums, so 
quickly as it would be by the means above recommended, or 
others which the legitimate practitioner might deem suitable for 
the peculiar case, and no after ill-eflects are to be apprehended 
from such treatment. 

Noises in the Ear. — Noises in the ear like the distant 
sound of bells, roaring of the sea, hissing, singing, &c., are 
often indicative of a determination of blood to the head. With 
some, mere derangement of the digestive organs will cause 
these noises. When accompanied by a certain degree of deaf- 
ness, they are generally occasioned by an accumulation of wax 
in the external passage, or a partial stoppage of the Eustachian 
tube by cold. When the noises become chronic, or long con- 
tinued, bathing the head regularly every morning with cold 
water will sometimes remove them. If cold be the cause, or 


disordered stomach, they will pass away with the temporary 
ailments which occasioned them. If" too great a fullness of the 
veins of the head, cupping, leeching or abstraction of blood 
by means of the lancet, with a depletive course of treatment, 
must be adopted. 

Offensive Breath. — Foetid breath may proceed from de- 
cayed teeth, or morbid secretions about the tonsils, or disease 
of the lungs. In children it generally indicates a disordered 
state of the stomach, which may be corrected by means of pur- 
gative medicines. Where it cannot be so remedied, it will be 
well for the patient to chew a little cinnamon occasionally, or 
take half a tumbler of camomile tea on rising in the morning. 
If the cause is local, the mouth should be washed with a weak 
solution of chloride of lime or soda. 

Pains in the Side may arise from a rheumatic affection, or 
from derangement of the stomach. If the pains be situated high up 
in the region of the chest, they may be occasioned by inflamma- 
tory affection of the lungs, but in this case will be accompanied 
with more or less fever, and other symptoms indicative of the dis- 
order. Pain on the right side, lower down, may be owing to an 
affection of the liver; on the left side, to affection of the pain 
on the left side. It, however, often occurs as a sympathetic 
affection, sometimes of the heart or lungs, in either sex. It is 
common in females at times of functional disorder. 

Treatment. — Regulate the state of tlie bowels by mild aper- 
ients ; and, if the system seems impoverished, and there has been 
much debility of the digestive organs, take twenty grains of the 
sequioxide of iron twice or thrice a day. Employ the warm 
bath frequently, and apply to the part affected a muslin bag 
filled with hops and well soaked in hot water ; also rub in every 
fourth hour the following : Tincture of aconite, half an ounce ; 
soap liniment, one and a half ounces. Mix. 

Obstinate and increasing pain of the side, which will not go 
away with the treatment above indicated, must on no account be 
neglected. There is evidently something radically wrong in the 
system, and the advice of a medical man must be taken. 

Palpitation of the Heart is an increase in the force or 
frequency of the heart's action. It is frequently produced by 
increased physical action or mental emotion, and is sometimes 
the result of disease. Sometimes the palpitations are loud, and 
clear and regular; at others, they are faint and intermittent: 
now a distinct throb, or several, and then a tremulous flutter, or 
a quick beat, like the wings of a confined bird flapping agaiiisi 
the bars of its prison. When there is violent throbbing of the 


heart, which may be felt by a hand pressed upon the chest, 
while the patient is himself unconscious of it, there is reason to 
apprehend organic disease ; but when there is such acute con- 
sciousness as we have described, there is generally only func- 
tional or nervous derangement, without any structural change. 

Causes. — A disordered stomach may be the cause, although 
there may be no other symptoms of this. We have known cases 
in which a very slight irregularity in the mode of living has 
produced palpitation of the heart, and that, too, in an otherwise 
healthy person. In some, almost any strong nervous stimulant 
will produce it, and we recollect one instance in which it alwa3'^s 
came on after a cup of tea, and was never troublesome when this 
beverage was not taken. 

We mention this to show that palpitation is not always, nor 
indeed commonly, symptomatic of heart disease ; and need there- 
fore cause no unnecessary alarm although its frequent recur- 
rence should set the patient inquiring as to what is the real 

Treatment. — The only treatment likely to be of service 
must be directed towards removing the predisposing and exciting 
causes, and establishing a more healthy nervous condition : gen- 
tle exercise, tonics, change of air and scene, an endeavor to oc- 
cupy the mind in some useful and moral pursuit ; a well-regula- 
ted and generally frugal, although sufficiently nourishing diet; 
and a strict avoidance of all that can excite or stimulate either 
mind or body. By this means palpitations not connected with 
organic disease, may generally be got rid of. If the patient is 
of a full habit, and has a tolerably strong pulse, a course of gen- 
tle purgatives may be necessary. They should not be salines, 
but of a cordial nature, like this: Pill of aloes and mjrrh, \ 
dram; compound galbanum pill, \ dram. Divide into twelve 
pills, and take one at bed time. Or the following. Com- 
pound infusion of senna, 3 ounces ; decoction of aloes, 3 ounces ; 
spirits of sal volatile, 1 dram; compound tincture of carda- 
mums, 2 drams* tartrate of potash, ^ ounce. Mix, and take 
two tablespooniuls occasionally. 

Palsy {Paralysis). — The total loss or diminution of motion, 
or sensation, or both, in any part. There are several kinds of 
palsy or paralysis, such as the paralysis agifans', the shaking, or 
as it is sometimes called, from the peculiarity of the patient's 
gait, the dancing palsy ; hemiplegia, when one side of the body 
only is smitten; and paraphlegia, when it is the lower half 
which is more or less deprived of its nervous power ; but in all 
cases it is the brain which is the seat of disorder ; and if this is 


confined to one of its hemispheres, the attack, if it does not in- 
clude both sides, is most likely to fall on the opposite side of 
the body. 

Causes. — The rupture of a vessel of the brain is one of the 
most common causes of paralysis, and this may occur without 
there being any decided apoplectic symptoms. A slight tran- 
sient faintness, and confusion of ideas, may precede the attack, 
or it may come on during sleep, so that the patient may only 
be made aware that he is is paralyzed by his inability to speak 
plainly, or to move a limb, or one side of his body. Sometimes 
the attack is gradual, and occupies a considerable time, — days, 
weeks, and even months elapse before the loss of nervous energy 
becomes complete ; and this helplessness may be produced by 
a succession of slight shocks, as it were, or by the gradual steal- 
ing on of an apparently torpid condition. This latter is more 
commonly the case when the disease arises from a decided state 
of general debility, which in time involves the brain, until the 
structure gives way, and softening is the consequence. Literary 
men, and all who have much head-work, are especially liable to 
that condition of the brain which causes paralysis ; and so are 
hard drinkers, and others whose lives or habits necessitate a 
frequent state of cerebral excitement. With such the progress 
of the disease is probably rapid. If of full habit, they will, it 
is likely, die quickly of apoplexy ; if of spare, they will sink 
into a state of mental and bodily imbecility. In either case 
they may be subject to epileptic fits. 

One of the chief causes is pressure upon or disease of the 
brain or spinal cord. When confined to the lower part of the 
body, there maybe reason to believe that the defect of power is 
in some cases but functional. In this case the cause may be long 
exposure of the lower limbs to wet and cold, self abuse, exces- 
sive indulgence in venery, inflammation of the bowels or kid- 
neys, effusion in the spinal cord from a blow, a burn or other 
injury; disease of the womb, or of the urethra, may also give 
r^se to it. Palsy of either of the limbs may be caused by press- 
ure, and general palsy by the action of lead, or mercury 
upon the system ; therefore those who work in these metals are 
peculiarly liable to be so affected, such as button-gilders, glass 
silverers, plumbers, &c. The most dangerous form of this kind 
is when it affects the muscles of respiration, in which case it 
rapidly proves fatal. The excessive use of tea or coffee will 
often lead to it. 

Symptoms. — Among the premonitory symptoms of paralysis 
may be named headache, confusion of ideas, loss of memory, inj- 


paired vision, drowsiness, and partial stupor, with, frequently, 
numbness and pricking or tingling sensation in the limb or 
part about to be attacked. With persons of a full habit, there 
will be heat and flushings in the face, and most of the signs of 
an approaching fit of apoplexy; then follows indistinct articula- 
tion, loss of power, and the other marked and unmistakable in- 
dications of an actual attack. 

Treatment. — Tlie proper treatment, in the case of a patient 
of a full habit, will be bleeding and cupping in the neck, and 
strong purgatives, — about five grains of calomel, followed by 
senna mixture, or croton-oil pills, every four hours, until they 
operate freel}'. When there is faintness and confusion of in- 
tellect, give a teaspoonful of sal volatile in a glass of water, and 
repeat it in an hour, if required; no alcoholic stimulant should 
be administered; put the feet and legs in a hot mustard bath, 
and place the patient in a warm bed, with the head and shoul- 
ders well raised. Follow up the cupping in the neck with a 
blister, and after that, put in a seton, if required. After they 
have once acted well, keep the bowels gently open with rhu- 
barb or castor oil : let the diet be spare, and the quietude of 
the patient as perfect as possible. After the acute stage of the 
disease has passed, local stimTilants should be used, and the af- 
fected parts well rubbed with the hand or a flesh-brush. Elec- 
tricity and galvanism may also be employed, where there is no 
reason to sMspect structural disorganization. In paraphlegia it is 
often very difficult to get the bladder to act; and when it does, 
the urine flows from it involuntarily. Great attention should 
be paid to this, and stimulant diuretics given: the tincture of 
cantharides, in half-dram doses, is, perhaps the best. 

In some cases, much relief has been afforded by the use of 
sulphur baths, and chalybeate waters. Repeated moxse along 
the course of the spine, and small blisters on the inside of the 
legs and thighs, are highly recommended. 

In palsy of the face, if it is caused by a blow, a few leeches 
behind the ear, and at the angle of the jaw, may prove bene- 
ficial. If cold is the cause, hot fomentations and stimulating 
liniments should bo applied; as also in palsy of the hands, 
fingers, or other extremities, with electro-magnetism, perse- 
vered in for a considerable time. In all cases of chronic paral- 
ysis, it should be borne in mind that the nervous system re- 
quires arousing and stimulating to a due performance of the 
functions necessary to life. In nearly all tliore is a sluggish ac- 
tion of the bowels, which arc often obstinately constipated, and 
require the strongest purgatives to keep them at all open. It 


is sometimes better to employ enemas, than continue giving 
drastic medicines. Tlie paralytic patient frequently enjoys 
pretty good general health, and eats largely; and this increases 
the above difficulty, especially if it be a heavy person, with 
little power of self-movement. When confined entirely to bed, 
sores and sloughing ulcers are not uncommon : these should be 
treated as directed under the head Bed-sores. An air or water 
bed greatly obviates the danger of them. 

Eclectic, or Herbal Treatment for Palsy. — If the patient be 
young and of full habit, bleed freely, and use a large blister on 
the back of the neck; but if the patient is old, a different treat- 
ment must be adopted. Give stimulants freely. Place the pa- 
tient in a warm bath, and give a tablespoonful of scraped horse- 
radish, or the same of mustard-seed, four or five times a day. 
Rub the whole body with flannels, impregnated with tincture of 
cayenne pepper, oil of sassafras, oil of turpentine, or the tinct- 
ure of cantharides. Spirits of turpentine, about twenty drops 
in a little water, three times a day, has been found very success- 

If great sleeplessness or pain exist, give a little opium; and 
for a laxative, give a teaspoonful of tincture of golden seal, tAvo 
or three times a day, till the bowels open. Flannel should 
always be worn next the skin. 

Papulous Scall is a mattery pimple developed in a highly 
inflamed skin. The blisters are about the size of a split pea, 
and are surrounded by a red ring. They are generally separate, 
not clustered like crusted tetter. They are scattered over 
various parts of the body, and are followed by a hard, black 
crust, or by a sore. The disease is either acute or chronic. 
The chronic form is found in weakly children, or persons reduced 
by sickness or low living. 

Treatment. — For the acute form, low diet, gentle laxatives, 
cold sponge-bath on the sound parts, and an ointment of oxide 
of zinc, 1 dram; spermaceti ointment, 1 ounce, mixed. For the 
chronic form, tonics should be given internally, and the above 
ointment used. 

Piles. — These consist of small tumors, situated on the ex- 
tremity of the great gut, called the retum. The piles are usu- 
ally accompanied by a sense of weight in tlio back, loins, 
and bottom of the belly, together with pain in the head, sick- 
ness at the stomach, and flatulence in the bowels. If tlie tumor 
break, a quantity of blood is voided, and considerable relief 
from pain is obtained ; but if they continue unbroken, the patient 
experiences great pain. 


Treatment. — The following treatment will generally prove 
beneficial: Lenitive electuary, 1 ounce; flour of sulphur, 1 
ounce; jalap, in powder, 1 dram; balsam of copaiba, | ounce; 
ginger, in powder, ^ dram ; cream of tartar, \ ounce ; syrup of 
ginger, a sufficient quantity to form the whole into an electuary. 
Mix. Take ateaspoonful every three hours, until the bowels arc 
freely open. At the same time make use of the following 
lotion: Goulard water, 6 ounces; laudanum, 1 ounce. Mix, and. 
apply to the parts repeatedly. When the piles are very pain- 
ful and swollen, but discharge nothing, the patient should sit 
over the steam of hot water. He may also apply a linen cloth, 
dipped in warm spirits of wine, to the upper part, or make use 
of bread and milk poultices. Either of the following may be 
used with advantage : Powder of oak galls, 1 ounce ; elder 
ointment, 1 ounce. Mix, and anoint the parts night and morn- 
ing. Sublimed sulphur, \ ounce; cream of tartar, 1| drams; 
lenitive electuary, 1 ounce ; syrup sufficient to form an electu- 
ary. A teaspoonful to be taken at bed-time. 

Pleurisy or pleuritis, is inflammation of the pleura, or in- 
vesting membrane of the lungs. 

Causes. — Among the causes of pleurisy the more common 
are exposure to cold, especially after violent exercise, blows on 
the chest, fracture of the ribs, tubercles in the lungs. It is 
most prevalent in winter, and, next to that, in autumn. Old 
persons are most subject to it, but it may occur at anv period 
of life. 

Symptoms. — It is usually distinguished as acute and chronic. 
The former generally commences with chills, rigors, and the 
ordinary symptoms of inflammatory fever, accompanied or fol- 
lowed by a sense of weight in tlie chest, wliicli in a few hours 
becomes acute pain, usually referred to a point directly below 
the nipple. There is also generally a short dry cough, and the 
breathing is frequent, short and anxious, — the pain being in- 
creased by a deep inspiration or the act of coughing. Sometimes 
the patient can only lie upon the afl'cctcd side, sometimes only 
upon the opposite one; but usually he ])refcrs lying upon his 
back. The pulse is frequent and hard, skin liot, cheeks flushed, 
urine scanty and high-colored, and tongue white. These symp- 
toms are not always so well marked, and the pain is sometimes 
more diffuse and less severe. In most cases the acute pain, as 
well as tlie fever, subsides on the third or fourth dav, and the 
cough and difficulty of breatliing abate, though the pleura still 
continue in a stale of iiilhiimnHtion. 

Treatment. — lu the treatment of this disease the object ia 


to reduce the local inflammation and prevent effusion. Hot 
and moist flaxseed poultices or poppy-liead fomentations should 
be applied to the chest, the diet should be light and unstimulat- 
ing, and purgatives should be administered. 

In chronic pleuritis the s}'mptoms are usually those of the 
acute form in a mitigated state. It may succeed the acute, or 
it may come on gradually without any of the more marked fea- 
tures of that disease. There is usually more or less of fever, 
an acceleration of the pulse, emaciation, difiiculty or hurry of 
breathing, increased by exertion, more or less of pain or sore- 
ness, and inability to lie on the healthy side. The treatment 
of this form of the disease differs from that of the other, the ob- 
ject being to promote the absorption of the eff"used matter, and 
also to support the patient's strength. For promoting the ab- 
sorption of the effused fluid, as well as for preventing its further 
secretion, counter-irritants are used, as blisters, eruption linir 
ments, tincture of iodine, — the last painted over the part, or ex- 
hibited internally, will be found to act very beneficially in re- 
moving the the effusion. The general health is to be improved 
by a nutritious but not heating or stimulating diet, and by the 
cautious administration of such tonics as the strength of the pa- 
tient is able to bear. Change of air will be often found to act 
most beneficially in such cases, and is frequently efficacious 
when most other remedies have failed. Failing other means, 
recourse is sometimes had to the operation of tapping the thor- 
ax, for setting free the effused matter; but the operation is 
attended with considerable danger, and is rarely productive of 
more than a temporary relief. 

Purulent Opthalmia {Egyptian OptJialrda). — In this, all 
the symptoms of the acute or clironic form are greatly aggra- 
vated. The conjunctiva is red and swollen, rising up like a wall 
round the cornea; the eyelids are tense, livid, and often enor- 
mously swollen ; a copious secretion of muco-purulent matter is 
poured out, and there is a burning pain in the eye, with inability 
to bear the light. It requires prompt and decided treatment, 
as there is always great risk of permanent injury to the eye, 
from its tendency to produce thickening and granulation of the 
conjunctiva of the lids, or ulceration and sloughing. In the 
severer forms of the disease recourse must be had to bleeding, 
either general or by means of cupping-glasses or leeches, and 
purgatives, and the various other antiphlogistic means employed. 
The eye should be frequently cleansed with warm water, or a 
weak warm solution of alum or bichloride of mercury, and one 
or two drops of a weak solution of lunar caustic (from two to 


four grains to an ounce of water) should be let fall into the eyes 
once or twice a day. 

Quinsy. — An inflammation of the throat, principally occu- 
pying the glands. This kind of inflammatory sore tliroat gen- 
erally commences with cold chills, and other febrile symptoms. 
There is fullness, heat, and dryness of the throat, with a hoarse 
voice, difficulty of swallowing, and shooting pains toward the 
ear. When examined, the throat is found of a florid red color, 
deeper over the tonsils, which are swollen and covered with 
mucus. As the disease progresses, the tonsils become more and 
more swollen, the swallowing becomes more painful and difficult, 
until liquids return through the nose, and the viscid saliva is dis- 
charged from the mouth. Very commonly the fever increases 
•also, and there is acute pain of the back and limbs. 

Causes. — Exposure to cold, wearing damp clothes, sitting 
in wet rooms, getting wet feet, coming out suddenly of a crowd- 
ed and heated room into the open and cold air. It may also be 
brought on by violent exertion qf the voice, and by suppressed 

Treatment. — When the case is not severe, it may be treated 
in the early stages, like catarrh ; but when it is, more active 
measures will be required. An emetic, followed by a strong 
purgative; a blister outside the tliroat, and warm bran or lin- 
seed poultices; a cooling regimen, with acid drinks, or pieces 
of rough ice put into the mouth and allowed to dissdve; leeches 
at the side of the throat if it swells much ; inhaling the steam 
of hot water through a tea pot or an inverted funnel; and the 
continuation, every four hours or so, of a saline aperient. These 
will be the proper measures to adopt. When the abscess has 
burst, and the inflammatory symptoms have subsided, a gener- 
ous diet will be necessary, with tonic medicines. If tlie tonsils 
continue swollen, they should be rubbed outside twice a day 
with stimulating liniments. Turpentine and opodeldock, equal 
quantities, will be as good as any ; and the throat gargled with 
salt and water, a teaspoonful of the former put into a tumbler 
full of the latter. 

When there is chronic soreness of the tliroat, with hoarse- 
ness and cougli, there is commonly also a relaxed and elongat- 
ed uvula, which closes the passage when the patient lies down, 
and causes a sensation of choking. In this case, a gargle made 
with salt and Cayenne pepper (about a tablespooiiful of the for- 
mer and a teas])oonful of the latter, in a pint of boiling water) 
should bo tried ; the throat should be kept uncovered, and 
sponged with vinegar twice a day. If these means are unsuc- 


cessful, it may be necessary to have part of the uvula cut off. 
This must be done by a surgeon. Also, the application of caus- 
tic must sometimes be made when the throat has a granulated 

Prickly Heat, or Lichen, is a disease caused by intense 
and long-continued heat; but it may be excited by the same 
causes which produce the nettle-rash, when the system is pre- 
pared for it. It is one of the most annoying plagues of a tropi- 
cal climate.' 

Symptoms. — The general character of the disease is that of 
a diffuse eruption, with red pimples, and a troublesome sense of 
tingling or pricking. There is more or less general irritation, 
and sometimes a little fever at the commencement. 

Treatment. — For the relief of the itching and burning sen- 
sation attendant on prickly heat, which in tropical countries 
are often absolutely unbearable, the best remedy is cold water 
— using caution when the patient is perspiring. Live sparingly, 
and take a few doses of a mild purgative, as the following : 
Powdered aloes, 2 drams; powdered rhubarb, 1 dram; powdered 
jalap, 2 drams; powdered cream of tartar, 4 drams; magnesia, 
1 dram; best honey, 1 ounce. Mix well, and divide into 120 
pills ; take 2, 3, or 4 on going to bed. 

Polypus of the Ear. — Polypus of the ear is by no means 
an uncommon form of the fungoid growth, which sometimes oc- 
curs in several of the internal tissues. It is of a jelly-like con- 
sistence, and a whitish yellow color, and is attached to the mem- 
braneous lining of the ear. There are also granulations of fun- 
gus which sometimes shoot up from the membrane, and are dis- 
tinguished by their reddish hue from polypi. These may gener- 
ally be removed by being held firmly with a pair of forceps, 
and then gently twisted and pulled at the same time. This 
should only be done by a properly qualified person, as much 
mischief may result from the unskillful application of the for- 
ceps to so delicate a part. Sometimes, when the polypus is in 
the external passage, and not far up, it may be destroyed by as- 
tringent applications, such as the muriated tincture of steel, or 
burnt alum, applied with a camel-hair brush. 

Polypus of the Nose. — Polypus •is a name given to a 
tumor generally occurring in the nose, but sometimes in the 
womb, or the ear, and so named from an erroneous idea that it 
had many roots or feet. It is the result of an excessive growth 
of the mucous membrane, and sometimes assumes a malignant 
character. It may be either of a soft texture so as easily to tear 
and bleed, or firm and fibrous, or even almost cartilaginous. 


The color is commonly a yellowish grey, and it has little or no 
sensibility, although it causes much pain by its pressure upon 
the surrounding parts, stoppage of secretions, &c. It is at- 
tached to the surface from which it springs by a narrow neck 
like a footstalk. When in the nose it interferes with the 
breathing, so that the patient sleeps with the mouth open. In 
this situation it may sometimes be destroyed by the persevering 
use of astringent applications, such as the tincture of steel, ap- 
plid with a camel-hair brush, twice a day, or a little burnt alum 
taken like snuff. 

Rashes. — Patches of superficial redness of the skin ; they 
may occur on any part of the body, and are generally accom- 
panied by increased heat and irritation — sometimes by swelling, 
inflammation, and considerable pain; they are not contagious. 

When red blotches occur in the face they are generally 
connected with some constitutional derangement — often with 
dyspepsia — to the cure of which the general treatment must be 
directed ; the face should be washed in warm water, and the 
blotches dapped with camphorated spirit. 

Base Hash is common with cliildren during dentition, and 
is, therefore, culled tooth rash. It arises from intestinal irrita- 
tion, and most usually shows itself about the face, although it 
may appear on any part of the body. With adults it usually 
occurs in hot weather ; fatigue, drinking largely of cold water, 
or eating indigestible food, will bring it forth. It sometimes 
occurs during the eruptive form of small pox, and sometimes 
after vaccination, in a congeries of small dots or patches. Mild 
aperients, such as rhubarb and magnesia, cooling drinks, tepid 
baths, with frugal diet and rest, are the best remedies. There 
is usually considerable itching with these rashes, which may be 
allayed by the application of Goulard water, or some other 
cooling lotion. 

B/heumatism. — The characteristic signs of this complaint 
are pains in the large articulations, following the tree or course 
of the muscles, and which are increased by external heat, to- 
gether with fever. There are two kinds — acute and chronic. 

Causes. — Obstructed perspiration, occasioned by wearing 
wet clothes, sleeping pn the ground, or in damp rooms, or by 
being exposed to cold air when the body is much heated, and 
the like. 

Symptoms. — In the acute, or what is called rheumatic fever, 
it usually comes on with lassitude and the rigors, succeeded by 
heat, thirst, anxiety, restlessness, and a hard, full, quick pulse, 
the tongue preserving a steady whiteness. After a short time 


excruciating pains are felt, more especially in the shoulders, 
Avrists, knees, and hips; and these pains are shifting from one 
joint to another, leaving a redness and swelling in every part 
they have occupied, as also great tenderness to the touch. To- 
wards evening there is usually an increase of fever, and during 
the night the pains become more severe. 

Chronic Rheumatism is attended with pains in the head, 
shoulders, knees, and other large joints, without any fever or in- 
flammation. The complaint is either confined to a particular 
part or shifts about. It continues some time and then goes off, 
leaving the part in a debilitated state, and is very liable to fresh 
attacks on the approach of moist or damp weather. 

Treatment . — Every symptom of this form of rheumatism 
proves it to be a disease of debility, consequently the mode of 
treatment must be founded upon this idea. Hence, stimulants 
of almost all kinds prove serviceable, together with tonics, 
Avarm bathing, &c. Let the patient be clothed in flannel next 
the skin, and take an aperient pill every night and morning. 
Also, take thirty drops of the wine of the seeds of colchicum in 
camphor julep three times a day. Or, take of flowers of sul- 
phur and mustard, of each half an ounce ; honey or molasses, a 
sufficient quantity to form, a paste. Take a piece of the size of 
a nutmeg several times a day, drinking after it a quarter pint of 
the decoction of lovage-root. The following have also been very 
beneficial : Guaiacum in powder, and soap, of each one dram ; 
essential oil of juniper-berry, four drops; mix, and divide into 
twenty-eight pills, two to be t iken four times a day. 

In Acute Rheumatism confine the patient in bed, aud give 
half-grain doses of calomel and opium every four hours, and half 
ounce of castor-oil every other night. Or, keep the bowels open 
by means of gentle laxatives, administered occasionally through- 
out the course of the disease. Leeches may be applied to the 
inflamed joints; and, to assist their action, take the following 
mixture: — Tartar emetic, 2 grains; tincture of henbane, 2 
drams ; water, 6 ounces. 

Mix. The whole to be taken in the course of the day, one 
or two tablespoonfuls at a time. The quantity of tartar emetic 
should be increased or diminished according to the effect pro- 
duced on the stomach. This remedy, if carefully and persever- 
ingly administered, will produce the most beneficial results. 

Eclectic, or Herbal Treatment for Rheumatism. — Inflamma- 
tory rheumatism may be treated much like an acute fever. If 
young and strong, bleeding should be resorted to; and, to an 
adult, the following purgative: Calomel, fifteen grains; jalap, 


twenty grains. Mix them well together, in sugar and water or 
syrup; after which take some gruel or Avarm balm, sage, or dit- 
tany tea, to produce a gentle perspiration. A tepid bath may 
then be taken, care being used that cold be not taken. Take 
for a few nights one dram of cream of tartar, and a half dram of 
gum guaiacum in powder, in a cup of wine whey. 

For Chronic lUieumatism. — Take a little powdered Indian 
turnip once or twice a day, in honey or sugar and water. Mus- 
tard or horseradish should be taken with the food, and the body 
be encased in flannel and the flesh-brush frequently used. 
Where there is much weakness, from the long continuance of 
the disease, tonic medicines must be used. Dogwood bark, 
wild-cherry bark, and poplar bark, in equal quantities, made into 
a tea, and a wineglassful taken three times a day, is very good ; 
as is also eight or ten drops of elixir of vitriol, taken three or 
four times a day in a wineglassful of water. 

Ringworm is an eruptive disease of the skin — more par- 
ticularly of the head — and of which there are several kinds. 

Causes. — Ringworm has its seat in the *roots of the hair, 
and is believed to be attended by the growth of parasitic fungi ; 
its predisposing causes are any derangement of the general 
health from ill or under feeding, breathing impure air, drinking 
bad water, uncleanly habits, scrofula. Its immediate or exciting 
cause is generally contact with those afi'ected with it, or using 
combs or hair brushes which they have used. 

Wilson remarks " that improper food is a frequent predis- 
posing cause, and that he has observed it in children fed too ex- 
clusively on vegetable diet." It is said to occur spontaneously 
in children ill-fed and uncleanly, and it is readily propagated by 
contagion. It has recently been discovered that this disease is 
owing to the presence of a cryptogamic parasite, called the 

Symptoms. — The most common kind commences with clus- 
ters of small light-yellow pustules, which soon break and foim 
into thin scabs, which, if neglected, become thick and hard by 
accumulation. When removed, they appear again in a few days ; 
and by these repetitions the incrustations become thicker, and 
the area of tlie patclies extends, so as, if unchecked, to aflect 
the whole head, and extend also to tlic forehead and neck. The 
patches are of an iri'egular circular form. This disease occurs 
generally in children of three or four years and upward, and 
often continues for several years. 

Treatment. — The treatment consists in applying to the parts 
some preparation which will destroy the fungus. The first 


thing to be done is to remove the hair, and this should be done 
with a pair of pinchers, or some such depilatory as 1 part 
each of lime and carbonate of soda, and 30 parts of lard. After- 
Avard the parts should be washed with a solution of bichloride 
of mercury (1 part to 250 parts of water), or with a solution of 
sulphurous acid (1 part to 8 of water). The general health 
should be at the same time attended to, and nutritious diet, 
tonics, cod-liver oil, and regular exercise used when necessary. 

The vesicular form of ringworm is the simplest and most 
amenable to treatment; sometimes it disappears after careful 
washing and poulticing, with perhaps, a few applications of any 
astringent lotion; but the pustular form is far more trouble- 
some and intractable, spreading often very rapidly, and running 
into ulcerous sores, and sometimes reappearing when it is thought 
that a cure has been effected. Nothing but the greatest care 
and attention will then eradicate it. Any child afflicted with 
this disease should be separated from other children, on account 
of its contagious nature ; wearing each others caps and bonnets 
will be likely to spread it through a whole school. 

Nettle Rash. — This is an eruption of the skin similar to 
that produced by the sting of nettles. It is not dangerous or 

Causes. — It is generally thrown out by some particular 
kind of food which disagrees with the system, such as crabs, or 
other shell-fish, or mackerel ; certain vegetables are likely to 
produce it, such as mushrooms, cucumbers, bitter almonds, or 
strawberries. Copaiba, cubebs, valerian, or the fumes of tur- 
pentine inhaled during house-painting, are also likely to occasion 
nettle rash. 

SyxMPTOMS. — The eruption consists of little solid eminences 
of irregular outline, but generally roundish or oblong, and either 
white or red, or both red and white. It is accompanied with 
intense heat, and a burning or tingling in the affected spots. 
No part of the body is exempt from nettle rash. There are 
two varieties of this disorder, one of which is regarded as acute, 
the other as chronic, and either persistent or intermittent. 
The acute form is usually proceeded or attended with feverish- 
ness, and a feeling of general uneasiness, headache, nausea, and 
vomiting. In general it appears in the morning, vanishes in 
the course of a few hours, and perhaps reappears again twice 
or thrice during the day. It usually disappears entirely in six 
or eiglit days. The chronic form of this complaint is intractable 
and difficult to remove, coming and going for a lengthened peroid, 
but with little or no feverishness. 


Treatment. — An emetic should bo first administered, if the 
eruption is caused by anything recently taken into the stomach ; 
it should be followed by a saline aperient — senna mixture, with 
salts, is perhaps best, and this repeated until the bowels are 
freely moved ; if the febrile symptoms do not subside, a mixture 
composed of sweet spirits of nitre, 2 drams; liquor of acetate 
of ammonia, 1 ounce ; and camphor mixture, 5 ounces, should be 
given, two tablespoonfuls every four hours. In the chronic 
form, a simple diet, active exercise, an avoidance of any articles 
of diet likely to excite the eruption ; keeping the bow^els regular 
by gentle aperients, combined with anti-acids ; a five-grain rhubarb 
pill an hour before dinner, or a small piece of the root chewed, 
are good remedial means; the tepid bath should be occasionally 
used, or sponging, to keep the skin in a healthy state ; to allay 
the irritations, dust starch-powder over the irruptions, or use 
a lotion made of rose or elder-flower water in half a pint of which 
has been dissolved, 1 dram of carbonate of ammonia, and \ a 
dram of sugar of lead. 

Scarlet Fever, or Scarlatina, is a contagious febrile dis- 
ease, almost always attended during a part of its course by a 
rash and by sore throat. Sometimes only one of these features 
is well marked, sometimes both. Though persons of all ages 
are susceptible of it, it is eminently a disease of children. Like 
small pox or measles, it rarely attacks a person more than once. 
Physicians distinguish three difiercnt varieties of scarlatina — 
namely, scarlatina simplex, in which there is a florid rash and 
little or no affection of the throat; scarlatina anginosa, in which 
both the skin and the throat are decidedly implicated; and 
scarlatina maligna, in which the stress of the disease falls upon 
the throat. 

Symptoms. — So plainly are the symptomiS marked that it is 
scarcely possible to mistake this eruptive fever for any other ; 
almost invariably we have first sore throat, with shivering, 
headache, and loss of appetite; probably there may be sickness 
jdid vomiting, with heat of skin, quick pulse, and great thirst. 
Ill iibout forty-eight hours from the commencement of the at- 
tack, we have an eruption of red spots on the arms and chest; 
these gradually become more thickly planted and widely 
spread, until they pervade the whole of the body, making the 
skill appear of one uniform scarlet tint, that is over the body 
generally; in the extremities it is more in patches, the skin be- 
ing perceptibly rough to the toocli. On the second day, gener- 
ally, the tongue presents tlie appearance of being covered with 
a wliitc film, through which the papulae project as bright red 


spots, as we sco tho seeds on a wlilto strawberry; then the 
white creamy4ookin^- iihii comes away gradually, and leaves 
the tongue preternaturally clean and red. On the fourth or 
fifth day the eruption begins to fade, and by the seventh or 
eiglith has entirely disappeared, and with it the febrile symp- 
toms. Then commences the peeling off of the cuticle or scarf 
skin, which comes away in scales from tho face and body, and in 
largo (lakes from tho extremities. It is during this process 
that tho greatest danger of contagion is to be apprehended, and, 
until it is completed, the patient should be kept apart from tlie 
rest of the family: it may bo hastened by tepid bathing and 
rubbing. Sometimes, with scarlet fever, there is little real ill- 
ness; the patient feels pretty Avell, and, in a few days, would 
like to leave the sick chamber; but it is always necessary to be 
cautious in gratifiying such a wish, both for the sake of the in- 
valid and of others; after an attack of this fever, as after 
measles, the system is peculiarly susceptible of morbific in- 
fluences, and a cliill taken at such a time may cause the most 
alarming results. 

Sometimes we have a great aggravation of tho symptoms 
above described ; the throat gives the first warning of the at- 
tack; there is stiff neck, swelling of the glands, and the lining 
of the mouth and fauces becomes at once of an intense crimson 
color; there arc ash-colored spots about the tonsils; the gen- 
eral eruption is of a deeper color, and spreads more rapidlv, 
than in the simple kind. 

Scarlatina Anginosa.— Then again we have the malig- 
nant form, with tlie rash in irregular patches of a dusky hue, 
which sometimes recedes and appears again. There is intense 
inflammation of the throat at the very outset, with general en- 
largement of tho salivary glands; tlie neck sometimes swells to 
a groat size; there is a sloughy ulceration of the throat, from 
wliich, and the nostrils — tlirough which it is diflicult to breathe 
— there comes an acrid discharge, causing excoriation of the nose 
and lips, and sometimes extending to the larynx and trachea, 
as well as to the intestinal canal, causing croup, vomiting and 
purging. Tlic poisonous secretion enters into the circulation and 
vitiates the blood ; sometimes the sense of hearing, as well as 
of smelling, is entirely destroyed by the acrid matter coming in 
contact with and inflaming the mucous membrane. With this 
form of the disease it is extremely difficult to deal, and the pa- 
tient often sinks beneath it in spite of the best medical advice 
and assistance. Scarlet fever may bo distinguished from mea- 
sles by the following characteristics : 


In scarlet fever the eruption appears on the second day, 
accompanied with sore throat, but no running of the nose. In 
measles the eruption comes out on the third or fourth day, 
with running from the nose and other catarrhal symptoms. The 
eruptions of measles are like flea-bites, slightly elevated from 
the surface, in patches the shape of a half moon ; whereas the 
rash of scarlet fever is smooth to the touch, spreads over the 
whole body, and is of a brighter red color than measles. 

Treatment. — At first mild aperients only should be given 
Avith diluted drinks, as flaxseed tea, and a spare diet; the pa- 
tient should have plenty of fresh air; the head should be kept 
cool, the hair being cut close off or shaved. The following is a 
good febrifuge mixture: Carbonate of ammonia, 1 dram; solu- 
tion of acetate of ammonia, 2 ounces ; water or camphor mix- 
ture, 6 ounces. A tablespoonful to be taken every four hours — 
that is for an adult; a dessert-spoonful Avill be sufficient for a 
child. The whole body should be sponged with cool water as 
often as it becomes hot and dry. If the throat swells much 
externally, and there are headaches, apply a blister or hot bran 
poultice, and soak the feet and hands in hot water, with a little 
mustard or Cayenne pepper stirred in. To gargle the throat, 
dissolve 1 dram of common salt in ^ a pint of water; with chil- 
dren who cannot gargle, this may be injected against the 
fauces or up the nostrils, by means of a syringe or elastic 
gum bottle. When the inflammatory action has ceased and 
the skin is peeling off", it is necessary to take good stimu- 
lant and nutritious food, with tonics such as iron and quinine, 
unless they cause bad head symptoms, in which case these 
must be discontinued, and the diet chiefly depended on. When 
the system seems to be overwhelmed with the strength of the 
poison, a liberal administration of Avine and bark will be re- 
quired to sustain the flagging powers until the deadly agency 
has in some measure passed away. As gargles for the throat, 
a weak solution of chloride of soda or of nitrate of silver is very 
useful. A solution of chloride of potass in water (a dram to a 
pint) is recommended as a drink in this disease. The bowels 
also require to be carefully watched. It is of the utmost im- 
portance that the throat should be carefully treated. If neg- 
lected, the inflammation is liable to enter into the middle ear 
and cause life-long deafness, and j)crhaps ulceration of the ear, 
with discharges. 

With regard to the more malignu,nt form, but little is to 
done ; the depressing effect of the contagious poison upon the 
whole body, and upon the nervous system especially, is so great 
as to defy all active treatment. 


To assist the action of the skin, use the following : Pulver- 
ized gum arabic, 1 scruple; sweet spirits of nitre, ^ an ounce; 
tincture of veratrum viride, 20 drops; Avater, soft, 2 ounces. 
Mix, give half a teaspoonful every half hour. 

As a preventive of scarlet fever, belladonna has been much 
recommended ; its effect is to deaden the nervous energy, and 
render the system less susceptible of the contagion. If a solu- 
tion of the extract be made in the proportion of five grains in 
10 ounces of water, an adult may take 2 drams, and a child from 
20 to 30 drops twice a day, for three weeks during the time when 
the fever is raging in a neighborhood. Recently carbonate of 
ammonia has been much recommended in the treatment ot this 
disease. For adults five-grain doses ; for children half the quan- 
tity 'three times a day. Very frequently, about ten or fourteen 
days after the subsidence of this fever, alarming dropsical afi'ec- 
tions result. These may be generally obviated by using daily 
the warm bath when the skin begins to peel ofi". When dropsy 
has set in, give a warm bath three times a week, and the com- 
pound tincture of Virginia snake root, in doses of a teaspoonful 
every two hours, in catnip tea, until free perspiration is induced. 

Eclectic, or Herbal Treatment for Scarlet Fever. — In its 
milder attacks but little treatment is required. Give warm 
drinks of catnip, sage, saffron, or snake-root tea. Where the 
stomach is irritable and vomiting frequent, spearmint tea Avill 
be very beneficial, or a mustard plaster laid over the stomach 
will stop the vomiting. When an emetic is needed, give a tea- 
spoonful of lobelia powder, the same quantity of powder of 
skunk cabbage, and a little Cayenne pepper, with a teaspoonful 
of sugar, in strong thoroughwort tea; give every half hour 
till free vomiting is produced. If the throat is sore and 
swollen, bathe it with a liniment made of 1 part of spirits 
of turpentine and 2 parts of sweet oil, applied while warm. A 
good gargle is take ^ a pint each of vinegar and water, hot, add 
1 teaspoonful of blood root, and let it stand seven or eight hours 
before using. 

It said that in the West Indies, where this disease fre- 
quently assumes the malignant form, cures are eifected by the 
following simple preparation : Take 2 tablespoonfuls of Cayenne 
pepper, and a teaspoonful of salt; put them into a -| pint of 
boiling water; let the mixture stand about fifteen minutes; then 
add a ^ pint of vinegar ; let it stand a half hour, when strain 
through a fine cloth, and give two tablespoonfuls every half 
hour. If putrid symptoms appear, give common yeast, a wine- 
glass every two or three hours. 


A valuable preparation for inflamed or swollen face is raw 
cranberries pounded lino and applied. 

On recovery the following good tonic may be given : Take 
of gentian root, Colombo root, sweet flag root, golden seal root, 
Cayenne pepper, of each, in course powder, a heaped teaspoon ; 
add 1 pint of sherry wine; let it stand a few days. Dose — a 
teaspoonful to a wineglassful three times a day. 

Sciatica. — This a painful rheumatic affection, confined to 
the hip-joint and lower extremities, and affecting the large 
nerve (called the sciatic nerve) of the leg. 

Ti^eatment. — Apply a small blister on the spine at the bot- 
tom of the loins, and when it is removed sprinkle the surface 
with one-third of a grain of acetate of morpbia, mixed in a little 
starch-powder. Or, apply to the part affected a bran poultice, 
to be followed twice or three times a day by an embrocation 
composed of one part of turpentine, and two parts of soap and 
opium liniment. A couple of drams of this should be rubbed 
in for ten minutes at a time. Meanwhile, cleanse the bowels 
by a purgative, and if there is no tendency to fever, take dram 
doses of carbonate of iron, three times in twenty-four hours. 
When the pain is very severe, accompanied with general fever, 
leeches should be applied, and cooling purgatives taken. It 
will also be advisable to employ the hot bath at a temperature 
of 105 degrees, and to remain in it from fifteen to twenty-five 
minutes. This should be repeated two or three times a week. 

Scrofula {King's Evil). — This disease consists in hard in- 
dolent tumors on some of the glands on the various parts of the 
body, but particularly on the neck, behind the ears, and under 
the chin, which after a time suppurate, and degenerate into ul- 
cers, from which, instead of pus, a white curdled matter is gen- 
erally discharged. 

Causes. — It may proceed from a hereditary taint, infection 
from a scrofulous nurse ; children born of sickly parents, whose 
constitutions have been injured by secret diseases, are very 
likely to be afflicted with this complaint. It may likewise pro- 
ceed from Avhatever tends to vitiate the humors and relax the 
solids, and very slight causes will produce it in those predis- 
posed to it; such as blows, bruises, want of proper exercise, too 
much heat or cold, confined impure air, unwholesome food, bad 
water, the long use of poor weak watery aliments, and neglect 
of cleanliness; and nothing tends more to induce this disease in 
children than allowing them to continue long wet. 

Symptoms. — At first small knots appear under the chin or 
behind the ears, which gradually increase in number and in 


size, till they form one large hard tumor. This often continues 
a long time without breaking, until at length the skin covering 
tlie tumor acquires a purple or livid color, and being much in- 
liamed they suppurate and break into little holes, from Avhich a 
watery matter at first discharges; but this changes by degrees, 
until it becomes a viscid, serous discharge, much intermixed 
with small pieces of white substance resembling the curd of 
milk. Other parts of the body are also liable to its attacks, as 
arm-pits, groins, feet, hands, eyes, breast, &c. Nor are the in- 
ternal parts exempt from it. It often afiects the lungs, liver, 
or spleen, and frequently the glands of the mesentery are 
greatly enlarged by it. In some cases the joints become af- 
fected : they swell, and are incommoded with deep-seated ex- 
cruciating pains, which are much increased upon the slightest 
motion. The swelling and pain continue to increase ; the mus- 
cles of the limbs become at length much wasted; matter is soon 
afterwards formed, and is discharged by small openings burst- 
ing in the skin, being of an acrimonious nature; it corrodes the 
ligaments and cartilages, producing a caries or rotting of the 
neighboring bones. By absorption into the system of the mat- 
ter, hectic lever at last arises, and consumption comes to end 
the sufferer's life. 

Treatment. — The body should be regularly submitted to cold 
or tepid bathing, in order to promote the healthy functions of 
the skin. The diet must be carefully regulated, consisting 
chiefly of animal food, taken at certain intervals. For children, 
a very nourishing food may be prepared by boiling a small bag 
filled with suet in coav's milk. It bears a strong resemblance to 
goat's milk, but has the advantage of being more astringent. A 
pure, dry, and temperate atmosphere is the best to live in; and, 
during the summer months and the early autumn, much advan- 
tage may bo derived from sea-air, combined with sea-bathing. All 
persons of scrofulous tendenc}' should wear flannel continu- 
ously next their skin, it being tlie best protector of the body 
from the bad influence of our variable climate. A great variety 
of drugs have been employed in the treatment of scrofula, but 
they are all of secondary importance in comparison with the 
means above recommended. We give some of the most ap- 
proved remedies for this disease : Iodine, 1 grain ; iodide of 
potash, 2 grains; distilled water, 8 ounces. 

Mix. To a child under seven years of age a dessert-spoon- 
ful of this mixture is to be given three times a day, in half a 
teacupful of water, sweetened with a little sugar. The dose to 
be gradually increased to two table-spoonfuls ; and the remedy 


is to be continued, if no unfavorable symptoms occur, for a pe- 
riod of four or five weeks; its use is then to be suspended, and 
gentle laxatives are to be adminstered. After an interval of a 
fortnig'lit, the mixture is to be again administered, commencing 
with a dessert-spoonful, and gradually augmenting the dose as 
before. At the expiration of a month, the remedy is again to be 
discontinued, and again renewed. In this manner, the means 
of cure may be employed with perfect safety, and continued 
until the desired end is accomplished. Or, if preferred, the fol- 
lowing: Gum guaiacum, ^ ounce; iron filings, ^ dram; white 
sugar, h, ounce. 

Mix. Of this powder a pinch, larger or smaller, according 
to the age of the child, is to be given twice a day, and continued 
for a consideftible length of time. If symptoms of fever show 
themselves, the remedy is to be discontinued for a time. Mean- 
while, a tepid batli should be taken three times a week, and the 
diet confined chiefly to broth and milk. Or the following: 

Take a table-spoonful of cod-liver oil three times a day, and 
with it, when the glands are swelling, two grains of iodide of 
potassium, three times a day, in infusion of orange-peel. 
Also, paint the scrofulous swellings lightly with tincture of 
iodine. Then give twelve drops of solution of potash three 
times a day, and, after cleansing the sores with poultices, dress 
them with oxide of zinc ointment. 

Eclectic, or Herbal Treatment for Scrofula. — Generally, we 
believe, nutritious food, pure air, great personal cleanliness, 
and gentle exercise, will be the best medicines for this distress- 
ing complaint. As soon as the swelling shows itself, apply a 
poultice, cold, of Indian turnip and slippery elm. Continue this 
till the swelling subsides or breaks, then use a poultice made of 
yellow or narrow dock-root and slippery elm. After a few days, 
change with a poultice made of equal parts of slippery elm, 
pulverized bayberry bark, and crackers. 

An eminent physician has recommended the use of Peru- 
vian bark and steel, to be taken alternately every two weeks. 
Also, the muriate of lime in doses of ten and increasing to sixty 
drops three or four times a day, in tea or water. Much benefit 
has been derived from taking pills made of tar. Take common 
tar, boil it down hard enough to make into pills, and take four 
every day. These also have been found very useful : 

Gather the leaves of coltsfoot, when at their full growth f 
dry tliem, and infuse them in the same manner as tea; drink 
this beverage freely, instead of the beverage ordinarily drank. 
Take every second day a few grains of rhubarb, drink freely 


of goat's Avliey, and apply to the scrofulous sore the following 
ointment lighUy spread on lint: White ointment, one ounce j 
levigated chalk, ten grains ; red precipitate powder, half a dram. 
Mix. Salt water bathing is very useful. 

Scurvy. — This complaint shows itself by a bleeding of 
the gums, and spots of different colors, on various parts of the 
body and limbs, on the skin, and the colors are, for the most 
part, purple or livid. 

Causes. — Indolence, confinement, want of exercise, neglect 
of cleanliness, sadness, salt or putrified food, and foul water, or 
the prevalence of cold and moisture. It is sometimes produced 
by over-fatigue In some persons it is constitutional, or heredi- 

Symptoms. — The scurvy comes on gradually, withheavmess, 
weariness, depression of the spirits, anxiety, and considerable 
debility. In the progress of the disease the countenance be- 
comes sallow and bloated, and the respiration hurried; the 
teeth become loose, and the gums spongy and swollen, and bleed 
on the slightest touch ; the breath is offensive, and livid spots 
appear on various parts of the body; severe wandering pains 
are felt, especially at night. The urine is scanty, and the pulse 
small and frequent; sometimes a scaly appearance of the skin; 
and the joints at last become swollen and stiff. 

Treatment. — Nutritious and fresh animal food ; rice, tapioca 
and sago, together with acid fruits and drinks; lemon-juice, in 
t iblespoonful doses three times a day. Or the following: Pur- 
ified nitre (saltpetre) 4 ounce ; best white-wine vinegar, 1 
quart. Mix. When dissolved, take a tablespoonful four times 
a day. If the gums are very bad, use to wash the mouth out 
frequently — decoction of black-currant leaves, one pint; muri- 
atic acid, one dram. Mix, and gargle the mouth four times a 

The following is very good : Take a dose of castor-oil, with 
ten drops of cream of tartar. IF there be much pain and un- 
easiness, take at night twelve grains of Dover's powder ; after- 
wards the following tonic : Decoction of bark, 6 ounces ; syrup 
of orange peel, 1 ounce; compound tincture of bark, 1 ounce; 
carbonate of ammonia, \ dram. Mix, aud take a sixth part 
twice or three times a day. Use a carrot poultice if ulcers ap- 
pear on the legs, and dust the sores with carbonate of iron; 
or use this lotion — equal parts of tincture of myrrh and tinc- 
ture of Peruvian bark, and wash twice a day. Avoid salt 
provisions and stimulants. When the scurvy is removed, treat 
as for indigestion. 


Eclectic, or Herbal Treatment for Scurvy. — The treatment 
of scurvy is not difficult. Attention to the stomach and bowels, 
pure air, cleanliness, and gentle exercise are the chief re- 
quisites for recovery. The following has proved very useful : 
Put into a stone jar half a pound of the root of the great water- 
dock, cut into thin slices, and pour upon it one gallon of boil 
ing water. Cover up and let it stand for twenty-four hours*, 
then put the whole into a saucepan, and boil for ten minutes. 
Let it stand till cold, and strain off without squeezing. Dose, 
a half pint twice a day. 

The diet should be light and nutritious. Take plenty of 
acids and vegetables, with as much horseradish, mustard, 
cresses, etc., as wanted; also, eat abundance of fruit. 

Shrinking of the Heart {Atrophy). — A wasting of the 
heart's substance, arising from a deficiency in the supply of 
nutritive matter. It is usually accompanied by general emacia- 
tion, and will be pretty sure to terminate in death. When the 
heart is examined after death, the tissues are found to have un- 
dergone a change, and, instead of a striped, to present a homo- 
geneous appearance. This is called "fatty degeneration." The 
treatment is to strengthen the system by tonics, wholesome 
and nutritious diet, open-air exercise, sea-bathing, and the like. 

Sea Sickness. — This depends upon a peculiar .-iate of the 
brain, apparently caused by a want of the usual firmness and 
steadiness of the equilibrium of the body. 

Treatment. — Take of camphorated spirit, sal vo'.atile, and 
Hoffman's ether, a few drops each, upon a lump of sugar. Per- 
sons about to proceed to sea should put their stomach and bow- 
els in order by the use of mild aperients, and even an emetic if 
required; when it will be generally found that a glass of warm 
and Aveak brandy and water, to which one or two drops of creo- 
sote have been added, will effectually dispel any disposition to 
sea sickness. As the vessel descends draw in the breatli, and 
as it ascends exhale the breath. This prevents the movements 
of the organs which act immediately upon sea sickness. Observe 
perfect quietude in the recumbent position, until the body ia 
accustomed to the motion of the vessel; take frequently two or 
three spoonfuls of strong coffee; or twenty drops of hydrochlo- 
ric ether. Hold fast by the ropes on the side of the ship, so as 
to move with all its motions, becoming, as it were, part of the 

Small Pox {Variola). — This, like scarlet fever and measles, 
belongs to the class of eruptive fevers; it attacks persons of all 
ages, but the young are most liable to it. At no particular 


season of the year is it more prevalent than at any other, nor 
does climate appear to be influential in averting or modifying 
its visitations. 

Symptoms. — When it occurs naturally, the premonitory 
symptoms are those of other fevers of its class ; there are usu- 
ally cold chills, pains in the back and loins, loss of appetite, pros- 
tration of strength, nausea, and sometimes vomiting-; with young 
children, there are sometimes convulsions. About forty-eight 
hours after these symptoms set in, an eruption of hard red pim- 
ples begins to overspread the face and neck, gradually extending 
downward over the trunk and extremities. Each pimple is 
surrounded by the peculiar dull red margin termed areola, and 
has a central depression on the top, containing lymph ; at this 
period the eruption is decidedly vesicular, but it becomes after- 
ward pustular ; this change takes place on about the fifth day 
of its appearance, when the central depression disappears, sup- 
puration takes place, and the vessels are filled with matter, 
which shortly after oozes out and dries into a scab. In about 
ten days this falls off, and leaves a pale purple stain like a blotch, 
which gradually fades, unless the disease has penetrated so 
deeply as to destroy the true skin, in which case a pit, or, as it 
is usually called, a " pock-mark," remains for life. 

The primary fever of this disease lessens as soon as the 
eruption appears ; but after this has left the face, and traveled 
downward, attacking successively the lower parts of the body, 
a secondary fever sets in, which is more severe than the first, 
and not unfrequently assumes a typhoid character. 

Small pox may be either distinct or confluent. In the 
former case, the pustules are perfectly distinct from each other; 
in the latter they run into each other; this latter is the most 
dangerous form of the disease, the fever being more intense 
and rapid, and having no intermission; it goes on increasing 
from the first, and frequently by its violence, in nine or ten days, 
so exhausts the system that coma, delirium and death ensue, 
preceded by convulsions, hemorrhages, bloody stools, dysentery, 
and all the train of symptoms which indicate that a virulent and 
fatal poison has entered into the circulation. 

Treatment. — As soon as the premonitory fever comes on, an 
emetic should be administered, and followed by a purgative of 
a tolerably active nature; then keep the patient on spare diet 
(certainly no meat), and give plenty of warm diluent drinks; 
keep the bowels moderately open by means of saline aperients ; 
let the patient have plenty of fresh air, and sponge the skin 
with cool or tepid water, as may be most agreeable, to diminish 


the heat of the body. Sometimes there is not energy in the 
system to develop the pustules with sufficient rapidity ; in this 
case nourishment and stimulants should be given in the form 
of broths, wine whey, etc. ; warm or mustard foot-baths should 
also be resorted to ; and, to allay irritability, a ten grain Dover's 
powder may be administered at bed-time, or a 5- of a grain of 
morphine, in camphor mixture. A good nourishing diet will be 
required in the secondary stage of the fever; and, if it assumes 
a typhoid character, the treatment should be the same as that 
of typlius fever. Frequently the face is much swelled, and the 
eyelids closed ; in this case rub the latter with olive oil, and 
batho the whole with poppy fomentation. If the throat is sore, 
use a gargle of honey and vinegar, 1 tablespoonful of the for- 
mer, 2 of the latter, added to a ^ pint of water or sago tea. If 
much affected, a blister should be applied to the neck. If there 
is much headache, cut the hair close, apply mustard poultices 
to the feet, and a spirit lotion to the head; to reduce itching, 
apply to the eruptions a liniment composed of lime water and 
linseed oil, equal quantities, or smear the pustules with cold 
cream; to check diarrhea, give chalk mixture, with 5 drops of 
laudanum in each dose; if perspirations are too copious when 
the eruptive fever has subsided, take acidulated drinks. Smear- 
ing the eruption with mercurial ointment, or puncturing each 
pustule, and absorbing the pus with wool or cotton, has been 
recommended to prevent the deep pitting which is so great a 
disfigurement to the face. Painting the face once or twice a 
day with glycerine is said to effectually prevent pitting. 

There is no disease more certainly and decidedly conta- 
gious than this; after imbibing the poison, a period of twelve 
days generally elapses before the commencement of the fever, 
and during this time no inconvenience may be experienced. 
Beside breathing the effluvia arising from a person attacked, 
small pox may bo communicated by inoculation with the matter 
of its pustules, and, the resulting disease being of a milder char- 
acter, this method was formerly much practised to guard per- 
sons from a spontaneous attack; since, however, the introduc- 
tion of vaccination by Dr. Jenner this practice has been aban- 
doned. This disease is frequently epidemic, and the statistics 
of its different visitations show that the mortality of those at- 
tacked who have not been vaccinated is one in four; Avhilst 
of those who have, it is not one in four hundred and fifty; a 
strong argument this for vaccination where the disease previiils. 

The following instructions for controlling small-pox conta- 
gion, enforced at Lowell, proved effective in arresting the spread 
of the disease: 



1. Persons attacked with small pox or varioloid, and all in- 
fected clothing of the same, must be immediately separated 
from all other persons liable to contract or communicato the 

2. Nurses, and the infected clothing of such persons, must 
be treated as in quarantine. 

3. None but nurses and the attending physicians will be al- 
lowed access to persons sick with small pox or varioloid. 

4. Patients must not leave the premises until they, togeth- 
er with the bedding and clothing, have been disinfected, and 
permission given by some physician of the Board of Health. 


1. All bedding and personal clothing infected with the 
small-pox contagion, which can without injury, must be w^ashed 
in boiling watei . 

2. Infected feather beds, pillows, and hair mattresses, must 
have contents taken out and thoroughly fumigated, and ticks, 
washed in boiling water. 

3. Infected straw and excelsior mattresses must have con- 
tents removed and buried, and ticks washed in boiling water. 

4. Infected blankets, sheets and pillow cases, and all arti- 
cles in contact wuth or used by the patient, must be washed in 
boiling water. 

5. Personal clothing and bedding — particularly comforters 
• — which cannot be w^et without injury, must be disinfected by 
baking or fumigation. 

6. Instead of using boiling w^ater as the disinfectant, the 
following chemical process with cold water may sometimes be 
conveniently substituted: Dissolve into a -wash-tub containing 
8 gallons of cold water 1 pound of the hyposulphite of soda. 
Immerse all the articles of clothing and bedding used by or 
around the patient, and, when thoroughly saturated, add | a pint 
of sulphuric acid, first diluting it with 1 gallon of water. Stir 
the wdiole, and allow the clothes to soak an hour ; then wring 
them out, rinse three times in cold water, and hang them out to 

7. Disinfection of houses, clothing, and bedding by fumiga- 
tion may be effected by filling the closed room wath the fumes 
of sulphurous acid or of chlorine gas. The first can be accom- 
plished by pouring | a pound of sulphur in an iron dish, pour- 
ing on a little alcohol, and igniting it, thereby causing the 
sulphur to burn and give off sulphurous acid fumes. The second 
can be accomplished by moistening with w^ater 4 pounds of 


chloride of lime, contained in an earthen or wooden vessel, and 
adding- tliereto a pint of muriatic acid, to liberate the chlorine 
gas. Clothing and bedding, to be Avell fumigated, must be sep- 
arated as much as possible, and hung upon tlie walls and furni- 
ture of the room, so that everything will be thoroughly per- 
meated. The rooms should be kept closed an hour or two 
after being charged with gas by either method, and then thor- 
oughly ventilated. No attempt should be made to fumigate the 
sick room in this manner while it is occupied by the patient. 

8. On the recovery, removal, or death of every case of 
small pox or varioloid, the clothing, bedding, and premises will 
be disinfected, in accordance with the above rules, under the 
direction of one or more physicians employed for the purpose 
by the Board of Health. 

9. The physicians employed in disinfecting may cause re- 
moval, destruction, or burial of such infected bedding and cloth- 
ing as may, in their judgment, seem to require it, of which they 
shall keep a correct record, with date, kind of article, whether 
new or old, estimated value, name and residence of the owner. 
No person shall burn any contagioned articles unless authorized 
by the Board of Health. 

10. The sick room should be kept well ventilated, with 
such precautions as not to expose the patient to direct currents 
of air, and should be occasionally fumigated, slightly, by throw- 
ing upon a heated surface a few teaspoonsful of a solution of 
carbolic acid, made by dissolving 1 ounce of crystalized car- 
bonic acid in a quart of rain water. Pieces of cloth may be 
soaked in this solution and suspended in tlio room, also in the 
the hall-ways adjoining. All vessels for receiving discharges of 
any kinds from i)atients must be emptied immediately after use 
and cleansed with boiling Avater. When convalescence has 
taken place, the patient must be thoroughly washed in warm 
water and soap, and put on fresh, clean clothes throughout. 

11. Privies, water closets, garbage tubs, water pipes, and 
all kinds of drains and foul places in houses, stables, and yards, 
may be disinfected with a solution made as follows: Dissolve 8 
pounds of copperas (sulphate of iron) in 5 gallons of water; add 
1 quart of tlie solution of carbolic acid, and mix well. 

12. It should be remembered tliat there are no substitutes 
for pure air and water. Let fresh air and sunlight purify every 
place they can reach; open and dry all cellars; keep the 
grounds about dwellings dry and clean, and let personal and 
domestic cleanliness be everywhere observed. 

Yaccination and re-vaccination are of paramount import- 


ance, affording the best attainable protection against small pox, 
and mitigating its severity when not preventing an attack. 


At a time when small pox is prevailing, it is important to 
■understand the most reliable preventive as well as curative 
measures in its management. Small pox is propagated by- 
specific contagion or miasm, and by direct inoculation of the 
virus, or lympli, which accumulates in the pustules. The 
miasma of small pox is multiplied by heat, moisture, and foul 
air. Thus, a small quantity of the malaria, in a hot, damp, and 
filthy house, will increase so rapidly that the entire building 
will soon become a magazine of poison. The poison cannot de- 
velop itself in a pure and dry atmosphere, hence the first and 
most important preventive means against this loathsome dis- 
ease is to remove all filth and moisture from dwellings. The 
second preventive measure consists in keeping the functions 
of the body active. This can be accomplished by avoiding ex- 
cesses, by baths, a regular diet, and strict attention to clean- 
liness in every respect. Third, by vaccination, when properly 
performed. The best lymph to be used for vaccinating is that 
which is prepared in Germany and imported in quills. It 
should be introduced by slightly scarifiying the arm or calf of 
the leg (not sufficiently to draw blood), and, applying the lymph, 
allowing it to remain until it is entirely dr}'. If the first appli- 
cation does not take effect, it should be repeated every two 
or three days. In order to have vaccination certainly protec- 
tive against small pox, it must produce the following constitu- 
tional symptoms: Light pain in the head, aching of the muscles, 
chilly sensations, and some fever, together with the develop- 
ment of a well-defined pustule, Avhich will appear first as a 
sm ill blister, then fill with grayish lymph, will dry, and become 
of a mahogany color, and upon scaling off Avill leave a pit. In- 
flammation may appear around the pustule, but as that occurs 
frequently as the result of the scarifying, it is not a positive in- 
dication that the vaccine disease has been perfectly developed. 
If the vaccination has been perfect, the system is as much pro- 
tected as it can be, and observations prove that it is a prevent- 
ive of smdl pox ill ninety-three cases out of one hundred, and 
in the remainder it modifies it. The treatment of small pox 
should always be entrusted to a skillful physician, and, under 
judicious management, it is by no means a fatal malady. 

Sore Mouth. — Some persons are much troubled with small 
ulcerations of the mouth, which give great inconvenience. They 
are seen on the edges of the tongue, the gums, and the inside of 


the lips or cheek. They are small, irregular, superficial, often 
numerous, very painful, sometimes surrounded with many en- 
larged vessels and a small ring of bright red hue. They often 
prove obstinate, because they are caused by a bad condition of 
the bowels. 

Treatment. — Take of honey two tablespoonfuls ; borax, pow- 
dered, half dram; mix well together, and take a teaspoonful 
twice a day. The mixture should be placed in the mouth, lit- 
tle by little, touching the various ulcers that are visible, or can 
be got at. 

Sore Tongue. — The tongue is liable to become sore or ul- 
cerated, most commonly along the edges ; and there are fre- 
quently seen small pimples and cracks. 

Tixatment. — Take mild and cooling aperients, particularly 
calcined magnesia, either alone or in a seidlitz powder. Let the 
drink consist chiefly of soda-water, and the diet be light and 
cooling. Touch the sores with burnt alum, and wash the mouth 
frequently with borax and honey dissolved in water, or solution 
of chloromated soda and water, so weak as not to produce much 

Diseases of the Spinal Cord. — The spine is liable to many 
injuries. If it be broken or crushed at any part, all the nerves 
are immediately powerless below the ^injury : the sense of feel- 
ing and motion are stopped. If the cord is injured at its upper 
part, death at once ensues. 

Concusnon of the spine is sometimes a consequence of coming 
too suddenly and heavily on the feet, especially on the heels. 
It is followed by a want of nervous energy, and a depressed state 
of the system altogether; there is a loss of sensation and motion 
in the lower part of the body, and frequently inability to pass 
the urine, there being in fact, partial or entire paralysis. 

Sometimes there is acute pain in the lower limbs, and 
symptoms of active inflammation may set in, which will require 
leeching or cupping, with hot fomentations and the usual de- 
pletive measures. In such a case , pending the arrival of the 
medical man, little can be done beyond placing the patient in as 
easy a position as possible, and applying moist heat to the low- 
er part of the spine; an active purgative maybe administered, 
and a dozen leeches applied to the back, should it be long be- 
fore the surgeon arrives, if the patient is of a full habit and in 
much pain. Should the shock be but slight, the effects 
will probably soon pass off: but it is necessary to be cautious, 
and avoid any violent exertion, especially such as jumping, for 
a time. 


Often these cases are very tedious ; the lost powers are re- 
covered sh)wly, if at all. Friction with stimulating liniments, 
salt-water bathing, the douch bath, gentle exercise, and nour- 
ishing diet, are the means to be pursued. When there is dis- 
placement of the vertebras, which can only be caused by extreme 
violence, and in which case there is also generally fracture of 
the bone, there must be injury of the spinal cord, and if at all 
high up, instant or speedy death is the result; if low down, 
permanent paralysis of the Ioav er limbs most likely ensues. (For 
treatment, see paralysis). 

Apoplexy of the sjnnal cord is not an unfrequent concomitant 
of epilepsy. With this we have convulsive twitchings, pain, and 
imperfect performance of the functions of motion and sensation. 
Soothing, palliative measures, are the only ones to be adopted 
in this case. Hot bran poultices, and opiates, if there is severe 
pain ; but these should be cautiously given, and not carried to 
any great extent without professional advice. 

Stiff Neck. — A complaint brought on by sitting or sleep- 
ing in a draught, at an open window, etc. 

Treatment. — Rub the neck well with hartshorn and sweet 
oil, two or three times a day ; and wear round the neck a piece 
of new flannel, moistened with the hartshorn and oil. 

Sore Throat. — This is commonly a symptom of inflamma- 
tory fever, and is often the result of a simple cold. Some per- 
sons are peculiarly liable to it, and experience great difficulty 
of swallowing from relaxed uvula. Sometimes in sore throat 
there is simply inflammation of the mucous membrane ; and when 
this is the case it will probably pass away in a day or two, Avith 
a little careful nursing and aperient medicines. Should it extend 
into the air passages, causing cough and catarrhal symptoms, it 
becomes a more serious business, and medical advice should at 
once be sought. In the meantime, a saltpetre gargle should be 
used, or sal prunella balls, one being put into the mouth oc- 
casionally and allowed to dissolve. Hot bran poultices may also 
be placed about the throat, which, at a later stage, may be 
rubbed with a liniment of oil and hartshorn. 

There is an erysipelatous form of sore throat which is highly 
dangerous, and requires very active treatment. A strong gar- 
gle of lunar caustic must be used in this case, or the inflamed 
part must be pencilled with the caustic in the stick. If it ex- 
tends to the larynx and air passages this frequentl}'' proves fa- 
tal. This is a distinct disease from diphtheria. 

Stiffness of Joints. {Anchylosis). — This may be caused by 
the introduction of the lava of an insect, or from a violent blow 


or fall, eitlier of wliich will often bring on an inflammatory ac- 
tion, with an exudation and deposit of gritty matter, which 
settles between the bones forming the joints, and thus prevents 
their free movement. 

Treatment. — Take a vessel sufficiently deep to admit of the 
immersion of the leg up to above the knee. Nearly fill it with 
Avater of the temperature of ninety-eight degrees, and pour in a 
strong decoction of elder-flowers and tar. Take this bath night 
and morning; and aj)ply to the aftected i)art, three times a day, 
compresses saturated with the following lotion: Liquor of am- 
monia, 2| ounces; camphorated alcohol, 3 drams: bay salt, Ij 
ounces ; water, 1 quart. 

Mix. The compresses should remain on for ten minutes at 
a time. Afterwards apj)ly a plaster made as follows: Lard, ten 
ounces; yellow wax, three ounces. Mix these over the fire, with 
just sufficient hot water to Ibrm a mass; and add grated cam- 
phor, three ounces. Remove from the fire, and let it cool. 
When sufficiently congealed, spread it with the blade of a knife 
or the handle of a spoon, upon a piece of linen of the size re- 
quired; and cover the whole with oilskin. Or, bathe the part 
night and morning with warm salt and water ; rub well in. two or 
three times a day, almond-oil; and, at the same time, endeavor 
by gentle movement to loosen the joint. 

Stitch in the Side or spurious pleurisy, is a spasmodic 
affection of the muscles of the chest, and is rheumatic in its or- 
igin. With this there are not the symptoms of inflammation 
nor the difficulty of breathing, except that caused by the pain 
or stitch in the side. Exposure to cold or violent exercise will 
also cause this. It generally yields to warm applications, mus- 
tard poultices, or stimulating liniments. The best medicines in 
this case will be pills of colocynth three grains, with extract of 
colchicum one-quarter of a grain in each, taken every night; 
and three times a day a seidlitz draught, with fifteen grains of 
wine of colchicum and six of laudanum in each. 

St. Vitus's Dance (Chorea). — This disease is more common 
in females tlian in males, and usually occurs in children from 
eight to fourteen years of age. 

Causes — The predisposing cause of this disease is undoubt- 
edly debility, generally dependent upon too rapid growth. 
The approach of puberty has been considered a predisposing 
cause of chorea; and so far as the changes then effected are 
causes of general weakness, tlie idea may be correct, but their 
farther influence may well be doubted. In boys, however, sex- 
ual excitement, and particularly certain criminal indulgences, 


not uncommon at this age, should be suspected, when symptoms 
of chorea begin to manifest themselves. The too frequent use 
of vegetables, and the presence of worms, are also regarded as 
common causes. 

Symptoms. — The procursive symptoms are variable appe- 
tite, sometimes ravenous and sometimes wanting, a degree of 
listlessness and inactivity, a swelling and hardness of the belly, 
usually accompanied with constipation, and slight, irregular con- 
vulsive motions of the muscles of the face. As the disease ad- 
vances, the muscles of the extremities, of the lower jaw, the 
head, and the trunk, are in various degrees affected. In this 
state the patient is unable to walk steadily, his only movement 
being a kind of jumping or springing; or, perhaps, he is com- 
pelled to run in order to make any progress. To whatever set 
of muscles it is attempted to communicate motion, these imme- 
diately become affected with the diseased action, and either re- 
fuse to obey the will, or obey it imperfectly, and by jerks in 
uncertain directions. Even if speech be attempted, articulation 
is found impossible, or the words are uttered with embarrass- 
ment and difficulty. In the progress of the disease, the eye 
loses its brightness and intelligence, and the countenance bo- 
comes pale and vacant. In some cases actual loss of mental 
power seems to follow. 

The whole muscular system is never simultaneously affected ; 
and, in some instances, the perfect control Avliich is retained 
over a part, compared with the mutinous state of the remainder, 
is very remarkable. Sometimes, though the gesticulations are 
most absurd, the speech is easy and fluent; and sometimes, 
when unable to walk with any approach to regularity, the pa- 
tient can sing and play with the most perfect correctness. 

Cleanse the stomach. For an adult, give an emetic, as fol- 
lows: Pulverized ipecac, 10 grains; tartar emetic, 3 gj-ains. 

Mix in nine teaspoonfuls of warm water. Dose, three 
tablespoonfuls at first, and then one tablespoonful, every fif- 
teen minutes, till vomiting ensues. The next day give the fol- 
lowing aperient; Calomel, 15 grains; pulverized rhubarb, 10 
grains ; aloes, 10 grains. 

Mix. Divide into six pills. Dose, two every two hours, 
working them off with gruel, with salt in it. A complete cure 
has been effected by giving two drams of carbonate of iron in 
molasses every six hours. To allay the nervous irritation, give 
Indian hemproot tea. An occasional tepid foot-bath Avill be found 


Strumous, or Scrofulous Opthalmia.— The strumous 
form of opthalmia is occasionally met with in persons of all 
ageri, but it more especially attacks weakly and scrofulous chil- 
dren who are under eight or ten years of age. 

Symptoms — A peculiar intolerance of light is one of its 
most marked .symptoms. A spasmodic closure of the lids takes 
place whenever much light is presented to the eye. On forc- 
ing them open, the conjunctiva will generally be found univers- 
ally inflamed, but sometimes only partially so; but that which 
especially distinguishes this form of opthalmic disease is the 
presence of — it may be one, or two, or several — little bright red 
pustules, each terminating a vein of the stime color, and the 
parts on which they exist are the most inflamed. 

Treatment. — Local applications will do little or nothing for 
the cure of this disease. The treatment must be general and 
generous. The cause is usually obstructed or unhealthy secre- 
tions, and if these are rectified the efl'ect will soon disappear. 
Attention mnst be first paid to the state of the liver and kid- 
neys. If these are deficient in iictior — if there is anything 
wrong with the bile or the urine- — administer the appropriate 
remedies. After this, administer tonics in combination with seda- 
tives — say quinine and digitalis; or, if this afiects the action of 
the heart too much — hemlock. They may be given in the form 
of pills, one grain of the first and one-third of a grain of the 
second or third, three times a day. With some constitutions, 
the iodide of potassium acts best; therefore, if the above does 
not succeed, take the following : Iodide of potassium, 2 scru- 
ples; compound essence of sarsaparilla, 4 drams j tincture of 
digitalis, or hemlock, 1 dram; cinnamon, or mint water, 8 
ounces. It is sometimes advisable to add to this sweet spirits 
of nitre about a dram. In obstinate cases the pustules may be 
touched with nitrate of silver, but this should be left to a com- 
petent surgeon. 

Styes. — Styes are little inflammatory tumors which fre- 

. quently make their appearance on the edges of the eyelids of 

.children. They rarely affect grown persons; and, although 

troublesome, are not all dangerous locally, nor prejudicious to 

the general health. They run the same course as l3oils, which 

in reality they are. 

Treatment. — Generally they require no medical treatment, 
but when very large and painful, a hot water fomentation will 
prove beneficial. When once the matter has escaped, they heal 
very quickly. A simple dressing of spermaceti ointment is 
sometimes required, but not often. 


Squinting {Strabismus). — Squinting is a disease of the 
eyes, in wiiich tliey do not move in harmony witli each other. 
Squinting may be confined to one eye, or it may atiect both, and 
it may be in any direction. If the sight of both eyes is equally 
good, or nearly so, then all objects are seen double; but if 
the sight of one is much better tlian that of the other, the mind 
only attends to the more vivid impression, and disregards the 
weaker. Squinting is owing to some aflection of the nerves 
or muscles of the eye. In most cases, it admits of cure by the 
operation of dividing the muscle by which the distortion is pro- 

Suppression of Urine. — If there is a frequent desire of 
making water, attended with much difficulty in voiding it, it is 
called strangun/. It' none is made, suppression of urine. 

Causes. — Inflammation of the urethra or passage, or sores, 
or severe inflammations about those parts ; a lodgment of hard 
matter in the last gut or rectum, spasm at the neck of the blad- 
der, exposure to cold, taking to excess cantharides, or blistering 
back, excess in drinking, stone in the kidneys or bladder, and 
enlargement of prostate glands. 

SrMPTOMS. — A constant desire, or feeling of necessity to 
make water and cannot, or if parted with, much pain and diffi- 
culty in passing it; much enlargement of the bladder. If from 
stone in the kidney be the cause, often nausea, vomiting, and 
acute pain in the loins ; if from stone in the bladder, the stream 
of water will be divided into two, or suddenly checked. 

Treatment. — If much inflammation and irritation exists, all 
straining to expel the urine should be avoided, and it let off by 
a catheter every six hours, or, as it is commonly called, drawn. 
The following will be found very useful remedies: Anodyne 
diuretic draught: Mucilage of gum acacia, six ounces; olive oil, 
one and a half ounces ; mix well in a marble mortar, then add 
six drams of spirits of sweet nitre : laudanum, one and a half 
drams ; fennel water, three ounces ; mix, and take three table- 
spoonfuls every three hours; or this: Demulcent diuretic 
draught: Acetate of potash, two drams; laudanum, one and a 
half drams; syrup of marsh mallows, one and a half ounces; 
fennel water, eight ounces; mix, take three tablespoonfuls every 
three hours. 

The bowels must in all cases be kept free by using the fol- 
lowing often: Emollient clyster: Balsam of capivi, two drams- 
yolk of an egg] rub this and the balsam together; then add 
castor oil, half ounce ; laudanum, one dram; compound decoc- 
tion of marsh mallows (that is well boiled), eleven onnces; mix, 
inject up the rectum ; this foments and soothes the parts. 


Syphilis, or Pox, is usually acccompanied by three dis- 
tinct characters of sores or ulcers: first, the common primary 
venereal sore ; secondly, the phagedenic or sloughing sore ; and 
thirdly, the true syphilitic or Hunterian chancre. The com- 
mon venereal sore usually appears in three or four days after 
connection; the patient feels an itching about the tip of the 
penis, finds either a pustule or an ulcer, situated either upon the 
prepuce externally or internally, at its junction with the glans, 
or on the glans itself, or at the orifice of the urethra at its union 
with the bridle or frajimm. 

The form of this ulcer is generally round or circular, and is 
hollowed out, presenting a dirty, brown, hard, lardaceous sur- 
face, which secretes a puriforni matter. When this ulcer is 
situated on the prepuce, it becomes raised, particularly at its 
edges ; when in the fossa, or at the root of the glans of the 
penis, it is ragged; and when on the glans, it is excavated. Its 
progress is first destructive, and then suppurative ; and, if not 
interfered with in favorable cases, usually runs its course in 
about twenty days — the destructive or ulcerative stage lasting 
about ten days, and the granulating or healing stage lasting the 
remaining ten. This sore is unaccompanied by any thickening 
or hardened base in the first stage, unless interfered with by 
mal-treatment, dissipation, or the abuse of caustic. This sore is 
frequently productive of swelling and inflammation in the groin, 
and is followed by warts and growths of an unhealthy character 
situated betwen the thighs, purse, and lower parts of the body, 
and between the buttocks. 

Treatment. — In the first stage — that is, before the crust 
falls off, or where the ulcer is very small — the sore should be 
touched with lunar caustic; this frequently stops the ulcerative 
stage, and causes it to take on a new action by which it heals; 
the same application, but weaker, will be necessary if the sore 
becomes indolent. During the ulcerative stage, or that stage 
in which the ulcer increases instead of diminishes, great atten- 
tion must be paid to cleanliness; the sore should be washed 
three or four times a day with warm water, a piece of lint or 
fine linen, covered with spermaceti ointment, or wetted with 
blackwash, should be applied to it after every washing. The 
bowels should be kept open, and five grains of blue pill, or five 
grains of Plummer's pill, administered niglit and morning, taking 
care not to produce salivation. When the sore assumes an in- 
dolent character, great benefit Avill be derived from the appli- 
cation of the following wash: Lunar caustic, 5 grains; distilled 
water, \\ ounces. 


Mix. A piece of lint or linen, wetted in this lotion, to be 
applied to the sore three or four times a day. 

Black wash is the best application for those warts and 
growths which spring up about the anus and buttocks. The 
swelling in the groin, arising from the common venereal sore, 
seldom requires any treatment; but if it should prove trouble- 
some and painful, leeches may be applied, followed by fomenta- 
tions ?ii^d poultices. The patient should rest as much as possible, 
and make use of a plain, unstimulating diet. 

In the treatment of phagedenic or sloughing ulcer, no spe- 
cific rules can be laid down, the sores at one time requiring a 
stimulating and at another time a soothing method of treatment. 
This sore usually commences from an excoriation, or a pustule, 
as in the case of common venereal sore, or it may follow that 
form of the disease. It is known by that process of extension 
by which its edges appear to melt away ; " the action is chiefly 
confined to the margin, Avhich the destructive process having 
undermined, overlaps with an irregular and ragged edge." In 
this form of ulcer, the reparatory action commences as soon as 
the destructive is exhausted, so that the two processes advance 
together at opposite edges, the sore ulcerating at one part and 
healing at another at the same time. In the commencement, 
the sore may be touched with nitric acid, or diluted nitric acid, 
upon two or three occasions, and if found not to agree, the stimu- 
lating treatment should be laid aside, and the soothing substi- 
tuted. It may now be washed with warm water, and various 
applications tried, as it is impossible to say what form of wash 
will answer best. Those in most repute are the black wash, 
yellow Avash (yellow wash is made by adding six grains of corro- 
sive sublimate to four ounces of lime water), diluted nitric acid, 
Peruvian balsam, and solutions of the nitrate of silver. If the 
patient be of a full habit, he may lose blood from the arm with 
advantage, and take salines and antimonials. If weak, he should 
live generously, and mercury should be administered with great 

For the treatment of the true syphilitic or Hunterian chan- 
cre, mercury is the sheet anchor, and must be employed either 
internally or externally, or, where circumstances require it, by 
both means. This sore, unlike the preceding, seldom appears 
before a week or ten days, and is sometimes not detected for 
four or five weeks after connection. It appears in the form of a 
red, raw, superficial ulceration, placed on a circumscribed, ele- 
vated, hardened base. This base is firm, incompressible, and 
inelastic, and is as hard as cartilage j it is destitute of pain and 


very slow in its progress. This form of the disease is generally 
accompanied by true bubo — that is, inflammation of one or two 
glands in the groin, distinct and circumscribed in their outline, 
and totally dissimilar to those swellings in the groin arising 
from gonorrhea or the common venereal sore. 

As soon as the sore is detected, the patient should com- 
mence taking five grains of blue pill, and a quarter of a grain of 
opium, made into a pill, night and morning; and he may, at the 
same time, in order to bring the constitution as soon as possible 
under the influence of mercury, rub in, twice a day, along the 
inside of the thigh, about the size of a nut, an ointment com- 
posed of blue or mercurial ointment and camphor. The follow- 
ing is the formula: Rub down twenty grains of camphor on a 
slate with a spatula, having previously saturated it with spirit 
of wine, and then mix it up with the mercurial ointment. This 
treatment should bo continued only until the mouth and gums 
become slightly aftected, when it should be left off for a short 
time. The patient should be kept under the influence of the 
medicine for three or four weeks, and then the decoction of sar- 
saparilla and the hydriodate of potash administered. Five 
grains of the latter, in a common-sized tumblerful of the former, 
may be taken three times a day, and continued for a month, ac- 
cording to circumstances. The sore, in the meantime, should 
be kept clean, and such applications employed as may happen 
to agree with it best; these consist of washes of nitrate of sil- 
ver, black wash, and spermaceti ointment. 

Wiien the ulcer cicatrizes, or heals, and any hardness re- 
mains, mercury should be given to promote its absorption, and 
the skin destroyed by the direct application of the nitrate of 

When the disease has been neglected, or a sufficient quan- 
tity of mercury has not been given, the constitution becomes 
affected in a time varying from six weeks to three months, 
which manifests itself by producing sore throat, disease of the 
skin, and inflammation of the eyes. These diseases must bo 
severally treated by the remedies already recommended. 

When a bubo becomes troublesome and painf"ul, it should 
be well leeched, fomented, and poulticed; and should it pro- 
ceed to suppuration, the matter must be let out by a free inci- 
sion with a lancet, as soon as fluctuation is felt. 

During this disease, the patient should be warmly clad, he 
should rest as much as possible, and live on plain, unstimulating 
food. In the commencement, lie sliouM refrain entirely from 
spirits, wine, or fermented liquors; he should not expose liim- 


self to wet, damp, or the night-air, and he should pay strict 
attention to his bowels. 

The syphilitic poison, when it has once entered into the 
system, is with great difficulty eliminated, and sometimes shows 
itself in children several generations removed from the person 
originally infected. It may be communicated by a pregnant 
woman to the child in her womb through the medium of her 
blood, by which the fetus is nourished ; and thus, as in numer- 
ous other cases of disease, the children sufier for the sins of the 

On those parts which are essential to life, such as the brain, 
heart and abdominal viscera, this poison does not appear to be 
capable of exercising any destructive power; but the bones, mus- 
cles, tendons, and skin readily partake of its malignant nature. 
Hence we see so many persons dragging out a wretched exis- 
tence, a misery to themselves and an eye-sore to society — left, 
as it were, by the Almighty to warn others against vicious 
practices, and point the moral of the preacher against vice and 

Stammering. — This defect of speech sometimes proceeds 
from functional disorder, sometimes from nervousness, sometimes 
the result of irritation. From whatever cause it originates, it is 
in the majority of cases to be cured by an exertion of the will. 

Treatment. — Stammerers, although they cannot speak a sin- 
gle sentence without hesitation, can sing a song of many verses 
as fluently as any person ; and it is almost as true that stammer- 
ers can read with equal ease. It is therefore to be recom- 
mended that those who stammer should begin with a set of ex- 
ercises of commonplace sentences, chant to the first bars of the 
simplest melody, such as " My Country," and from that, prac- 
tise those sentences upon one note, ending a note lower or 
higher, slowly at first, but gradually increased to rapidity. 

Tetter. — After a slight feverish attack, lasting two or 
three days, clusters of small, transparent pimples, filled some- 
times with a colorless, sometimes with a brownish lymph, ap- 
pear on the cheeks or forehead, or on the extremities, and at 
times on the body. 

The pimples are about the size of a pea, and break after a 
few days, when a brown or yellow crust is formed over them, 
which falls off about the tenth day, leaving the skin red and 
irritable. The eruption is attended with heat, itching, tingling, 
fever, and restlessness, especially at night. Ringworm is a 
curious form of tetter, in which the inflamed patches assume 
the form of a ring. 


Treatment. — The treatment should consist of light diet and 
gentle laxatives. If the patient be advanced in life, and feeble, 
a tonic will be desirable. For a wash, white vitriol, 1 dram ; 
rose-water, 3 ounces, mixed ; or an ointment made of elder-flower 
ointment, 1 ounce ; oxide of zinc, 1 dram. 

Humid Tetter is an eruption of minute, round pimples, 
about the size of a pin's head, filled with colorless fluid, and ter- 
minating in scurf. It is preceded by languor, faintness, perspir- 
ation, and a pricking of the skin. Another species of this dis- 
ease is called sun-heat, Avhich is an eruption of a white or brown- 
ish color, which generally terminates in yellow scabs. It occurs 
only in summer, and affects those parts which are uncovered. 

In still another species, the eruption is attended with pain, 
heat, itching, intense smarting and a swelling of the affected 
part. When the blisters break, the water runs out, irritates 
and inflames the skin. 

Treatment. — Low diet, cooling drinks, gentle purgatives, 
and warm baths. In old chronic cases, apply externally either 
lime water or corrosive sublimate in a wash proportioned of 5 
grains to 1 pint of soft water. In the last two forms of the af- 
fection apply nitrate of silver, in solution, to the parts. 

Crusted Tetter. — This eruption consists at first of slightly 
elevated pustules or pimples, closely congregated, with an in- 
flamed border. These break, and the surface becomes red, ex- 
coriated, shining, and full of pores, through which a thin, un- 
healthy fluid is poured out, which gradually hardens into dark, 
yellowish-green scabs. When this tetter invades the head or 
scalp, it causes the hair to fall off", and is termed a scall. 

Treatment. — Yapor bath and water dressing. The crusts 
should be removed by a weak lye, made from hard-wood ashes 
or potash; then an ointment should be applied, made of mild 
nitrate of mercury ointment, 3 drams; sugar of lead, 16 grains; 
rose-water ointment, 1 ounce. 

Tooth-aclie. — For this distressing and very common mal- 
ady almost every one has a "sure cure," the peculiarity of Avhich 
is, that it does little or nothing to mitigate the anguish of the 
sufferer to whom it is recommended. Among the remedies which 
we have to suggest, as having found them pretty generally suc- 
cessful, are, creosote, chloroform, and laudanum. Separately or 
in combination they may be tried all ways. The mode of appli- 
cation is to saturate a small piece of lint or wadding, and intro- 
duce it into the hollow of the tooth, keeping it there as long as 
may be necessary. Sliould there be no available hollow, put it as 
close as possible to the seat of pain. Many of the other rem- 


edies recommended we have known to afford relief occasionally ; 
such as inhaling the vapor from henbane seeds, put on a hot 
piece of metal; chewing a piece of pellitory-root, or using the 
tincture: putting a piece of sal prunella in the mouth and al- 
lowing it to dissolve ; applying a drop or two of the oil of cloves, 
or cinnamon, on lint ; or thrusting into the hollow tooth a piece 
of wire previously dipped in strong nitric acid, — this application, 
if properly made, destroys the nerve, but it must be very 
carefully done, so that the acid does not touch the other 
teeth or the mouth. An aching tooth may oftentimes be 
stopped, and remain serviceable for years ; but this mnst not be 
done while the nerve is in an inflamed state, as in this case the 
pressure will but increase the anguish. Where a tooth is so 
far gone as to be very troublesome, it is best to have it out. 

Ulceration of the Bones (Caries). — This is a disease of the 
bones analogous to ulceration of the soft parts. It most fre- 
quently attacks the bones of the spine ; but it may affect any 
of the bones, especially such as are of a spongy texture. 

Causes. — The young, or those of a scrofulous habit of body, 
are most subject to this disease. It sometimes appears spon- 
taneously ; at others, as the result of an injury, as a blow or 

Symptoms. — It begins with inflammation, usually attended 
with a dull, heavy pain, and weakness in the part affected. In 
course of time an abscess forms, which, if not arrested, at length 
bursts and discharges a thin fluid containing particles of tlie 
bone. In caries of the vertebrae, curvature of the spine takes 

Treatment. — Much may be done in arresting the progress of 
this disease in its earlier stages. The patient should be strength- 
ened by good air and nourishing diet, at the same time that rest 
is enjoined. The state of the stomach and bowels should also 
be attended to. In Ihe local treatment of the disease, blisters, 
leeches, and issues are to be employed. The abscesses are best 
left to nature, unless they are productive of much uneasiness. 
When they have burst, the exfoliation of the diseased part 
should be expedited ss much as possible ; or, when practicable, 
the Avhole of the diseased portion should be removed by a saw 
or gouge, so that the healthy portions may granulate and heal. 

Uicerated, or Putrid Sore Throat.— This sort of so:e 
throat shows itself by white specks, covering ulcers, appearing 
in the throat, together with great debility, and an eruption oa 
the skin. 

Causes. — Contagion (infection) ; from a humid state of th-^ 


atmosphere, it becomes epidemical, and will sometimes rage 
through families, villages, or towns; and is also produced by 
similar causes to typhus, or malignant fevers, to which it seems 
akin in its nature. 

Symptoms. — It commences with cold shiverings, anxiety, 
nausea and vomiting, succeeded by heat, thirst, restlessness, 
and debility; also, much oppression at the chest; the face looks 
flushed, the eyes are red, a stiffness is perceived in the neck, 
with a humid breathing, hoarseness of the voice, and soreness 
in the throat. After a short time the breath becomes offensive, 
the tongue is covered with a thick brown fur, and the inside of 
the lips is beset with vesicles, containing an acrid matter; upon 
inspection of the throat, a number of sloughs, between a light 
ash and a dark brown color, are to be seen. From the first at- 
tack of the complaint, there is a considerable degree of fever, 
with a small irregular pulse, and the fever increases towa.rds 
the evening. About the second or third day, large patches 
make their appearance about the face and neck, which by de- 
grees become dispersed over every part of the body. As the 
sloughs in the throat spread, they generally become of a darker 
color, and the whole throat is soon covered with thick sloughs, 
which, when they fall off, discover deep-seated ulcers. 

Treatment. — The bowels should bo opened 'with a dose of 
Rochelle salts or sulphate of magnesia. To cleanse the throat, 
use the following gargle : Honey of roses, 1 ounce ; tincture of 
myrrh, ^ ounce; vinegar, 1 ounce; decoctionof barley, 10 ounces. 
Mix and use frequently. Or the following: Muriatic acid, 1 
dram; compound tincture of cinnamon, \ ounce; tincture ot 
myrrh, 1 ounce; decoction of Peruvian bark, 6 ounces. Mix, 
and use frequently. Breathe the steam of hot vinegar and 
water into the throat. 

The following is a good astringent draught: Aromatic con- 
fection, 1 dram ; tincture of catechu, 1 dram ; laudanum, 30 
drops; chalk mixture, 2 ounces; cinnamon water, 2| ounces. 
Mix. Take two tablespoonfuls every four hours. Shake well 
always before taking. Sometimes bleeding from the mouth, 
nose, ears, takes place in the latter stages of the disease ; 
and becoming alarming, use the following as a wash : Sulphate 
of copper, 1^ drams; alum, | dram; rectified spirit of wine, 1 
ounce; pure Avater 7 ounces. Mix and apply internally with a 
tent, or on linen cloths. The diet must be light and nourishing 
— tapioca, sago, rice, and the like; the drinks must be acidu- 
lated; free air, but not cold; the room sprinkled with vinegar, 
and generally as is laid in acute and typhus fever, uso the fol- 
lowing in the room, aa a purifying auti-infectious gas: 


Take a pound of common salt, put it into an earthen dish, 
occasionally pour a tablespoonful of sulphuric acid (oil of vitriol) ; 
Btir up with a stick, avoid breathing over it when the fumes are 
rising. Do this four or six times a day, whenever infectious 
diseases are raging. It is a great preventive. 

Eclectic or Herbal Treatment for Throat Diseases. — For putrid 
sore throat, at its early stage, give an emetic, and follow by a 
cathartic if the bowels are costive. A mixture composed as 
follows has been found very beneficial : — 

Take a half a pint of fresh brewers' yeast, and mix with a 
half pint of water ; add sufficient brown sugar to flavor. Dose, 
one teaspoonful every two hours. Good results have frequent- 
ly followed a gargle made of yeast and milk, or of sage and vin- 
egar. A small quantity may be swallowed with benefit. Or 
use the following: Sumac berries, 1 ounce; white oak bark, 1 
ounce; red elm bark, 1^ ounces; blackberry root, 1^ ounces. 

Make a decoction wath sufficient water, and to each pint add 
a piece of alum about the size of a walnut ; when cool, strain, and 
use as a gar le. 

What has been said unaer the head of putrid sore throat, 
will be found useful in the treatment of quinsy. When there is 
a tendency to this disease, the throat should be sponged every 
morning with cold salt water. Local applications are of great 
value. Great relief is experienced by inhaling the steam of hot 
vinegar or water from a teapot. Gargles made of port wine or 
brandy and water are very useful in restoring the tone of the 
fibres, when relaxed from distention. 

If the attack increases in severity, use a decoction of worm- 
wood, hops, and catnip, with equal parts of soft water and vine- 
gar ; boil for two hours. Put the preparation in a large pitcher 
and place a funnel over it, by which means let the patient inhale 
the steam for fifteen or twenty minutes, every two hours. 

The following liniment is very useful : Sassafras oil, ^ ounce ; 
olive oil, 2 ounce ; spirits of hartshorn ^ ounce ; gum camphor, 
2 drams. Mix ; Avarm, and bathe the throat as long as the pa- 
tient can bear it, several times a day, after wdiich bind a piece 
of flannel round the neck, soaking the feet in warm water every 
night, in quinsy. 

In the treatment of mumps, it is seldom that medicine of 
any kind is needed. Keep the patient in a warm bed, and pro- 
mote perspiration by the free use of balm tea. Bathe the feet in 
a tepid bath, and keep the bowels open. If the swelling great- 
ly increases, use a poultice of wild indigo and slippery elm. If 
the testicles swell, bathe them with sweet oil and camphor. If 


the pain still continues, use the following liniment: Scraped 
castile soap, 1 dram; sassafras oil, ^ ounce; sweet oil, 1 ounce; 
camphor, 3 drams. Mix and apply warm three times a day. 

Ulcers. — These generally proceed from some external in- 
jury, such as a wound or a bruise ; or they arise in consequence 
of inflammation or some other disease. There are several sorts, 
as healthy, irritable, indolent, inflamed, sloughing or gangren- 
ous, and sinuous. 

Causes. — Wounds, injuries, bruises, inflammations, absces- 
ses, or the suppression of some accustomed evacuations. 

Symptoms. — A running sore, with acrid humors ; hardness of 
the edges around the sore, and difficulty of healing. 

Treatment. — In the healthy, which secrete good matter, and 
look to be healing, though but slowly, poultice with white 
bread or linseed poultice, a day or two; then dress with the 
following: Olive oil, 16 ounces; yellow wax,, 1 pound; yellow 
resin, 1 pound; Burgundy pitch, 1 pound; Venice turpentine, 
3 ounces. Melt the Avax, resin, and pitch together with the 
oil, over a slow fire. When mixed, take off the fire, and put in 
the turpentine ; stir well, and strain whilst hot through a coarse 

In the irritable, which are very sore and spread, use the 
same fomentation as prescribed for rupture ; take a cooling 
purgative, and use the following wash: Nitric or muriatic acid, 
50 drops; water, 1 quart. Mix, and wash the sore with this 
two or three times a day, and poultice a day or two with linseed 
whilst using it. Then dress with the following salve: Venice 
turpentine, 1 ounce; frankincense, 1 ounce; beeswax, 1 ounce; 
linseed oil, 1 ounce; black resin, 1 ounce; black pitch, 2 ounces. 
Melt together ; wlien cold enough, add fresh butter (without 
salt) or lard, sufficient to make it soft enough to dress with; 
apply twice a day. When it begins to look healthy, dress 
with the yellow-wax ointment, as before recommended. 

Vomiting". — This may arise from various causes, as excess 
in eating and drinking, foulness of the stomach, the acrimony 
of aliments, sudden stoppage of Avounds, Aveakness of the stom- 
ach, etc. 

Treatment. — When vomiting proceeds from foul stomach or 
indigestion, it is not to be considered as a disease, but as the 
cure of a disease. It ought, therefore, to be promoted by drink- 
ing lukewarm water or thin gruel. If this does not put a stop 
to the vomiting, a dose of ipecacuanha maybe taken, and worked 
off with weak camomile tea. If vomiting proceed from weak- 
ness of the stomach, bitters will be of service. Peruvian bark 


infused in wine or brandy, with as much rhubarb as will open 
the body gently, is an excellent remedy in this case. The di- 
luted acid of vitriol is also a good medicine, and may be taken 
in the dose of fifteen or twenty drops, twice or thrice a day, in 
a glass of wine or water. It has been said that habitual vomit- 
ings are alleviated by making oysters a principal part of diet. 
A vomiting which proceeds from acidity of the stomach is re- 
lieved by alkaline purges. The best medicine is magnesia, a 
teaspoonful of wliich may be taken in a cupful of tea or a little 
milk, three or four times a day, or oftener, if necessary, to keep 
the body open. When vomiting proceeds from violent passions 
or affections of the mind, all evacuants must be carefully avoid- 
ed. The patient in this case ought to be kept perfectly easy 
and quiet, to have the mind soothed, and to take Some gentle 
cordial, as negus or a little brandy and water, to which a few 
drops of laudanum may be occasionally added. 

When vomiting proceeds from spasmodic affections of the 
stomach, the application of a warm plaster to the pit of the 
stomach will afford relief. Any aromatic medicines may like- 
wise be taken internally, as cinnamon or mint tea, wine with 
spices boiled in it, etc. The region of the stomach may be 
rubbed with ether, or, if that cannot be had, with strong brandy 
or other spirit. The belly should be fomented with warm water, 
or tlie patient immersed up to the breast in a warm bath. 
Saline draughts, taken in the act of effervescence, are of singular 
use in stopping a vomit, from whatever cause it may proceed. 
These draughts may be prepared by dissolving one dram of the 
salt of tartar in one and a half ounces of fresh lemon juice, and 
adding to it one ounce of peppermint water, the same quantity 
of simple cinnamon water, and a little white sugar. This 
draught must be swallowed before the effervescence is quite 
over, and may be repeated every two hours, or oftener, if the 
vomiting is violent. As the least motion will bring on vomit- 
ing again, even after it has stopped, the patient ought to avoid 
all manner of action. 

Warts. — The wart is an excrescence from the cutis or 
outer skin — a horny tumor formed upon it ; it is not generally 
so painful as it is disagreeable and unsightly, coming nearly 
always upon the hands, or some other conspicuous place. The 
best treatment is to touch it with some caustic, or escharotic. 
Nitrate of silver is the most effectual, but this turns the skin 
black, which is in many cases very objectionable. Caustic potash 
will answer the purpose, so Avill acetic acid, if of extra strength, 
and nitric acid. The application should be made daily, and the 


decayed part pared off, or cut with scissors. If it can be con* 
viently done, a ligature of silk tied tightly round the base of the 
wart will cause it to decay, and eventually drop off. Another 
simple method is to bind a leaf of a house leek upon it, from 
which you have removed the skin, for a few nights in succes- 
sion, and the wart will disappear. 

Wasting^ {Emaciation — Atrophy). — The rapid or gradual 
reduction of the size of the whole body, or of parts thereof, fre- 
quently comes on without any evident cause. It is seldom ac- 
compained by pain, difficulty of breathing, cough, or fever; but 
is usually attended with loss of appetite and impaired digestion, 
depression of spirits, and general languor. 

Treatment. — This disease is very difficult of cure, and for 
its treatment we must endeavor to find out the cause, and, if 
possible, remove it. If occasioned by worms, these must be de» 
stroyed by appropriate medicines ; if by excess of any kind, 
this must be wholly discontinued ; if from a scrofulous disposi- 
tion, tonic medicines must be resorted to; and in like manner 
the treatment will be the same with that of every other disease 
which it may either accompany or of which it may be the effect. 
The diet should be nutritious, generous, and such as is easy of 
digestion, — milk, calves'-feet jelly, &c. Regular walking exer- 
cise should be taken in the open air. The surface of the body 
should be well rubbed, and change of scene and sea-bathing 
may be resorted to. Of medicines, cod-liver oil is likely to 
prove the most effectual. 

It often occurs, more particularly in children, that wasting 
takes place without derangement of any other process than that 
of nutrition. In these cases a teaspoonful of cod-liver oil two 
or three times a day may often be followed by very decided 
and permanent benefit. 

Water Brash. — Water Brash consists in a discharge from 
the stomach, generally in the morning, of a thin, glairy fluid, 
sometimes insipid, often sweetish, and at other times sour. A 
burning heat or pain of the stomach attends it, and seems to 
cause the discharge. The amount thrown up varies from a 
spoonful to a pint or more. The complaint is caused by a poor 
innutritions diet, or by whatever causes the blood to become 
thin and watery. 

Treatment. — Ten or fifteen drops of ammonia water, in half 
a tumblerful of cold water, will quiet the distress and stop the 
discharge. The best remedy for this discharge is the trisni- 
trate of bismuth, taken at meal times, three times a day, in 
thirty -grain doses.. The tincture of nux vomica is good. The 


blood should be restored by tonics of some preparation of iron, 
and the food should be nourishing and digestible. 

Watery Eye. — If we look closely at the inner corner of 
the eyelids, we may perceive a little point at each, which is the 
opening of a duct that runs into the nose. These openings convey 
the tears from the eye ; every time the eye is shut in winking, the 
lluid is forced into those pipes. Now, when either or both be- 
come so thickened as to be stopped up , the tears of necessity 
tall over the cheek; this is called a watery eye. 

Treatment. — As the cause of this disease is most commonly 
inflammation, it may be relieved in its early stages by a plan di- 
rected towards the lessening of that inflammation, and the best 
is as follows: Free the bowels Avell with salts; repeat this in 
three days afterwards, and apply the following eye-water : Take 
of common water two ounces ; sulphate of zinc, four grains ; 
laudanum, half a dram ; mix, and apply frequently. Cold must 
bo strictly avoided. If the complaint be not removed by the 
adoption of this treatment, surgical assistance must be obtained 
immediately, for if tlic disease be allowed to proceed unchecked 
the consequence wiil be a far more serious and troublesome 

Weakness of the Eyes. — V^e give below some excellent 
washes for ordinary weakness of the eyes: Sulphate of copper, 
15 grains; camphor, 4 grains; boiUng water, 4 ounces. Mix; 
strain, and w^hen cold, made up to four pints with Avater. Bathe 
the eye night and morning with a portion of the mixture: 
Or the following: — Spirit of mindererus, 1 ounce; rose water, 7 
ounces. Mix, and use occasionally ; or this : White vitriol, 10 
grains ; elder-flower water, 8 ounces. Mix, and apply as occas- 
ion may demand. 

White Swelling. — This is a disease of one of the larger 
joints. It is mostly of a slow or chronic character, and occurs 
chiefly in the knee, although the elbow-joint, hip-joint, and even 
ankle-joint are not unfrequently the seat of it. 

Causes. — This complaint may result from blows, falls, 
bruises, cold, fevers, and constitutional disorders. 

Treatment. — Early attention to tliis disease wall prevent 
in almost every case, its dreadful consequences. When the 
pain commences in the knee, a blister should be put on, and 
perfect rest strictly observed. If the pain continue after the 
blister be healed, not a moment sliould be lost in putting on a 
caustic issue. The mere application of caustic has been known 
to cure the disease, but it is indispensable that the patient 
should not stand a moment on the limb. Or, in the early stage 


apply leeches and Avarni fomentations. If not reduced, put on 
a plaster made as follows : Reduce to a fine powder two ounces 
of gum-ammoniac; and then add as much vinegar of squills to it 
as will form it into a paste, and spread it on a piece of leather and 

Runnings of the Ear. — Delicate and scrofulous children 
are liable to a yellow discharge, which suddenly comes on, and 
is at first often stained with blood, and accompanied by fever- 
ishness and great pain in the parts. There is generally redness 
and swelling of the passages of the meatus, and inflamma- 
tion of the surrounding skin. This may arise from an inflamed 
state of the membrane which lines the passages, or from an ab- 
scess formed beneath it, or between the cells of the bones of 
the mastoid process. The discharge may be caused by some 
foreign substance thrust into the ear. 

Treatment. — For the purulent discharge from the ear, which 
is induced by this or any other cause, a lotion made with two 
drams of solution of chlorinated soda to six ounces of rose, or 
elder-flower water, should be injected, but not with any force. 
The best method is to let it flow into the ear, held so as to re- 
ceive it fairly, from a small sponge saturated with the lotion. 

Counter-irritation will sometimes have a good efi"ect on 
purulent discharges from scrofuLa or other causes. A small 
blister behind the ear is the best application, but it should not 
be kept open for any lengtli of time, or it will weaken the sys- 
tem too much. When the discharge is the result of active in- 
flammation and is attended by febrile symptoms, a sp'^vo diet 
and aperients must be the treatment; but weakly sjrofulous 
systems require a generous diet and tonic medicines. 

Wax in the Ear. — When this substance becomes too 
hard, or accumulates too much, there will be a sense of contrac- 
tion, with cracking or hissing noises, and generally deafness to 
a considerable extent. In this case the ear sliould be syringed 
with warm soap-suds, the instrument used being a proper one 
for the j)urpose, holding about four ounces, and having but a 
small tnl)e or pipe wiiicli does not fill the wliole passage, but 
allows tlie escape of the back-water, for catcliing wliich a hand- 
basin should be held close against the neck. As many as a 
dozen syringefuls may be injected at one time. A strong lotion 
should bo put into the ear-passage over night, and kept there 
by means of cotton wool or wadding. Almond-oil and laudanum, 
in the proportion of two ounces of the former to one of the 
latter, is a good application in this case, as in many other kinds 
of ear-disease. 


Worms are parasites which infest the intestinal canal of 
children principally. 

Symptoms. — Fetid breath, grinding of the teeth during 
sleep, picking the nose, paleness of the face, irritableness, and 
itching of the lower parts of the body. 

Treatment of Different Varieties. 

The Tape Worm, least common of the usual varieties, is the 
most troublesome and difficult to remove on account of a strong 
hold by little hooks upon the mucous coat of the intestines. 
Before giving medicine to expel a tape worm, preparatory treat- 
ment should be used as follows : the diet sliould be light for 
two days, and the bowels cleansed of mucus by physic. Medi- 
cine to remove the entire worm must be efficient. The follow- 
ing harmless treatment can be used. After a day or two of 
fasting, take two ounces of pumpkin seed, remove the outside 
husks, beat fine, add a little sugar and water, and drink the 
whole at once. One hour and a half later take an ounce of 
castor oil. The following, though not as simple, is efficient: 
Croton oil, one drop; chloroform, one dram; glycerine, one 
ounce ; mix thoroughly, take in the morning, omitting food ; 
this acts promptly. 

Round or Stomach Worm. — The best remedy is santonin ; 
the usual method is to give it in a powder combined with the 
same amount of calomel, and a little pulverized sugar added. 
One grain of santonin and one of calomel would be sufficient 
for a child three years old. 

One-sixteenth to one-fourth of a grain of podophyllin may 
be substituted for the calomel, given in syrup or molasses, or the 
santonin given alone can be followed with a dose of oil; there is 
no better method of expelling stomach worms. Santonin colors 
the urine, and may produce nervous symptoms, hence give only 
one powder each night and morning for two days, follow with a 
mild purge if needed, wait two days, and administer again in the 
same way. 

Thread or Seat Worms. — Proceed precisely as for round 
worms, which will remove them, but as they multiply from eggs 
deposited in the folds about the rectal orifice, it is necessary to 
inject a decoction of quassia, or apply carbolized vaseline for 
several nights to prevent their further multiplication ; the 
strength of the carbolic salve is, carbolic acid, fifteen grains, 
vaseline, one ounce ; mix thoroughly and apply faithfully. 

Womanhood •^ Motherhood. 


"Women, in addition to the diseases incidental to both sexes, 
are subject, from their pecuhar organization, to a number of 
distressing complaints ; and, in many instances, through a mis- 
taken sense of delicacy, their lives are shrouded in sadness and 
pain, from a want of proper information relating to their pecu- 
liar ailments. To women is entrusted a most sacred charge — 
the germ of a new being, whose position and usefulness in life 
will be greatly influenced by her prudence or indiscretion. 

We shall treat, under various heads, the principal forms of 
disease and suffering that commonly affect the women of civil- 
ized life. 

Menstruation. — The functions of the uterus, by which the 
menstrual, catamenial, or monthly discharges take place, gener- 
ally commence between the fourteenth and sixteenth years of 
age, although we have known them to begin as early as eleven 
or twelve. A considerable period may elapse between the 
appearance of the first and second menstrual discharge; but, 
when they are properly established, their recurrence at regular 
periods may be calculated on with great certainty, unless some 
functional or other derangement of the system interferes with 
them. Ordinarily, a lunar month of twenty-eight days is the inter- 
vening period ; but with some women the discharge occurs every 
third week. The fluid discharged resembles blood in color, but 
it does not coagulate. The quantity is from three to five ounces, 
and the process occupies from three to seven days. 

The cause of tliis montlily flow is the ripening and expul- 
sion of tlio egg from tlie ovaries. 

" Omne vivum ex ovo," (every living tiling comes from an e^g 
or germ), is the universal law of reproduction. This can be 
shown as well in the vegetable as in the animal kingdom. The 
sturdy oak from the acorn, the ear of corn from the grain 
planted by the farmer, the robin and the elephant, all springing 
from germs, go to prove the truthfulness of this law. Every 
seed, every egg, contains a germ, which, wlicn brought under 
proper influences, will produce of its own kind. Thus far all is 



plain enough, but where do these germs originate? It has been 
ascertained that each animal, as well as each plant, is provided 
with an organ for the production and throwing off of these cells 
or germs. In the female, this organ is the ovary. The ovaries 
are two in number — small oval bodies, about one inch in length, 
a little more than half an inch in breadth, and a third ol" nn inch 
in thickness. This measurement will dill'er in some cases, but 
will be found generally correct. Eacli ovary is attached to an 
angle of the womb, about one inch from its upper portion, by a 
ligament. The whole physiological function or duty of the 
ovary, is to mature and deposit its ova or eggs every twenty- 
eighth day, from the age of fifteen to that of forty -five, or lor 
about thirty years. This function is suspended only during 
pregnancy and nursing, but sometimes not even then. There 
are numerous cases on record where the woman has hiid her 
courses regularly during the time she was pregnant, iind there 
are many with whom lactation does not at all interfere. During 
the maturation or ripening, and discharging of the ovum into 
the canal or tube which conveys it into the Avomb, the genera- 
tive organs become very much congested, looking almost as if in- 
flamed. This congestion at last reaches such a height that it 
overflows, as it were, and produces a discharge of bloody fluid 
from the genitalia, or birth-place. As soon as the flow com- 
mences, the heat and aching in tlie region of the ovaries, and 
the weight and dragging sensation diminish and gradually dis- 
appear. Thus you will see that menstruation consists merely 
in the ripening and discharge of an ovum or egg, which, when 
not impregnated, is Avashed away by the menstrual fluid, or 
blood, poured out from the vessels on the inner surf;ice of the 
womb. It will also be seen that a woman can become pregnant 
only at or near the time of her menses. The marvelous regu- 
larity of menstruation has always excited great wonder, but 
why should it? When we look around, we see that both ani- 
mal and vegetable life have stated and regular times at \\ hich 
germ production takes place. Fruits and vegetables ripen, and 
animals produce their young at certain periods. It is a law of 
nature, and why should not woman obey it in her monthly term? 
Now, since we have shown tliat menstruation consists in the 
ripening and regular deposit of an egg — the flow being but the 
outward visible sign of such an act — it is possible that a woman 
may menstruate regularly without having any show. To prove 
this, there are many cases on record Avhere a woman has mar- 
ried, and become pregnant without having had the least shoAV, 
which would be impossible if she did not menstruate. Again, a 


woman who lias always been regular may have several children, 
without in the meantime having had any sign. This may be 
explained by her becoming pregnant during the time she was 
nursing her first child, carrying it to the full term, again be- 
►coming pregnant, and so on, until being no longer impregnated, 
her courses return, and are regular thereafter. 

Menstruation commences at about the age of fourteen or 
fifteen in this country. In warmer climates it appears earlier, 
and in colder ones later. Menstruation, menses, courses, cata- 
menia, monthly periods, and " being unwell," are some of the 
terms by which this function is designated. Those who are 
brought up and live luxuriously, and whose moral and physical 
training has been such as to make their nervous systems more 
susceptible, have their courses at a much earlier period than 
those who have been accustomed to coarse food and laborious em- 
ployment. The appearance of the menses before the fourteenth 
year is regarded as unfortunate, indicating a premature develop- 
ment of the organs ; while their postponement until after the 
sixteenth year is generally an evidence of weakness, or of some 
disorder of the generative apparatus. If, however, the person 
has good health, and all her functions are regular; if her spirits 
are not clouded, nor her mind dull and weak, it should not be 
considered necessary to interfere to bring them on, for irrepar- 
ble injury may be done. The first appearances of the menses 
is generally preceded by the following symptoms: Headache, 
heaviness, languor, pains in the back, loins, and down the 
thighs, and an indisposition to exertion. There is a peculiar 
dark tint of the countenance, particularly under the eyes, and 
occasionally uneasiness and a sense of constriction in the throat. 
The perpiration has often a faint or sickly odor, and the smell 
of the breath is peculiar. The breasts are enlarged and tender. 
The appetite is fastidious and capricious, and digestion is im- 
paired. These symptoms continue one, two, or three days, and 
subside as the menses appear. The menses continue three, 
five, or seven days, according to the peculiar constitution of the 
woman. The quantity discharged varies in different individ- 
uals. Some are cbliged to make but one change during the 
period, but they generally average from ten to fifteen. 

It is during the menstrual period that the system, especially 
of young persons, is more susceptible to both mental and phy- 
sical influences. Very much depends upon the regular and 
healthy action of the discharge, for to it woman owes her beauty 
and perfection. Great care should therefore be used to guard 
against any influences that may tend to derange the menses. 


A sudden suppression is always dangerous; and among the 
causes which may produce it may be mentioned sudden frights, 
fits of auger, great anxiety, and powerful mental emotions. 
Excessive exertions of every kind, long walks or rides, especially 
over rough roads, dancing, frequent running up and down stairs, 
have a tendency not only to increase the discharge, but also to 
produce falling of the womb. 

The quantity and duration of the emission varies greatly in 
different women, and unless the former is either very scanty or 
excessive, these do not appear important particulars ; but the 
regular recurrence of the issue is important to health. This 
should be borne in mind, and due care taken not to suppress 
the discharge by exposure to cold or wet, or by violent exertion 
of any kind about the time when it may be expected. It is de- 
sirable that young females should be properly informed by their 
mothers, or those under whose care they are placed, of what 
may be expected at a certain age, or they may be alarmed at 
the first appearance of the menses, taking it to be some indica- 
tion of a dangerous disease or injury, and, perhaps, by mental 
agitation, or a resort to strong medicines, do mischief to them- 

Delayed or Obstructed Menstruation.— If the menses 

do not appear at the usual age, or for some years after, no alarm 
need be felt, provided there is no constitutional derangements 
which can be attributed to this cause. If the girl has not de- 
veloped about the hips and breast, and feels not the changes 
peculiar to this period, it would be very injurious to attempt to 
force nature. If, however, she is fully developed, and her gen- 
eral health suffers, a course of treatment will be necessary. 

Causes. — An undeveloped state of the germ-producing 
organs; an impoverished condition of the blood; habitusrii cos- 
tiveness; or the womb may be closed, or hymen be imper- 

Symptoms. — Discharges of blood will sometimes occur from 
the nose, mouth, and gums, or from the stomach and bowels. 
Nearly always there will be unnatural heats and flushings, head- 
ache, tendency to faint, and hysterical symptoms. 

Treatment. — The patient must be very attentive to her diet 
and regimen. Much exercise should be taken in the open air. 
Avoid late hours, rich food, and exciting pursuits. If the re- 
tention proceed from costiveness or bad condition of the system, 
use the means directed under the several heads. If from a 
mechanical cause, a physician must be consulted. Where it re- 
sults from defective action of the ovaries, give the following : — 


Carbonate of Iron, 1 dram; Extract of Gentian, 1 dram. 
Mix and make into thirty pills. Dose, one pill two or three 
times a day. 

Suppressed Menstruation (Amenorrhoea). — Suppression 
is the stoppage of the menses after they have been once estab- 
lished. It may be either acute or chronic. 

Causes. — Sudden cold, wet feet during the flow, fear, strong 
emotions, anxiety, or any cause that affects the general health. 
Chronic suppression may result from the acute, or from defec- 
tive nutrition of the organs; from the early termination of men- 
strual functions, or from the weakness occasioned by a profuse 
discharge of whites from the uterus. 

Symptoms. — The symptoms usually pic;sent in a well-de- 
veloped body are all those mentioned in delayed menstruation, 
in a more aggravated form. In chronic suppression, failure of 
the general health, loss of appetite, pains in the head, back, and 
side, and constipation, are the usual symptoms, xlt the regular 
periods when the menses ought to appear, there will be great 
excitability, and an aggravation of the'above symptoms. With 
those of full habit, there will be a strong, bounding pulse, with 
acute pain in the head, back, and limbs; with the feeble and 
sickly extreme languor, tremblings, shiverings, and pale visage. 

Treatment. — Care must be taken that pregnancy is not the 
cause of the stoppage, or the health may be seriously injured 
by treatment for their restoration. Where the flow has stopped 
suddenly from exposure, the patient must take warm diluent 
drinks, salient aperients, till the bowels are freely opened ; have 
hot bran-poultices applied to the lower part of the abdomen; 
immerse the feet and legs in hot water, rendered stimulant by 
the addition of mustard. If the pain is extreme, take an opiate 
draught every four hours, and have a lavement, with one dram 
of turpentine and half a dram of tincture of opium thrown 
up. Tlie patient must be kept as quiet as possible. If it. can 
not be brought on, wait till the next period, and use the hip- 
bath a few days before the period. Every other night the bath 
should be made more stimulant by the addition of a little 
mustard ; and on every occasion, active friction with dry coarse 
towels sliould be used. A lavement containing two drams of 
spirits of turpentine may also be useful ; and a leech or two ap- 
plied to each thigh, on the upper part, as near the situation of 
the uterus as may be. Also give the following, which seldom 
fails if persisted in: — Barbadoes aloes, 1 dram; sulphate of 
iron, 1 dram; powdered cayenne, 2 dram; extract of gentian, 
^ dram; simf)lc syrup, sufficient quantity. Mix, and uiuivc 
into sixty pills. Dose, one pill night and morning. 


The warm hip-bath should be used about the proper period 
of menstruation ; and it would be well to give some uterine 
etimulant, such as a mixture composed of spirits of turpentine, 
made into an emulsion with 3'olk of an egg, sugar, and essence 
of juniper, about six drams of the first.and one of the last, in 
a six-ounce mixture. One ounce to be taken three times a day. 
Attempts to promote the discharge in any case must not be 
prolonged much beyond the menstrual periods, between which 
all possible means must be taken to strengthen the system, — 
good diet, plenty of active exercise, the use of the shower-bath, 
or cold or tepid sponging; steel mixture, with aloes and iodine, 
in one or other of its forms, are the proper remedies. 

If the amenorrhoea proceeds from a want of energy in the 
uterine organs to secrete the red discharge, as is often the case 
after frequent miscarriages, child-bearing, or inflfimmation 
of the womb, as well as after leucorrhccn, or " whites," there 
will probably be the usual signs of menstruation, followed 
by a white discharge only, and accompanied by acute pain at 
the bottom of the back, vertigo, and hysteria. Weakly young 
women, before accession of the menses, and elderly ones, at the 
time of cessation, or " change of life," as it is commonly called, 
are often so affected. In such a case we should prescribe hot 
baths and tepid injections, pills of sulphate of iron and aloes, 
with balsam of copaiba, ten or twenty drops in milk, three times 
a day ; or powdered cubebs, from a scruple to half a dram ; 
good diet and a recumbent position as much as possible during 
the periods. If the patient is of a full habit, apply leeches, ten 
or twelve over the sacrum, to be followed by a blister, with re- 
stricted diet, and, for a time, avoidance of sexual intercouse. 

Painful Menstruation, (Dysmenorrhmi).— This is the 
rule with some females, but the exception with most. It does 
not seem to be in any way connected with the quantity of the 
discharge, and it may attend both the secretion and the emission ; 
or but one or other of the processes, and but partially, coming 
on in paroxysms, or continually, during the whole process. The 
matter discharged is often thick and membraneous, and some- 
times has in it clots and streaks of blood. 

Treatment. — Use the warm hip-bath and friction ; fomenta- 
tion of the parts with warm water; diluent drinks, saline 
aperients, and a spare diet, must be followed ; also, injection of 
warm water high up into the vagina ; and take the following 
mixture : — Tincture of aconite-leaves, 2 drams ; best spirits of 
nitre, 1 ounce ; morphia, 3 grains ; simple syrup, 4 ounces. Mix. 
Dose, one teaspoonful every half hour till relieved. 


Profuse Menstruation {Menorrhagia). — This consists 

either in the too frequent return, or too long continuance of the 

periods ; or in an excess of quantity during the natural periods ; 

•or in the character of the discharge being other than it should 

be, such as thick, fibrous, or bloody. 

Causes. — This is in consequence of irritability of the uterine 
system, probably produced by over-exertion, luxurious living 
Avith insufficient exercise, or excesses of any kind ; too rapid 
child-bearing, frequent miscarriages, or protracted lactation. 
The habitual use of tea and coffee will also produce it. 

Symptoms. — It is generally accompanied by pain across the 
loins, great languor and debility, throbbing of the temples, 
headache, and vertigo. When there is much hemorrhage, 
there is an aggravation of these symptoms, sometimes followed 
by dropsy of the cellular tissue. 

Treatment. — In persons of full habit, where the menses are 
not bloody, the following may be taken: — Sulphate of iron, 12 
grains; dilute sulphuric acid, 1 dram; sulphate of magnesia, 6 
drams; cinnamon-water, 12 ounces. Mix. Take two table- 
spoonfuls three times a day. If there is much pain, add tinc- 
ture of henbane, two drams ; or compound infusion of roses may 
be taken, with sulphate of magnesia; or ten or fifteen drops of 
the muriated tincture of iron in water, with or without the salts, 
as the bowels may require, two or three times a day. Sponge 
the loins and pubenda with vinegar and water, use the hip-bath, 
but let it be cold water, with a little salt in it, to strenthen the 
system as much as possible, and avoid all enervating influences. 
If there is blood in the discharge, use cold vaginal injections, 
with alum and opium in them, or the latter Avitli gallic acid, 
about a dram of each to a quart of water. Apply hot bran- 
poultices to the breasts ; keep the feet Avarm, but let the loins 
be lightly covered; take gentle exercise, bitter ale, and tonics, 
especially iron. 

Cessation of Menstruation. — As the accession of the 

menses shows when the womb is in a fit state for conception, so 
then, cessation gives notice that the period of child-bearing is 
past. With females of our age and country they commonly 
continue up to the age of from forty to fifty; sometimes they 
cease at about tliirty-five, and in a few instances have been 
known to continue up to the age of sixty. This cessation marks 
what is commonly termed the turn or change of life in women, 
and with those of average health it occasions little or no dis= 
turbance of the gcner;il S3^stera. Tliere may be flushings of tlio 
face, and a sense of fullness in the head, with occasional giddi- 


ness ; but with those who are weakly and nervous, or suffering 
under any organic disease, we generally see a marked change 
at this period, — it may be for the better or worse, according to 
circumstances. With most persons the stoppage of the menses 
is a gradual process, — the quantity decreases, or the intervals 
become protracted, and it is probably superseded by a white 
discharge, which also will by and by disappear ; with some the 
cessation is sudden and complete. 

Women generally consider this an eventful period of their 
lives, and attribute all sorts of wonderful efiects to it; but we 
can not learn that a sickly constitution was ever renovated at 
this time, or a strong one ever broken down in consequence of 
the change ; indeed, fewer women than men die at the age when 
it usually takes place. Diseases of the genital organs, and of 
the breasts, which are sympathetically associated with them, 
require special attention at this time, as they are likely to be 
stimulated into activity. When there are no complications of 
disease connected with the change, little or no medical treat- 
ment is required. It is best to observe an abstemious diet, and 
to keep the bowels moderately open with rhubarb or colocynth 
pills ; powdered aloes, with canella, commonly called hiera picra, 
is a popular opening medicine, and as good as any for such an 
occasion, except the patient be of a very full habit, in which 
case it should be a saline aperient like the following: Dissolve 
two ounces of epsom salts in a pint of warm water, add one 
dram of essence of peppermint, and take a Avineglassful every 
morning, or twice a day if required. If there is flatulency or 
hysteria, add to each dose twenty -"^rops of the foetid spirits of 
ammonia, or the same of ether. 

Herbal, or Eclectic Treatment for Me7istrual Disorders. — The 
general treatment is the same as before mentioned. On the 
first appearances of the menses, let the greatest care be exer- 
cised over the health ; let nothing check the natural flow. 
Colds taken at this time are very dangerous, and may result in 
delicate health, barrenness, and even death. 

For suppressed menstruation, as soon as possible use the 
tepid foot-bath. At the same time sit over a vessel of warm 
water, in which has been boiled some bitter herbs, till a profuse 
perspiration is produced. Then retire to a warm bed, and take 
every hour or two a teacupful of warm tea made from the root 
of bervine. If this is not successful, give a little pulverized 
mandrake-root, with a little cream of tartar, on an empty stomach ; 
after which pennyroyal or motherwort tea may be drank freely. 
If much pain is felt, apply fomentations of bitter herbs to the 



region of the womb, or a heated brick may be placed over the 
bowels. For profuse menstruation, the patient should assume' 
the recumbent position, with the hips elevated as much as pos- 
sible, on a hard bed, in a cool room. Bathe well the lower part 
of the abdomen with cold water or vinegar. From thirty to 
forty drops of elixir of vitrei may be taken, in a glass of water, 
two or three times a day; or ten to fifteen drops of the tincture 
of steel given in the same manner. The following has been 
highly recommended : — 

Take equal parts of red-alder bark, yarrow, m'uUen and 
crowfoot, and half the quantity of beth-root; make into a tea; 
when cold drink a teacupful every three or four hours. If 
faintness be felt, take a few drops of lavender or spirits of 
hartshorn in a little cold water. 

In painful menstruation, great benefit is received from the 
use of the warm bath ; and apply hot water in bottles to the 
whole surface of the abdomen, with hot bricks to the feet; or 
apply a hot poultice or fomentation of hops, tansy, or boneset, 
and take the following: — Pulverized camphor, 25 grains; ma- 
crotin, 25 grains; ipecac, 8 grains; cayenne, 3 grains; opium, 
12 grains. Mix, and make into twenty-four pills, with extract 
of hyoscyamus, and take one pill every two, three, or four hours, 
according to the urgency of the case. 

The Womb.^This most important organ in woman is sit- 
uated in the cavity of the pelvis, — from whence, when distended 
in pregnancy, it rises into the abdomen, with the general lining 

membrane of which and the 
pelvis, called the peritoneum, 
it is covered. It is of a flat- 
tened pear-shape, and is held 
in its place by elastic liga- 
ment^ In it sunimpregnat- 
ed state it is about three 
inches in length by two in 
breadth across the broadest 
part, and one in thickness. 
At tlie period of puberty it 
weiglis about one and a half 
ounces; after parturition, 
from two to three ounces;, 
and in the ninth month of 

FIG. 95. 


a, RlRht Ovary; h, b, tho Fimbrlro; c, c, Uio 
Fallopian Tubes; d, an Ovum boing graHpod by 
tho Fimbria!; p, an Ovum (Iccciidlng t.lio Fallo- 
pian Ttibo to tho Womb; /, Cavity of tho Womb; 
f/,.r/,WallHOt tho Womb; /..Wallot tho Vagina; iitorO-0;CStation, frOm tWO tO 
fc, fc. Ligaments ot tho Organs. p ^ , ' . ,- ■, 

lour pounds. It is sup})Iiea 
with glands, vessels, and nerves, the latter of which constitute 
an extensive net-work over its entire surface. 


The ovariea are two in number — one on each side of the 
uterus, in the groin. They are nearly as large as the male 
testicles, and perform a corresponding function. When the 
germ (or ovum) has been perfected in the ovary, it is cast out, 
and seized by the extremity of one of the fallopian tubes, 
through which it is conducted to the uterus. 

Falling of the Womb {Prolapsus Uteri). — Prolapsus Uteri 
is the falling of the womb from the weakening of its membra- 
neous supports and the pressure of the viscera above generally 
increased by tight lacing, the pressure of the clothing, sustained 
by the abdomen and adding to its weight upon the uterus, and 
by the pressure of a load of fa3ces in the constipated rectum, 
and the daily efforts to expel them. These causes, all acting 
together, press the uterus down the vagina until it sometimes 
comes out externally. As nearly all Avomen are exposed to some 
of these causes of falling of the Avomb, nine in ten have more 
or less of it. Even young girls, eighteen to twenty years old, 
have falling of the womb. Very few entirely escape it, for 
very few Avomen are entirely Avell. 

Treatment. — Avoid tight corsets and iieavy skirts; suspend 
the undergarments from the shoulders, and not from the Avaist, 
as is usually done; avoid fatigue, and lie doAvn as much as pos- 
sible ; use the cold hip-bath once or tAvice a day, and eject cold 
Avater into the vagina Avith a syringe ; use plain vegetable diet, 
and avoid tea and coffee, spirituous drinks, etc. If the Avomb 
has descended to the external orifice, it is often necessary to 
restore it to its natural situation by pressing it upAvard and 
backward by a finger or tAvo passed into the vagina. If there 
be any pain in this operation, the vagina should be Avell Avashed 
by injections of thick flaxseed or slippery -elm bark tea for a 
day or two before the astringent washes are used. 

Wlien the Avomb hits passed completely out of the vagina, 
Avhich is always draAvrfdoAvn and inverted, the parts sometimes 
become suddenly so sAvelled that it Avould be impossible, as 
Avell as improper, to return them at once. The inflannnation is 
to be reduced by leeches, ice-Avater, or Avarm fomenting poultices 
of bread and milk, or hops and flaxseed, continually applied 
until the sAvelling and pain subside: then, with the hand Avell 
oiled, and the patient's hips Avell elevated upon a cushion or 
pilloAV at the edge of the bed, the organ is to be passed carefully 
within the vaa^ina, and restored to its natural situation. Tlie 
bowels and bladder must be regularly evacuated; but the 
patient should not be allowed to rise for several days, and 
should even then assume the upright position very gradually 


and cautiously, after having used injections composed* of th© 
following ingredients : — 

Take one dram of alum, and dissolve it in half a j^int of 
clear water ; or, half an ounce of the inner bark of the black 
oak, with three gills of water ; boil down to a pint and strain. 
Two ounces of either of these preparations should be injected 
into the vagina by means of a vagina-syringe. This operation 
should be repeated twice a day, for a week or more, — the syringe 
being always well lubricated with lard or oil, that it may be 
introduced without difficulty or pain. 

If there is much sensibility, use from thirty to forty drops 
of laudanum in the injection, and repeat the operation daily till 
it is removed. If there are frequent relapses, a pessary must 
be worn. 

The womb is also liable to fall either backwards {Retrover- 
sion) or forwards (Anteversion) , but the treatment of these con- 
ditions must be confided to an experienced physician. 

Inflammation of the Ovaries {Ovaritis). — This disease 

is characterized by pain, heat, swelling, perhaps redness, in one 
or both groins. It is to be treated as any other inflammation — ■ 
sitz-baths, with rest, and a strict diet. The bowels must be 
occasionally opened by a gentle aperient, as castor-oil. Injec- 
tions of tincture of belladonna and hyoscyamus are very useful 
and soothing. 

Inflammation of .the Womb. — The treatment is the same, 
with the addition of injections, both to the rectum and vagina, 
cold if they can be borne, or with the chill off. 

The ovaries, uterus, and fallopian tubes are so closely con- 
nected in situation and function, that they are generally inflamed 
together. The cause may be weakness, causing a local determi- 
nation of some general disturbance, such as cold or irritation of 
these organs. It usually follows childbirth, abortions, or exces- 
sive and violent sexual intercourse. 

Ulceration of the Neck of the Womb.— Ulceration of 

the neck of the womb is produced by corroding discharges and 
the irritation of continual sexual intercourse. It is readily 
cured by abstinence, vaginal injections, and direct application 
to the parts of a strong solution of nitrate of silver onco in five 
or six days ; or the ulcers touched with solid nitrate of silver 
once in five days. 

Floodin'2^ {Uterine Hemorrhage). — This commonly occurs 
after abortion, in the puerperal stage of the labor, or it may be 
occasioned by disease of the womb. Immoderate flow of the 
menses is also called flooding, and to this some women are ver/ 


subject. It is extremely weakening to the system, and should 
be checked as soon as possible. 

Treatment. — The best treatment is perfect quiet, and astrin- 
gent and tonic medicines like the following : — Tincture of the 
sesquichloride of iron, 2 drams; infusion of quassia, 6 drams. 
Mix, and take a tablespoonful every four hours. If there is 
much pain and irritation, add tincture of conium, or hyoscyamus, 
two drams. Should this not have the desired effect, consult a 
medical man, as there may be disease of the womb. 

Polypus of the Womb. — When a woman has been wast- 
ing away for some time, under a more or less copius discharge of 
blood, and the remedies recommended under the head of flood- 
ing, have been faithfully but unsuccessfully used, — when, during 
this time, she has remained free from burning and pain in the 
part, but has merely complained of a sense of weight in the 
womb, — there is great reason to suppose that she has a polypus 
excrescence growing there, and the best advice should be at 
once procured. 

Cancer of the Womh. — Symptoms. — A sudden pain which 
shoots through the bottom of the abdomen, and either disap- 
pears entirely, or leaves after it a dull aching or a gnawing sen- 
sation, accompanied by more or less discharge of a fluid, Avhich 
is sometimes pale and thin, but soon becomes thicker, yellower, 
perhaps streaked with blood, and very offensive. This pain is 
gradually rendered more severe and almost constant, and an ex- 
hausting hemorrhage sets in at times, perhaps continuing until 
checked by fainting. In other cases, a burning heat, followed 
by a foetid discharge of matter mixed with streaks or spots of 

Treatment. — Cleanliness, fresh air, plain nutritious diet, regu- 
lation of the bowels, and tranquility of mind, are all that can be 
recommended in a Avork like this. The Avoman who has the mis- 
fortune to be visited with this affection, must resolutely deter- 
mine to retire early from the active duties of life, and be content 
to abstain from indulgences wdiich would heat the system, excite 
her passions, and increase the circulation of blood. Bland, 
soothing nourishment, and local applications, are all that can be 
administered until she can have judicious and experienced med- 
ical assistance. Her bowels should be kept open by the mildest 
laxatives that will affect the object; the foetid and erosive dis- 
charges should be washed away by injection of flax-seed tea, cas- 
tile-soapsuds, or a solution of chloride of lime or soda, with a 
little hop or camomile tea. When the hemorrhage becomes 
very profuse, the vagina should be plugged up with a fine 


Bponge or a strip of soft cotton or linen rag, imbued with strong 
alum-water. Formidable as the last two diseases are, they are 
not always beyond the reach of surgery. 

Whites (Leucorrhosa) . — TJiere is no disease so common 
among women as this complaint. Few married women, particu- 
larly if they are mothers, escape its attacks. Very generally 
this troublesome discharge is associated with general debility, 
especially if it has continued profuse for any length of time. 
Hence it is very desirable that attention should be paid to it at 
the commencement; for, if neglected, it may seriously impair 
the constitution, and grow from a comparatively mild affection 
into an inveterate and dangerous disease. 

Causes. — Over-exertion of the uterine organs, irritation of 
the rectum from loaded and constipated bowels. It may also be 
brought on by diarrhoea, piles, worms, irritation of the bladder 
or of the nervous system, excessive sexual intercourse, miscar- 
riage, abortion, and displacement of the womb. Weakness, too, 
is a cause oifluor alhis, as well as a consequence of its long con- 
tinuance ; confinement in a warm atmosphere, luxurious living, 
and chlorosis must likewise be numbered among its exciting 

Symptoms. — This disease may be distinguished from gonor- 
rhoea by the absence of local irritation and swelling of the ex- 
ternal parts, and the glands of the groin ; also by the discharge 
being less regular and copious. In leucorrhooa this is commonly 
at first white and pellucid, or it may be opaque and thick, 
coming away now and then in lumps. After awhile the color 
will perhaps change to green, yellow, or brown, and sometimes 
it Avill become very acrid, causing abrasion and smarting on 
passing the urine. In this stage it is apt, especially during 
pregnancy, to cause a gleety discharge from the urethra of one 
having sexual intercourse with the patient. Ere long, if the 
disease is not checked, we get great local irritation and consti- 
tutional disturbances: there will be costive bowels, pains in the 
loins find back, great lassitude, witli nervous and hysterical af- 
fections. Menstruation, too, will be irregular, at one time being 
altogether suspended, and at another too abundant. 

Treatment. — If the patient is of full habit, saline aperients 
should be taken, and a spare diet observed; local ablutions 
should be practised three or four times a day, using occasionally 
a decoction of poppies for the purpose ; tlio hip-bath, and an in- 
jection of gouliird water, with a scruple of powdered opium in 
each pint, will also be found serviceable. Tiie recumbent position 
ehould be preserved as much as possible, and the parts kept cool. 


The practice of wrapping them up is objectionable, as it heats 
and weakens them. Local treatment will be of little avail in 
cases of long standing, unless the general health be attended to. 
To keep the bowels gently open, take five grains compound rhu- 
barb pill, as often as required ; and to strengthen and cool the 
system the following mixture: — Sulphate of iron, 12 grains; dil- 
uted sulphuric acid, 1 dram ; sulphate of magnesia, 3 drams ; cin- 
namon-water, 12 ounces. Mix, and take two tablespoonfuls two 
or three times a day. In obstinate cases, there should be an in- 
jection into the vagina of a solution of alum and sulphate of zinc, 
three drams of the former to one of the latter to a pint of water; 
three or four ounces to be thrown up Avhile the patient lies with 
the hips rather elevated ; this position to be retained for some 
time, with the parts covered by a cloth or sponge, so that the 
fluid may be kept in. If there is itching and irritation of the 
parts, it may be allayed by an injection composed of carbonate 
of soda, two drams, in a quart of bran tea. If the simple alum 
and zinc injection prove^^ ineffectual, add a dram of powdered 
catechu to each pint, or use decoction of oak-bark as a vehicle 
for the above salts. When there is much debility, with sup- 
pressed or scanty menstruation, preparations of iron (as the 
above mixture) with compound steel pills, or some compound of 
Canada balsam, three grains, and a half-grain of quinine ; or a 
half-dram of quinine with one dram dilute sulphuric acid, in six 
ounces of gentian or cascarilla; a tablespoonful to be taken two 
or three times a day. Should there be profuse menstruation, 
nothing is so likely to be effectual as the iron and acid mixture, 
with or without the sulphate of magnesia, according to the state 
of the bowels. Mustard poultices to the lower part of the back, 
or stimulant liniments, rubbed well in every night, for a time, 
will often prove useful. 

Women who are likely to have leucorrhoea should avoid all 
predisposing causes of the disease, such as wines and other 
stimulants, and hot tea and other slops taken in large quantities ; 
luxurious living, and sensual indulgences of all kinds, especially 
much sexual intercourse, and anything which has a tendency to 
enervate and enfeeble the frame. Early rising and regular 
open-air exercise, warm and comfortable clothing, good food and 
tonic medicine, with use of the shower-bath and bathing, — these 
will prove the best preventives. 

Herbal, or Eclectic Treatment for Womb Diseases. — For the 
whites, care must be taken not to arrest the discharge too soon, 
or bad consequences may ensue. Use every means to improve 
the general health. Avoid hot rooms, excessive exertion, and 


strong tea and cofifee. A decoction of the roots of comfrey-root, 
boiled in milk, is highly recommended. Take a teacupful three 
or four times a day. Injections of alum-water or decoction of oak- 
bark, are very good. A preparation of one ounce of tincture 
of aloes, and two drams of muriated tincture of iron, well 
mixed, and forty drops taken three times a day in a little water, 
has been found of great advantage. 

For falling of the womb, an infusion of white-oak bark, or 
an infusion of equal parts of peach-leaves, Solomon's seal, and 
hops, as an injection, will produce excellent results. Where 
heat and difficulty in making water exists, give a drink of in- 
fusion of marshmallow and spearment. 

Pregnancy. — Utero-gestation, or the period of child-bear- 
ing, — that is from the time of conception to that of delivery, — 
extends over a period of forty weeks, or two hundred and eighty 
days. It is commonly set down as nine calender months, but 
this would make only two hundred and seventy-five days ; or, if 
February be included, two hundred and seventy-two days; that 
is, thirty-nine weeks only, instead of forty, or nine calender 
months and a week. In making the necessary provision for the 
coming on of labor, it is best to calculate from midway between 
the last occurrence of menstruation and the one which would 
have followed if conception had not taken place, and allow nine 
calender months from that time. Thus, if menstruation had 
taken place on the first of January, labor might be expected 
some time about the middle of October. 

The Signs of Pregnan y. — The chief signs of pregnancy 
are as follows: — 

1. The cessation of the menses, — although this is by no means 
an unfailing sign, for sometimes this discharge will cease from 
other causes, and sometimes it will continue after conception 
has taken place. 

2. Morning sickness, which generally commences about the 
fourth or fifth week, and lasts to about the fourth month. With 
some this is but slight, and causes but little inconvenience ; but 
with others it is more continuous and serious, sometimes causing 
the rejection of nearly all food for a very considerable period. 
This symptom, again, cannot be taken as a proof of pregnancy: 
it is merely a suspicious circumstance, to be watched in con- 
nection with others. 

3. Enlargement of the breasts, which generally increase in 
size about two months after conception. They also become 
tender and sore; they throb and burn, and, when pressed by 
the hand, have a hard knotty feel, in consequence of the swell- 


ing of the glands by which the lacteal fluid is secreted. The 
nipple, also, becomes more prominent, and increases in diameter, 
while the areola around it assumes a purplish tinge, and has on 
it several little raised pimples of a yellowish-white color. 

4. Enlargement of the womb and abdomen, which, in the 
fourth month, becomes very perceptible, — the womb, which 
may now be felt in a firm rounded body, having ascended above 
the bone of the pubes, and pushed the bowels up into the 

5. A tendency to flatulent distension of the stomach, 
towards evening especially, rendering insupportable a pressure 
of stays, &c., which in the morning could be easily borne. 

6. "Quickening," which is the mother's first perception of 
the second life within her. Thereisatfirst, probably a very slight 
tremulous motion, like a mere pulsation. This, day by day 
grows stronger, until it becomes quite distinct, often painfully 
so. It is as though the child, to use a scripture phrase, "leaped 
in the Avomb." These movements can be distinctly felt by the 
hand placed upon the abdomen. 

There are other and less obvious signs, which only the pro- 
fessional man Avould be likely to detect. All may notice, how- 
ever, the change which generally takes place in the counten- 
ance. The mouth and eyes seem to enlarge, and the nose 
becomes what is generally termed more or less " pinched up." 
There is an alteration, too, in the color of the eyes, Avhich be- 
come somewhat paler, — especially is this perceptible if they are 
blue eyes. Then the patient is generally fidgety, peevish and 
restless, exhibiting a high degree of nervous irritation ; she has 
odd fancies, and longings after out-of-the-way things and articles 
of diet, which should be procured for her if possible. At such a 
time she requires soothing and humoring; harsh snd unkind 
treatment will be likely to have a most injurious effect, both 
upon her and her offspring. 

Management and Conduct of Mothers during Preg- 
nancy. — A pregnant woman should be made aware that the ad- 
vantages obtained by well-regulated habits are by no means ex- 
clusively conferred on her, but that others equally important 
are likewise conferred on the child, for whom a larger supply of 
nutrition, and of a better quality, will thus be provided ; and so 
being nourished by sound and heaithy fluids, will commence its 
career of life strong, vigorous, and less liable to those morbid 
debilities and derangements which affect the children of the in- 
dolent, the pampered, or the debauched. 

From the moment, therefore, that conception has taken 


place, a new and most sacred duty devolves upon the female. 
She is bound by all the ties of maternal sentiment, of humanity, 
and of moral and religious obligations, to protect the nascent 
being in her womb against every circumstance, under her con- 
trol, which might have an unfavorable influence on its delicate 

The state of pregnancy is one peculiarly liable to disease 
and injury; and we daily witness much suffering and danger 
incurred both to the mother and the child, from the influence of 
causes which, with proper care, might have been avoided alto- 
gether, or, at least, rendered inoffensive. 

Diet during Pregnancy. — The peculiar tendency to feb- 
rile irritation and general plethora, in pregnancy, renders it 
especially proper to avoid undue excitement and nourishment 
during this period. Not that the pregnant female is to be 
dieted like a valetudinarian ; but that moderation and simplicity 
of food is especially proper in her case. As the appetite is 
frequently very craving during this period, an inordinate indul- 
gence in rich and high-seasoned food is among the most common 
errors ; and this mistake is the more readily fallen into from the 
erroneous idea which many entertain, that, as the foetus draws 
its nourishment from the maternal system, a greater quantity 
of aliment is required in pregnancy. The exercise of caution 
in the selection of proper food, appears to be particulary impor- 
tant towards the termination of gestation. When the stomach 
is in a weak and irritable state, rice, barley, arrow-root, oat-meal, 
the lean part of mutton, tender beef, soft-boiled eggs, and stewed 
apples constitute appropriate articles of nourishment. But it 
is always to be recollected, that the temperate use of food is of 
more consequence than any very cautious selection as to its 
kind. Coffee and tea may be moderately used ; but all vinous 
or alcoholic drinks should bo studiously avoided. The tempta- 
tion to indulging in small portions of cordial, or brandy, in the 
early months of gestation, is often very strong; but it ought to 
be firmly checked, or the deplorable habit of solitary dram- 
drinking may bo the result of indulgence in these potent 

The appetitive sensibilities of the stomach, in some instances, 
undergo extraordinary derangement, especially in weak and 
delicate females. Articles of food which, previous to pregnancy, 
were very grateful and congenial, become highly disagreeable, 
and an almost irresistible craving for singular and even disgust- 
ing substances, is experienced. This remarkable irregularity 
of the appetite is usually called a longing. If the substances 


longed for be not evidently of an injurious character, they 
should not be Avithheld ; in some instances, these longings niay 
be regarded as instinctive calls of the stomach for articles favor- 
able to the health of the individual. Thus, when a strong 
desire for eating chalk, charcoal, or clay, is manifested, we are 
admonished that the digestive powers are feeble and that there 
is a tendency to acidity in the stomach. In such cases the 
means of relief are alkalines, mild laxatives, and tonic vegetable 
bitters, with a suitable regimen. 

Dress and Exercise. — The custom of wearing tightly- 
laced corsets during gestation can not be too severely censured. 
It gives rise to functional disorder of the stomach and liver, as 
well as to uterine hemorrhage and abortion in the mother ; it 
likewise impedes the regular nourishment of the foetus in the 
womb. The clothing should always be sufficient to protect the 
body against the injurious influence of cold and atmospheric 
vicissitudes : the abdomen and feet especially should be guarded 
against injury from these causes. In winter, or cold and damp 
seasons, the use of a flannel bandage or roller around the abdo- 
men will be found very beneficial and comfortable. All kinds of 
agitating exercise, such as riding in carriages with rapidity over 
rough roads, dancing, lifting or carrying heavy loads, — in short, 
all masculine and fatiguing employments whatever, ought to be 
avoided by pregnant Avomen ; and the more so as gestation ap- 
proaches the term of its regular completion. During the eighth 
and ninth months of pregnancy unusual exertion or fatigue is 
particularly apt to excite premature labor. It is to be observed, 
however, that if injury is apt to result from too much exercise, 
injurious consequences may also arise from too much indolence 
and inactivity. Riding in an easy carriage on even roads, or 
moderate walking, may be enjoyed with great propriety, and 
usually with obvious advantage during gestation. 

Moral Influences. — Tranquility and cheerfulness of mind 
are of prime importance during pregnancy. Convulsions, severe 
hysteria, spasms, syncope, hemorrhage, and abortion, may be 
produced by violent anger, terror, or jealousy, during pregnancy. 
Intense grief will occasion debility, indigestion, jaundice, and 
various other functional disorders. A strong excitement of the 
imagination is supposed by some to be capable of producing im- 
pressions on the foetus in the womb. 

The Breasts. — The breasts and nipples should be particu- 
larly attended to during the latter months of gestation, in order 
to prepare them for suckling the infant. For some weeks be- 
Ifore the expected termination of gestation, the nipples should 


,be daily washed with lukewarm water, then dried by exposing 
them to the free air, and afterwards gently rubbed for hve or 
six minutes with a soft piece of flannel, or with the extremities 
of the fingers. When the skin of the nipples is very delicate 
and sensitive, they may be washed with brandy and water, or a 
wash composed of two drams of the tincture of myrrh, one dram 
of laudanum, and two ounces of water. In using this, the nip- 
ples should be first bathed with lukewarm water, and dried and 
rubbed as before directed, and then washed with the lotion. 
Compression of the brea'sts by corsets, or any other artificial 
means, is carefully to be avoided. When the nipples are very 
small, or sunk in the breasts, they should be drawn out by 
means of a suction-pump with a common clay tobacco-pipe. 
This process should be repeated several times daily, until they 
have acquired a sufficient degree of prominency. 

Diseases of Pregnancy.— (iJ/ormwj/ Sickness.) — This com- 
plaint is sometimes very troublesome and obstinate. 

Treatment. — The patient should have breakfast in bed, and 
remain in a recumbent position for some time after. Small 
lumps of ice put into the mouth and allowed to dissolve, will 
sometimes give relief. Give, if the sickness is troublesome, three 
times a day, a mixture composed of one scruple of bicarbonate 
of potash or soda, dissolved in a wineglass of water. Take, 
while effervescing, with a tablespoonful of lemon-juice. 

Constipation. — During the latter months of pregnancy, con- 
stipation is nearly always present, the pressure upon the lower 
bowel being the cause. Neither aloes nor any violent cathartic 
should be taken. A moderate dose of castor-oil may be admin- 
istered about every other day, or as often as necessary ; but if 
the stomach nauseates at repeated doses of this, try the follow- 
ing mixture : — Sulphate of magnesia, 1 ounce ; infusion of roses, 
6 ounces; cinnamon water, 2 ounces. Dose, a wineglassful 
every morning early. If, as is sometimes the case, diarrhoea 
supervenes, give the following: — Chalk mixture, 6 ounces; 
aromatic confection, 2 drams; tincture of opium, ^ dram. Dose, 
a tablespoonful every three or four hours. 

Heartburn. — This may be removed by moving the bowels 
with a little magnesia, and taking a wineglassful of lime-water 
in milk two or three times a day ; or carbonate of potash and 
magnesia, of each ten grains, in cinnamon-water, with one dram 
of tincture of gentian. 

Incontinence of Urine. — The frequent desire to make water, 
arising from irritation of the bladder, should be attended to, as 
long retention of urine may cause retroversion of the womb and 


abortion. An abdominal belt will be found of great service in 
the renal affections of pregnancy. Effervescing draughts, with 
ten grains of nitrate of potash and the same of magnesia, will 
also be found serviceable ; and if there is much pain, add five 
grains of laudanum, and apply hot fomentations or use the hip- 

Cough.— 1^ there is cough, which frequently attends preg- 
nancy, give any soothing pectoral mixture. If the cough is at- 
tended with pains in the chest, or headache, apply in the former 
case mustard-poultices over the sternum. 

Varicose Veins. — For cramps and pains in the legs, with 
swelling and varicose veins, sponge the legs with cold vinegar 
and water, and put on roller bandages or elastic stockings, and 
rest in a recumbent position. 

Itching of the Private Parts. — Itching about the vagina, with 
gleety discharges, call for the use of the hip-bath, and a slightly 
astringent injection, such as goulard water, a weak solution of 
alum, or an infusion of green tea. 

Restlessness at Nights. — For dreams and restless nights, ex- 
tract of hemlock, or henbane, five grains at bedtime, with strict 
attention to the condition of the bowels. 

3Ielancholy, Despondency, etc. — Despondency frequently 
seizes upon those who are about to become mothers ; but gener- 
ally, if the health be pretty good, it is shaken off as the great 
trial approaches. There are some women wlio are never so well 
and cheerful as during the time of pregnancy, but many there 
are to whom it is indeed a period of trial and sufi"ering ; and 
especially is this the case with those who are about to become 
mothers for the first time. 

Poise Pregnancy. — A. condition of the female system of a re- 
markable kind, more frequently observed about the turn of life, 
when the catamenia becoming irregular, previous to their final 
cessation, are suppressed for a few periods; and, at the same 
time the stomach being out of order, nausea or vomiting is ex- 
perienced, the breasts enlarge, become sensitive or even slightly 
painful, and sometimes a serous or acrolactescent fluid exudes 
from the nipples and orifices of the areolar tubercles ; the abdo- 
men grows fuller and more prominent, especially in women of 
full habit and constitutionally disposed to embonpoint, and the 
abdominal enlargement progressively increases, partly from de- 
position of fat in the integuments and in the omentum, but still 
more from distension of the intestines by flatus, which, passing 
from one part to another, communicates a sensation like that 
produced by the motion of a foetus; the nervous system is gen- 



erally miicli disturbed, and the woman feels convinced that she 
is i^regnant, an idea which, at the time of life alluded to, is 
cherished by the sex with an extraordinary devotion, and relin- 
guished with proportionate reluctance; and not unfrequently 
at the end of the supposed gestation, the delusion is rendered 
complete, and almost assumes the character of a reality, by the 
occurence of periodical pains strongly resembling labor. 

The Breast. — We use this term in its restricted sense, as 
applied to the fleshy protuberance common to women, in which 
is situated the mammary glands, for the secretion of the milk by 
which the infant is nourished. Its full development depends 
greatly upon habit and constitution, being in some much more 
early in advancing womanhood, of which it is one of the most 
remarkable signs, and prominent in full maturity, than in others. 
In tlie earlier stages of pregnancy, its fullest development com- 
mences: the breast swells, and the nipple enlarges, and by, or 
near, the time of delivery it is filled with lacteal fluid, which 
passes readily, on suction, into the mouth of the child. Too 
frequently the proper enlargement of the breast, and increase 
of the nipple, m retarded by tight lacing. The consequences, 
T^T„ c,P sometimes, are hardened and congested 

states of the tissues, an insuflicient sup- 
ply of milk, or a failure of it altogether; 
or a nipi)le so flattened and pressed in- 
to the breast that it cannot be taken 
hold of by the mouth of the infant. 
Abscess, cancer, and other evil conse- 
quences may also ensue from undue 
pressure upon such tender parts. 

Inflammation of the Breast.— 

This affection is common, and frequently 
results in abscess. Various causes may 
produce it, such as a blow, exposure to 
cold or wet, great mental excitement, 
unnatural distension by an accumula- 
tion of milk, or too much pressure by 
corsets. It may occur at any period be- 
tween early and advanced womanhood, 
but most commonly it does occur with- 
in a week or two of childbirth, and is 
the result of some obstruction in the flow 
of the milk, or change in its normal 
character. Such a change will be sure to occur if the milk is 
Buffered to remain long in the breast ; therefore, should the in- 


1, 1, Galactophorous Ducts ; 

2, '2, LohuU. 



fant be unable to relieve it at 
means must be taken to do so. 

all, or insufficiently, artificial 

FIG. 97. 

FIG 98. 


a, a, the Secreting Cells 
b, b, the Nuclei. 

A simple and cheap form of breast- 
pump is made with a stout elastic bag with 
a glass mouthpiece, a wide-mouthed bottle 
sufficiently capacious to hold two quarts. 
This is dipped in hot water, and the mouth 
immediately applied to the breast; the heat 
w^ill have rarefied the air within, which, as it 
cools, contracts and leaves a vacuum, caus- 
ing suction, which draws the milk into the 
bottle. Some nurses have the art of draw- 
ing the breast with the mouth; and it is 
well to let them do so, as no instrument 
can cll'oct the object so thoroughly. 

Abscess in the Breast.— When there 
is an inflamed state of the tissues of the 
breast, there are shooting pains, and often 
febrile symptoms. The part will become 
hard and exhibit knotty protuberances, in- 
dicating the formation of an abscess. These symptoms will 
be succeeded by throbbing and a sensation of weight, — the skin 
gradually assuming a thin and red appearance, and becoming 
thinner until it finally breaks, and allows the escape of matter. 
Treatment. — When the premonitory symptoms of mammary 
abscess are observed, recourse should at once be had to reme- 
dial measures. Let the breast be well yet gently rubbed with 
a soft hand, into the palm of which is poured fresh olive or al- 
mond oil ; the friction should be continued for about ten min- 
utes, and repeated every four hours or so. Goose-grease and 
other fatty substances are recommended, but simple oil is best, 
the friction being the principal agent for good. Between the 
intervals of this the breast should be kept covered with a tepid- 
water dressing, — having over it oiled silk to prevent evapora- 
tion. Care must be taken during this treatment to keep the 
bowels gently open, and to keep under the febrile symptoms. 
A mammary abscess will frequently continue discharging for a 
considerable period, and, during this time, the patient should 
be supported by a nourishing, although light diet. 

A warm bread-poultice is best for the abscess; it should be 
changed about every four hours, and covered with oiled silk. 
When the discharge has nearly ceased, simple tepid-water 
dressings may be sui3stituted. The breast, during all this time, 
should be supported by a soft handkerchief tied round the neck. 


An application of collodion all over the part has sometimes been 
used; it forms a thin coat which, contracting as it dries, affords 
the necessary support, if the breast is not very large and heavy. 
If some amount of pressure is required, strips of strapping 
crossing each other will effect this object. After all danger of 
inflammation is over, a more generous diet may be allowed. 
Should the breast remain hard, friction with soap liniment 
should be resorted to. A dram of compound tincture of iodine 
to each ounce will render it more effectual. 

Sore Nipples. — Very painful and distressing cases of sore 
nipples frequently occur after childbirth. Sometimes they cannot 
be avoided, but frequently they arise from too great an anxiety on 
the part of the mother, who is constantly meddling with them, 
applying the mouth of the child, and resorting to all sorts of 
expedients to draw them out. Nipple shields, with India-rub- 
ber teats, may be readily procured, and should be used when 
the nipples are too sore and tender to bear the application of 
the infant's mouth. In this case the milk must be drawn from 
the breast by one of the contrivances above mentioned, and 
given to the child in a feeding-bottle. 

Glycerine has been found a good application for chapped 
or otherwise sore nipples. It must be applied with a camel- 
hair brush, first wiping the part dry with a soft piece of linen. 
If obtained pure, there will be little or no smell in it to annoy 
either mother or child. Collodion is also useful, but it causes 
considerable smarting. If, as is sometimes the case, there be 
suppuration, warm bread-poultices must be applied, and after 
them tepid-water dressing. Inftints, a few days after birth, 
sometimes have the breasts distended with a thick, milky look- 
ing fluid ; and youths just arriving at the age of puberty have 
hard and painful swellings about the nipples. In both cases 
warm fomentations only are required ; the parts should not be 
pressed or rubbed ; for the child, a little cold cream or simple 
ointment, after fomenting, is desirable. 

Milk Fever. — An aggravated form of the excitement which 
takes place at the onset of lactation. 

Causes. — The cause may be a cold, or over-heating the 
apartment, too stimulating a diet, or any obstruction to the flow 
of milk from the breast. 

Symptoms. — Its first symptoms are increased heat of the 
system, preceded by shivering, and sometimes accompanied 
with vertigo and slight delirium. These are followed by severe 
headache, thirst, dry tongue, quick pulse, throbbing of the tern* 
pies, and intolerance of light. 


Treatment. — Spare diet, perfect tranquillity, subdued light, 
cooling drinks, and saline aperient medicines ; tlie head should 
be kept somewhat elevated, and bathed with cold water or 
evaporating lotions. If the symptoms should become worse in 
spite of this, apply frequent cooling lotions to the head, and 
put the feet in a warm mustard bath. Most lying-in Momen 
have more or less of this fever, which is no doubt an effort of 
nature to rouse the hitherto dormant mammary organs to se- 
crete a proper quantity of milk. If, however, it is not checked, 
the arterial region runs too high, and no milk at all is secreted. 

Confinement {Parturition). — Every prudent w^oman who 
has the power of doing so, will make all necessary preparations 
for an approaching accouchement, as the French term childbirth, 
or delivery. 

Few women who are near their confinement, are sufficiently 
cautious of exposing themselves to unnecessary fatigue and at- 
mospheric changes. They will " keep about until the last," and 
it is well for them to do so, provided they take only gentle ex- 
ercise, and avoid getting wet or chilled, or heated in crowded 
assemblies, and the like. Miscarriages, difficult labors, and fre- 
quently lasting injury to mother and child, if not the death of one 
or both, is not unfrequently the result of imprudence at this criti- 
cal period. Therefore would we impress upon all our readers 
who are likely to become mothers, the duty which they owe to 
themselves, their friends, and their future offspring, of refrain- 
ing, wdien enceinte, as much as possible from the more exciting 
pleasures and laborious occupations of life, and of preparing for 
the pains and cares which will shortly come upon them. 

Let all the preparations for the little stranger be made in 
time, and the services of an experienced nurse engaged. Let 
the mother, or some female very near and dear, be at hand to 
aid and counsel, and, above all, to cheer and encourage the 
often sinking heart, not only at the actual period of the labor, 
but for some time previously. And let the mother in expec- 
tancy be treated with all possible love and gentleness. She 
may be fidgety and whimsical, — what of that? — provided they 
do not run into outrageous extremes, let her whims be indulged. 
She is frequently in a state of great nervous excitement, — her 
body may be racked with pain, and her mind unhinged. Let 
her be soothed and tenderly dealt with. She has got that to go 
through, at which the strongest man might well tremble, and 
shrink aghast. 

We will suppose that the inevitable hour has come, and 
that the labor-pains are regular, and that the work of delivery 


proceeds properly, although perhaps slowly. In due time — it 
may be in two hours, or four, or six, or even, in the case of a 
first child, twenty-four hours — the infant is born, and treated 
according to the directions given in the management of infants. 
But we are getting on too fast, and must go back to explain 
what has been, or what should have been, done to bring about 
the desired consummation of a safe delivery ; and what is yet of 
more consequence, the safety of the mother and child, and the 
gradual recovery of the former from the shock which, under the 
most favorable circumstances, her system Avill receive. If she 
be a strong, healthy woman, and no unusual complications 
arise to disturb the natural process, but little aid or interfer- 
ence may be required. There will be the usual warning symp- 
toms: intermitting pains in the back, slight at first, but in- 
creasing in intensity. There will probably be a slight discharge 
of mucus, stained with blood, and perhaps also a considerable 
discharge of a clear fluid, popularly called " the waters." This 
is an albuminous liquid filling up the membrane in which the 
foetus floats, and so preventing pressure. It sometimes does not 
escape until labor has actually commenced by the falling down 
of the child into the pelvis. Wlien this takes place, the recum- 
bent position should be assumed. Previous to this, it is best 
for the patient to sit upright or walk gently about, and so assist 
the action of the uterus. 

When the labor pains become very great, the patient 
should be placed on the bed, previously guarded by some water- 
proof material on her left side, and not far from the edge, so 
that needful assistance can be easily rendered. She should have 
a tightly-rolled pillow placed between her knees. If there is 
no unnatural obstruction to the delivery, it is best left to na- 
ture. Should the patient in the struggle become very faint and 
weak, a little brandy and water may be administered at short 
intervals, but this must be stopped as soon as the labor is over, 
or inflammatory action may ensue. 

As soon as the child is born, and the umbilical cord, — or as 
it is commonly called, the navel-string, — by which it is attached 
to the womb, has been tied and cut (see on the management of 
new-born infants, page 301, a broad bandage or towel should 
be passed round the body of the mother, so as to cover the 
hips, drawn tiglitly, and pinned or tied, so as to sustain a 
pressure upon the womb, and stimulate the vessels to re- 
turn to their normal condition. Before this is done, however, 
it will be best to grasp the uterus with the hand and with 
gentle pressure force it away, and l)y this means to accora- 

Diseases of women. 291 

plish if possible the removal of the placenta, commonly called 
the after-birth, which sometimes comes away with the child, or 
immediately after, and is sometimes only removed with the 
greatest difficulty. If, at the expiration of a couple of hours or 
so, this still remains in the womb, where it will cause irritation, 
the hand of the nurse or medical man, previously well oiled, 
must be carefully passed in, so as to grasp, and without breaking 
it, to detach it gently from its adhesion, and bring it away, wait- 
ing to complete the process until an after-pain comes on. Gene- 
rally the natural expulsion, or artificial removal, of the placenta 
is attended with hemorrhage, sometimes to a frightful extent. 
For directions how to proceed in this case, see article on 
Flooding, page 491. 

For at least six hours after labor, the patient should be dis- 
turbed as little as may be. We have seen fussy nurses very 
desirous of making " missus " comfortable, and begin to put 
things to rights about her, when she, poor soul! only wants per- 
fect rest and quiet. Let her have it. - And if the pulse is thin 
and feeble, and the cheeks are colorless, and the breathing 
scarcely noticeable, so that life seems almost ebbing away, put 
a little, very little, brandy and water, warm and sweet, between 
her lips now and then; l3ut stop instantly if it produces flush- 
ing or restlessness; and do not give it at all unless there seems 
urgent necessity for a stimulant. At the expiration of the 
above time, if a revival has taken place, soiled bed-clothes and 
body-linen may be changed ; but all this should be done very 
carefully and gently, or the fatigue may occasion a relapse. If 
the after-pains continue severe at the expiration of the above 
time, an anodyne draught may be given. It may be composed 
of from twenty to thirty grains of tincture of opium, or a quarter 
of a grain of morphine, in an ounce of plain or spearmint water. 

For eight or more days after labor, the recumbent position 
should be strictly maintained ; and the same rule holds good 
after a miscarriage. Some women feel so well and strong in a 
day or two, that they will sit up, and sometimes even get out of 
bed, and make themselves useful in the house. We have seen 
a woman at the wash-tub three days after she had been con- 
fined ; and we have heard of females undergoing the pains of 
labor under a hedge by the roadside, and in a few hours pro- 
ceeding on their journey with their babes at their breasts. But 
these women Avere semi or entire barbarians; they had not been 
delicately nurtured. With the immense advantages, we must 
also take some of the disadvantages of civilization, and those 
who give birth to children surrounded by all its comforts and 


luxuries, must not attempt to emulate the Indian squaw. If 
tliey do, they will inevitably sulTer for their temerity. Getting 
about too early after childbirth is, perhaps, the most fruitful of 
all sources of uterine disease. The consequences may or may 
not show themselves at once, but whether or no, bad conse- 
quences there most likely will be ; therefore we warn all mo- 
thers to keep their beds long enough ; but little exertion should 
be made until the end of the first fortnight. If there is a ne- 
cessity for getting about earlier, of course it must be done, for 
necessity has no law; but unless there is, the risk should not be 
run. Delicate women especially do wrong to attempt it, and 
the strong will be likely to render themselves weak by the 

Abortion, or Miscarriage. — The premature expulsion of 
the foetus from the womb, — that is, before the seventh month. 
After that period, if delivery occurs before the ninth month, it 
is called premature labor. 

Causes. — A sudden shock to the system by a fall or a fright ; 
straining, or over-reaching ; the administration of strong purga- 
tives or emetics; excessive indulgence in venery, or aught 
which may tend to debilitate the system ; malformation of the 
generative organs; fevers and severe inflammations; syphilis 
or constitutional disease of any kind; the growth of polypi 
or tumors in the cavity of the uterus, or adhesion to the 
surrounding viscera; too great contractibility of the uterine 
fibres and blood-vessels. Most frequently, perhaps, it is a diseased 
condition of the foetus itself, which, wanting the elements of 
growth and vitality, is rejected as a useless and troublesome in- 
cumbrance. Two classes of females, very different in constitu- 
tion and appearance, are more than commonly liable to abortion, 
namely, those of a voluptuous and plethoric habit, and those of a 
weak and irritable frame. Those who continue to suckle after 
conception has again taken place, render themselves liable to it, 
because a certain amount of nutriment required by the foetus goes 
to the formation of the lacteal fluid. 

Miscarriage is generally attended with much pain. It 
weakens the system, and often severely tries the constitution 
of the sufferer, whose liability to the accident increases Avith 
each occurrence. Tlie periods at which it is most likely to take 
place are said to be about a month after conception, again in 
twelve weeks, and again in the seventh month, — the liability 
increasing in those stages wliich correspond with the periods of 
menstruation. Some women invariably miscarry at a certain 
stage; and thus, althougli often in the way to become mothers, 
are never blessed with olfspring. 


By this it will be sufficiently plain that pregnant Avomen 
ought to avoid all violent exercises of the body, strong mental 
excitement, over-indulgence of sensual appetites, exposure to 
wet, or any extremes of weather, or aught Avhich may tend to 
constitutional derangement of whatever kind; and those who 
have once aborted should be doubly careful on account of their 
greater liability. 

Symptoms. — These vary considerably, according to the 
more or less advanced stage of pregnancy, and state and condi- 
tion of the patient; but usually she feels at first slight pains in 
the loins, and parts about the womb. There is a sense of bear- 
ing down, a frequent desire to make water, or to evacuate the 
bowels, and a feverish state of the system generally. A dis- 
charge of blood commonly follows, sometimes in clots, at others 
in gushes, at longer or shorter intervals ; and this will continue 
until the fcetus is expelled. As the patient can not be consid- 
ered out of danger until relieved of the ovum, the discharge 
ought to be carefully watched, and preserved for the examina- 
tion of the medical man, should he not be present during iis 
progress, which is much to be preferred. 

Treatment. — The first object, when the premonitory symp- 
toms above mentioned set in, is, if possible, to prevent abortion. 
To this end the patient should at once assume a recumbent po- 
sition, and on no account be suffered to move more than may be 
absolutely necessary. For a few days, use only cold drinks, and 
at bedtime take a pill composed of one grain of opium and two 
grains of sugar of lead. 

If there is much heat in the abdomen, cloths wet with vine- 
gar and water, in equal proportions, should be npplied thereto, 
and removed as often as they get warm. When the hemorr- 
hage becomes at all profuse, all hopes of prevention are at an 
end, and the efforts should be directed to relieve pain, prevent 
exhaustion of strength, and finally to remove, as quickly as may 
be, the ovum from the womb. To effect the latter object, me- 
chanical means are sometimes resorted to, but only one tho- 
roughly acquainted with the anatomy of the parts should at- 
tempt this. As the flooding proceeds, the patient should be 
kept as cool as possible; she should be exposed to, and suffered 
to breathe, cold air; acidulated drinks should be administered; 
if ice can be obtained, let it be used to lower their temperature. 
Should fainting ensue from loss of blood, cordials may be given, 
but not hastily, or frequently; a teaspoonful of brandy, or fif- 
teen drops of aromatic spirits of ammonia, in half a wineglassful 
of cold water, is the best stimulant for the purpose. When the 


discharge is very profuse, lint, wadding, or a piece of sponge, 
dipped in a solution of alum, and then in olive-oil, may be intro- 
duced into the vagina, or an injection of the same gently thrown 
up by means of a syringe ; or a decoction of oak-bark may be 
used for the same purpose. 

Should these means fail to check the hemorrhage, make up 
eighteen grains of sugar of lead into twelve pills, with crumb 
of bread, and give one every two hours with a draught of vine- 
gar and water, or dilute sulphuric acid, fifteen drops in half a 
Avineglass of water being a sufficient dose. Opiates may be 
given with advantage when the pain is very severe, especially 
before the flooding comes on, or after it has continued too long. 
Suppositories, consisting of about a grain of powered opium, 
made up into a softish mass, with a few grains of powdered 
gum, or extract of henbane, are also useful. These latter may 
be introduced when miscarriage is likely to ensue. With rest 
and proper care they will sometimes prevent it. 

The best preventives of miscarriage are the frequent use 
of the cold hip-bath, and sponging the lower part of the belly 
with cold vinegar and water; strict attention to diet, and avoid- 
ing all violent purging medicines; moderate gentle exercise, 
and entire abstinence from sexual intercourse during the first 
montlis of pregnancy. 

Wo can say nothing here about abortions voluntarily pro- 
duced, except to warn Avomen of tlie folly and danger of resort- 
ing to unprincipled empirics, or the use of powerful drugs, to 
liide the consequences of an unlawful gratification of their pas- 
sions. Death has frequently resulted from the employment of 
such means as are necessary to produce abortion, and far better 
is it to bear the shame and disgrace of being the mother of ille- 
gitimate offspring than to incur the risk and sin of being possi- 
bly the destroyer of self, as well as of the embryo of a human 
being, over which the parental instinct alone ought to stimulate 
to tender care and watchfulness. 

Anaemia. — This is a condition of the constitution in which 
there is a deficiency of red globules, or coloring matter in the 
blood. It is marked by extreme pallor in those parts, such as 
tiie lips, which are generally suffused; and it is not uncommon 
in young females of a weak or scrofulous habit. It appears to 
arise from a deficiency of vital energy in the system, either con- 
Rtitutional or brought on by want of nourishment, breathing 
impure air, or great loss of blood. In any case a cure may be 
effected by good generous diet, pure air, moderate exercise, and 
strengthening medicines. 


Treatment. — Any of the various preparations of iron may 
be taken in combination, if the appetite be bad, with some bit- 
ter tonic, such as infusion of gentian, with a little quinine. 
Should there be much emaciation, cod-liver oil, taken in orange 
wine, will be of service. The pores of the skin should be kept 
open by tepid sponging, and the bowels moderately so by a rhu- 
barb or colocynth pill now and then. Strong purgatives should 
be avoided, and especially salines. In young females the ab- 
sence of the monthly discharge need cause no uneasiness ; with 
returning strength that will most likely return. Should it not 
do so, however, when this treatment has been persisted in for a 
time, and should the pallor, languor, sleeplessness, headache, 
confined bowels, swelling oi" the feet, etc., which generally dis- 
tinguish anaemia, continue, a medical man ought to be consulted, 
as it is likely th«^:'o may be consumption, or other organic dis- 
ease, at the root of the mischief, 

Barrenness. — Barrenness is the defect of power in the fe- 
male to produce offspring. 

Causes. — It is caused sometimes by want of tone or strength 
in the system ; nervous debility ; sometimes the result of mal- 
formation of structure in some part of the generative organs: 
and sometimes by functional disorders from local or constitu- 
tional causes. 

Treatment. — Cold bathing, or dashing cold water on the 
loins daily ; general tonics, or strengtheners to the system ; elec- 
tricity or galvanism applied locally. A milk and vegetable diet 
is recommended, and abstinence from sexual indulgence for a 
time. Take plenty of exercise early in the morning in the open 
air, and take one scruple each of compound aloetic pill, com- 
pound rhubarb pill, sulphate of iron, extract of henbane. 

Mix and divide into thirty-two pills. Take one every night 
and the following in the daytime :— Compound tincture of vale- 
rian, ^ ounce ; compound tincture of lavender, 1 ounce ; aro- 
atic spirits of ammonia, ^ ounce. 

Mix, and take a teaspocnful twice a day in two tablespoon- 
fuls of infusion of cascarilla. 

Green Sickness. — This disease has obtained its name 
from the pale and greenish cast of the skin of the patient. It 
is one of the forms of aneemia, and chiefly affects young girls, 
although adult and even married women, and young delicate 
males are subject to it. 

Causes. — The disease appears to arise from a defect in the 
blood of red particles, and other constituents, and this is caused 
by defective assimilation. Those young persons of sedentary 


habits, or who work in crowded i\ictories or shops, or who live 
in underground kitchens, and like places, are particularly sub- 
ject to it. 

Symptoms. — In addition to the pallor of the skin, which is 
common to the forms of anaemia, this has some peculiar symp- 
toms, such as hysterical paroxysms, and extreme nervousness, 
pain in the side, swelling of the ankles, headache recurring at 
certain periods; there is also frequently depraved appetite and 
a disclination for wholesome food altogether. If the case is 
long neglected, the symptoms become greatly exaggerated, the 
secretions are unhealthy in character, and deficient in quimtity ; 
the limbs swell, the pains in the head and face become more se- 
vere, and so weak is the patient that every exertion, even the 
slightest, is laborious; the depraved appetite becomes more re- 
markable — cinders, chalk, slate-pencil, and articles equally unfit 
for eating, are eagerly sought for, and masticated with avidity. 

Treatment. — Change of air, tonics, and the course of treat- 
ment prescribed under the head of Ance.mia, is the best in such 
cases. Exercise, fresh air, and nourishing diet, are the great 
restoratives. Iron is the best tonic, alone or in combination 
Avith quinine. It should be given in the least nauseous form, 
and at least one hour before meals. 

Hysterics {Hysteria). — A nervous affection, chiefly seen in 
females, and generally connected with uterine irregularities. 
The age at which there is the greatest proneness to hysteria, is 
from that of puberty to the fiftieth year, tliat is, from the acces- 
sion to the cessation of the menstrual life, — at the beginning 
and ending of which it is more frequent and marked than at 
any other period. Single women, and the married Avho do not 
bear children, are most subject to it, although it sometimes oc- 
curs at the early period of pregnancy and immediately after 
childbirth. Persons of studious and sedentary habits, and of 
scrofulous and Avcakly constitutions, are especially likely to be 
the subjects of hysteria, as are indolent and plethoric persons, 
and those debilitated by disease or excesses of any kind. It 
jnay be excited by excessive evacuations, suppression of tlie 
natural secretions, strong mental emotions, or sympathy with 
others so affected. It is a curious circumstance connected Avith 
this affection that it stimulates almost every disease to which 
humanity is liable. 

Symptoms. — An attack generally comes on with a sensation 
of clioking. It seems as if a ball were rising u\ the throat, and 
threatening to stop tlio passage of the air; then the trunk and 
limbs become convulsed, so much so that an apparcntiy feeble 


woman will require three or four strong persons to restrain her 
from injuring herself; then follows the hysterical sobbing and 
crying, Avith alternate fits of laughter. Generally the head is 
thrown back, the face is flushed, the eyelids closed and tremu- 
lous ; the nostrils distended, and the mouth firmly shut. There 
is a strong movement in the throat which is projected forward, 
and a wild throwing about of the arms and hands, with some- 
times a tearing of the hair, rending of the clothes, catching at 
the throat, and attempts to bite those who impose a necessary 

A fit of hysteria may last for a few minutes only, or for 
severa Ihours, or even days ; persons have died under such an af- 
fliction. It may generally be distinguished from epilepsy by 
the absence of foaming at the mouth, wliicli is nearly always 
present in that disease, and also by the peculiar twinkling of 
the eyelids, Avliich is a distinguishing symptom of great value, 
and a sign of safety. In epilepsy, too, there is a complete in- 
sensibility, not so in hysteria; the patient retains partial con- 
sciousness; hence it behoves those about her to be cautious 
what they say. If any remedies are suggested of which she is 
likely to have a dread, her recovery may be greatly retarded 
thereby. In epilepsy there is laborious or suspended respira- 
tion, a dark livid complexion, a protruding and bleeding tongue; 
roiling or staring and projected eyeballs, and a frightful expres- 
sion of the countenance. Not so in hysteria; the cheeks are 
usually red, and the eyes, if not hidden by the closed eyelids, 
are bright and at rest; the sobbing, sighing, short cries, and 
laughter, too, are characteristic of the latter affection. We 
point out these distinctions that no unnecessary alarm may be 
felt during a fit of hysteria, Avhich is seldom attended with ulti- 
mate danger either to mind or body, although the symptoms are 
sufficiently distressing to cause some anxiety. 

Treatment. — First prevent the patient, if violent, from in- 
juring herself. Confine her hands, by wrapping tightly round 
her a sheet or blanket. The dress should be loosened, especially 
round the throat; and the face freely exposed to fresh air, and 
both that and the head well washed with cold water. If she 
can and will swallow, an ounce of camphor-mixture, Avith a tea- 
spoonful of ether, sal volatile, tincture of assafoetida, or valerian, 
may be administered. Strong liquid ammonia may be applied 
to the nostrils; and if the fit is of long duration, an enema in- 
jected, consisting of spirits of turpentine, castor-oil, and tinc- 
ture of assafoetida, of each half an ounce, in half pint of gruel. 
What is required is a strong stimulus to the nervous system; 



therefore, dashing cold water on the face, and hot applications 
to the spine, are likely to be of service. Carlisle recommends 
that a polished piece of steel, held in boiling water for a minute 
or two, be passed down the back over a silk handkerchief. This 
has been found to prevent the recurrence of the paroxysm, 
which has before been periodic, — by which it Avould seem that 
the patient has some power of controlling the symptoms, when 
a sufficiently strong stimulus is applied, to enable or induce her 
to exercise it. 

The patient's mind, during the intermissions of the attack, 
should be kept as tranquil as possible, and a tendency to all ir- 
regular habits or excesses held in check. If plethoric, there 
should be spare diet; if scrofulous and weakly, good nourishing- 
food and tonic medicines, particularly some form of iron, the 
shower-bath, regular exercise, and cheerful company. Anti- 
spasmodics, and remedies which have a gently stimulating 
effect, will frequently relieve the sleeplessness complained of 
by hysterical patients better than opiates and other narcotics. 
In such cases Dr. Graves recommends pills composed of a grain 
of musk and two or three grains of assafootida, to be taken two 
or three times a day. 

Premature Birth. — A birth which occurs between the 
seventh and ninth month of pregnancy is generally so called. 
It is a contingency to be most carefully guarded against, for a 
child born before its regular time can scarcely be expected to 
have the strength and vigor of one who attains its full develop- 
ment in the womb. Nevertheless cases have been known in 
which the early-born child has grown up hearty and strong, and 
there are also cases in which, for the mother's sake, a premature 
labor is desirable, as giving the only posr.ible chance of produc- 
ing living offspring at all. There may be an unusually small 
pelvic cavity, owing to some malformation, or narrowing of the 
passage through Avliich the foetus has to pass, so that it can 
only do so by an operation, involving death to the child and great 
danger to tlie mother. Of course, none but a physician should 
be entrusted with the delicate task of bringing about a prema- 
ture labor, and only such a sad necessity as is hero hinted at 
should authorize him to attempt it. 

Puerperal Fever, (Childbed Fever). — Tliis is one of the 
most fatal discuses which attack -lying-in women. It is a fever 
of a very high character, arising from inflammation of the serous 
membrane, and often of the womb itself, and of its veins and 
absorbents. It runs a very rapid course, and is commonly fatal. 
It assumes the character of an epidemic, and frequently causes 


great mortality in lying-in hospitals. Whether it is really con- 
tagious or not is yet an open question. The mere probability 
that it may be so should render persons extremely cautious in 
their intercourse with those who are sufiering under it. 

Symptoms. — There is usually an anxious countenance, sick- 
ness, hurried respiration, a furred tongue, and a stoppage of the 
secretions, especially of the milk. When these symptoms occur 
soon after childbirth, no attempt should be made at domestic 
treatment. Let the medical man be summoned immediately, if 
he be not already in attendance. 

Puerperal Convulsions. — ^These sometimes come on after 
labor has commenced, or immediately on its completion ; and, 
therefore, while the patient is in a state of great suffering and 
prostration. The hysterical form is the most easily dealt with, 
— merely dash a little cold water in the face, and give a tea- 
spoonful of sal volatile in water, as in common hysteria. 

The epileptic and apoplectic forms are both extremely 
dangerous. Blood will have to bo taken either from the arm or 
the temporal artery, and strong mercurial purgatives adminis- 
tered ; the hair must be cut short, and a blister applied to the 
nape of the neck, and cold lotions to the head. If by these 
means the convulsions can be subdued, and the delivery, if it 
has not taken place, be accomplished, there may be a chance for 
the patient. Care must be taKen in the apoplectic form not to 
give opium, which will probably be required in the epileptic. 
Generally, however, a medical man will be present at such a 
crisis ; if not, let him be summoned instantly. 

Puerperal Mania, or Nervousness.— This disease fre- 
quently attacks Avomen either a little before, during, or shortly 
after childbirth, and sometimes during nursing. 

Symptoms. — Great nervous irritation • the face is commonly 
pallid, the eye troubled, the tongue white, and skin hot; the 
mind wanders, and conduct very irregular. 

Treatment. — Give a purge of senna and salts, and keep the 
bowels regular by the compound rhubarb pill. Keep the room 
darkened, and let the patient be kept quiet, and free from the 
interruption of friends. If she is restless at night, give her an 
anodyne, such as twenty drops of hartshorn, or one grain of 
opiu m in a solid pill. 

White Leg, or Milk Leg. — This troublesome disorder is 
apt to follow childbirth in some constitutions, and is of long- 

Symptoms. — It may commence two or three days after de- 
livery, or it may not for some weeks. There is a little fever, 


and the parts about the thigh and groin feel hot, stiff, and pain- 
ful; swelling commences, which extends over the whole limb, 
which does not, however, change color, except it be paler or 
whiter than natural. At this time the pain is usually very 
severe. After a time the symptoms abate a little, but the limb 
remains for a long time swollen, and comparatively useless. 

Treatment. — Cooling purgatives, such as magnesia, and salts 
and senna, and warm fomentations and poultices. Judicious 
bandaging will be of great service. 

Itching of the External G-enital Organs.— The delicate 

internal lining of the external organs of generation sometimes 
become the seat of a most distressing itching, to relieve which, 
the parts may be so irritated by friction as to become violently 
inflamed. Leeches have been used sometimes with benefit; so 
has the application of cold, such as ice-water, or even lumps of 
ice introduced into the vagina. When tliere is an eruption like 
that in the sore mouth of children, injections of a strong solu- 
tion of borax have been very useful ; thick starch water, with 
a solution of sugar of lead, injected into the vagina, and re- 
tained for an hour or two, have been also of great utility in a 
few cases under our care. This irritation sometimes arises from 
disease of the womb, pregnancy, the presence of a stone in the 
bladder, or worms in the bowels. The original affection must 
first be attended to in these cases, as elsewhere directed. 


Care, Diseases and Treatment. 

In most cases, the child begins to breathe and cry as soon 
as it is ushered into tlie world. This, however, is not alwaj's 
the case. Many children manifest no signs of animation when 
born, Avho may, nevertheless, be re-excited by prompt and 
judicious management. ^ When this state of apparent death de- 
pends on the apoplectic condition of the brain, the infant's coun- 
tenance exhibits a livid or deep red and bloated appearance: 
the eyes are prominent, and the surface of the body warm and 
reddish; sometimes the body is flaccid, and the navel-string has 
ceased to pulsate. Everything, in such a case, depends on the 
speedy removal of the congested condition of the brain. The 
umbilical cord should be immediately cut, and an effort made to 
stripe some blood from it Avith the fingers. When the cord pul- 
sates vigorously, nothing more is generally required for setting 
the vital functions in play than to divide the cord and suffer the 
blood to flow freely from it. The child's head should be supported 
in an elevated position, cool water applied to the scalp, and the 
inferior parts of the body Avrapped in warm flannel. An effort 
should be made to excite the respiratory functions by artificial 
inflation of the lungs and compression of the thorax Avith the 
hands. In inflating the lungs, a silk handkerchief folded double, 
or a flne napkin, should be laid over the mouth of the infant; 
the nurse should then apply her mouth to that of the babe, at 
the same time closing its nostrils, and endeavor, by a moderate 
but uniform force of insufflation, to fill its lungs with air. The 
covering of the mouth is recommended as a means of avoiding 
fatal rupture of the pulmonary air-cells. It is proper to observe 
that when these manifestations of cephalic congestion and gen- 
eral fullness are not present, that is, when the face and body 
present a pale and slirimlcen appearance, blood cannot be ab- 
stracted without much injury to the child. 

Some infants remain for a minute or two after birth without 
any, or but a few respiratory efforts, although they will open 



their eyes and move their extremities with sufficient activity. 
A few drops of cold water sprinkled on the chest or abdomen 
will instantly cause them to breathe and cry out lustily. The 
main point of caution, in cases of this kind, is to avoid tying the 
cord until its pulsation has ceased, or has become quite feeble. 
In all instances where respiration does not ensue immediately 
after birth, or is any wise embarrassed, prompt attention 
should be paid to the removal of the viscid mucus which is 
usually lodg-ed in the mouth, fauces, and larynx of new-born in- 
fants. A fing-er surrounded with a piece of soft linen should be 
carefully introduced into the mouth, and the tenacious slime 
brought away. 

Infants are sometimes born in a state of asphyxia, without 
any signs of congestion or vascular fullness, — the surface of the 
body being pale, and the face free from puffiness, which occurs 
in apoplectic or congestive cases. If, in such cases, the cord 
continues to pulsate, it must on no account be divided until pul- 
sation has ceased. The mouth should be immediately cleared 
in the manner just mentioned, and a little cold spirits, or water, 
dashed on the pit of the stomach. So long as the cord beats, 
some stimulant, such as brandy, spirits ot camphor, or ether, 
may be applied to the lips and nostrils. It will also be proper 
to rub the body and extremities, gently, with dry warm flannels. 
When the pulsation of the cord has ceased, and the child still 
continues in this state, the cord must be divided, and the infant 
wrapped in dry and heated flannel, which is better than the use 
of the warm bath. Infants in this condition should not be 
hastily abandoned. Thirty mimites and even a longer period 
may elapse before the child begins to respire. 

In all instances where resuscitation has been effected from 
a state of asphyxia, it is of the utmost consequence to suifer the 
infant to lie perfectly at rest, for several hours, before it is sub- 
jected to the agitation and fatigue of washing and dressing. In- 
fiints born between the seventh and eighth months, generally 
remain in a somnolent state for several weeks, and ought to be 
as little disturbed by washing and dressing, or feeding, as 

Occasionally feeble infants suddenly sink into a state of syn- 
cope, or apparent death, after everything seemed going on well. 
This deatnliko condition usually continues a few minutes, and 
then gradually passes off, leaving the infant in a languid and 
fretful state. This affection is probably the result of some in- 
testinal irritation. During the paroxysm, efforts must be made 
to re-excite the vital power by wrapping the child's body in a 


piece of thick flannel wrung out in hot whiskey. A drop of 
ether, or spirits of camphor, should be applied to the nostrils 
and lips; and weak sinapisms laid to the soles of the feet. 

The general rule as to tying the cord, with the exceptions 
above noticed, is, that it is the safest to delay the tying of it, 
until it has entirely ceased to pulsate. 

The Meconium. — The fascal matter formed in the bowels 
of infants, before birth, is called meconium. Its timely removal 
is an object of no small importance. Nature has furnished the 
appropriate purgative for this purpose, in the first milk, or col- 
icstrum, secreted in the maternal breasts. The small portion of 
fluid which the child usually obtains at the breast, during the 
first nine or ten hours, possesses a decidedly purgative char- 
acter, and generally causes the entire evacuation of the meconial 
matter. But instead of putting the infant early to the breast, 
and waiting for the operation of this congenial laxative, the 
almost universal custom is to introduce some artificial purgative 
into the stomach, such as castor-oil or syrup of rhubarb, or sweet 
oil, or molasses. Nothing can be more prejudicial to the infant's 
health than this. Apply the infant to its mother's breast be- 
fore the proper milk is secreted, and, in nine cases out of ten, 
adequate purgation will be produced without any irritation of 
the system. It is only when the colustrum fails that artificial 
purgatives should be resorted to; and, for this purpose, a tea- 
spoonful of molasses diluted with a small portion of warm water, 
or fifteen drops of castor-oil, should be given. Where there is 
great torpor of the bowels, an injection of glycerine and warm 
water, or a glycerine suppository, may be used each morning 
after the bath. The warm bath will, in general, promote the 
operation of the purge, — especially placing the lower part 
of the body in warm water, and making cold applications to 
the head. 

Washing and Dressing. — When the infant is born, and 
the function (H breathing is Avell established, it must be care- 
fullv separated from the mother, and secundines, wrapped in a 
soft piece of flannel, its mouth and nose being left uncovered, 
and handed to the nurse. The washing of the infant should, if 
possible, be performed in an adjoining room to that in which 
the delivery has taken place, as nurses in general make much 
noise and bustle about it. The water used for washing healthy 
and vigorous infants should be lukewarm ; but for very weak 
ones, water of a higher temperature will be necessary. The 
skin of the infant at birth is covered with a whitish cheesy kind 
of substance, which is most abundant in the folds of the joints, 


the groins, and armpits. It is particularly important to the 
health and comfort of the infant tliat every particle of this sub- 
stance sliould be removed; but as it is wholly insoluble in water, 
and is but very sliglitly acted on by soap, Ave must employ lard, 
or fresh butter, or the yolk of eggs, to render it soluble. Be- 
fore any water is applied to tlie infant's body, the skin sliould 
be smeared and gently rubbed with one of these substances, 
after wliicli the wliole may be easily washed off with warm 
Avator and mild soap. When tlie infant is delicate or extremely 
feeble, the addition of a teaspoonful of wine or brandy to the 
water in which it is washed maybe of great service; but unless 
such a special reason for stimulating applications be present, 
plain Avater is decidedly the most proper. After the child has 
been thoroughly Avashed, it should be Avell dried and immedi- 
ately dressed. Throughout the Avhole period of infancy, the 
child's body should be Avashed every morning and eA'ening. 
The practice of dusting fine starch or hair-poAvder over the 
body, Avitli the vicAV of keeping the skin dry and soft, is impro- 
per. On the appearance of any excoriations, a finely poAvdered 
starch may be dusted over the affected parts with benefit. 

The Dress, — The first tiling to be done in dressing the in- 
fant is to fix the remains of the navel-string, or umbilical cord, 
in a proper manner. The nurse takes a soft piece of linen, 
about two inches square, cuts a small circular hole in its centre, 
through Avliich she bring the remaining part of the naval-cord, 
and then envelops it. She next turns it toward the chest of the 
infant, and places a small flannel bandage or roller over it and 
roun<l the body. This bandage should be a simple strip of flan- 
nel, about four inches Avido, Avhich should be Avorn sufficiently 
loose to admit of the easy introduction of a finger under it. Al- 
most every part of the infant's dress should open on the back, 
and be fastened by tapes or buttons; pins ought to be entirely 
laid aside. The clothing should bo Avarm, light, and loose. The 
lightest and sofest kinds of flannel should be Avorn in Avinter; in 
warm seasons muslin maybe sustituted for the flannel; but 
(;ominf)n sense dictates the pi'opriety of constantly accommodat- 
ing the clothing to the varying state of the weather. The in- 
fant should never be suffered to sleep in the flannel Avhicli lias 
been Avorn during the day; and in the morning it ought to be 
again changed. During the first eight or nine months the 
child's clothes should extend considerably beloAV the feet, in 
order that the lower parts of the body may be duly protected 
against tlie cold. After this age, however, the feet should be 
entirely unincumbered. During cold Aveathcr, fine woollen 


stockinets, snfTiciently wide to be easily put on, should bo worn ; 
but in Avarni weather, light soft flannel socks will suffice. The 
shoes should bo made of light pliable materials, and sufliciently 
large to prevent all constraint of the feet. In very young in- 
fants, thin Avoollen socks will protect the feet sufhcicntly during 
warm weather; but when they are about learning to walk it is 
best to have the feet protected against accidents by soft light 
shoes. It is highly important that the child should be kept as 
dry as possible. Its under-clothes should be immediately re- 
moved when wet, and replaced by dry and clean ones. 

The Food of Infants. — With healthy infants, several 
hours at least should be suffered to pass, immediately after 
birth, before any alimentary substances are introduced into the 
stomach. A few teaspoonfuls of some very bland and weak fluid 
might not be detrimental, but the usual practice of filling the 
stomach to distention with gruel, or pulverized biscuit dissolved 
in water, or some such preparation, is exceedingly to be depre- 
cated. In nine cases out of ten, perhaps, the gripings, flatu- 
lency, diarrhoea, and colic, which so frequently harass infants 
during the first six months of their existence alter birth, are the 
results of indigestion, brought on by errors in diet. And then, 
to relievo these symi)toms, nurses employ catmint tea, anise- 
seed tea, paregoric, or some other pestiferous palliative or nos- 
trum; and thus, an additional source of stomach-derangement, 
or indigestion, is brought into operation on the unfortunate 
babe. The infant's digestive functions are often injured also by 
the exhibition of active purgatives. There is no substance in 
nature, nor can there be anything prepared by art, which forma 
so congenial and Avholesome a nourishment to the young babe 
as its mother's milk. It is almost superfluous to remark that 
nature manifestly intended this fluid as its sole nutriment at 
this early stage of life, and until the primary teeth make their 
appearance. Should their exist any inability of suckling the 
child, a mixture of two parts of fresh cow's milk and one part of 
warm water approaches nearer to the nature of human milk than 
anything else that can conveniently be procured. Alter the 
first teeth have come out, small portions of barley-water, thinly 
prepared arrow-root, or a mixture of equal parts of cow's milk 
and water, may be given two or three times daily, in addition 
to the nourishment drawn from the breasts. The food should 
be introduced into the stomach as gradually as possible, and, we 
must again repeat the caution, care should be taken not to over- 
load the stomach. Alter the seventh month, small portions of 
the food just mentioned should be given at regular periods, 


three or four times daily. The practice of dandling or jolting 
infants soon after they have taKen nourishment is decidedly 
improper. The child should be left quiet for at least thirty or 
forty minutes after having received its food. 

Employment of Nurses.— Mothers are not always in a 
condition which enables them to suckle their own infants. This 
is unfortunate, for it cannot be doubted that the mother's milk 
is, in general, better adapted to the constitutional temperament 
of her offspring than that furnished by others. 

No woman who has led a debauched course of life, even 
though reformed, can be regarded as a perfectly safe nurse. 
Females of this description are apt to have their system con- 
taminated with some morbid taint which may give an unwhole- 
some quality to the milk. The nurse should be of sound and 
vigorous constitution, and the age of the milk should not vary 
much from that of the infant itself, up to the fourth month. 
After that period such a relation between the ages of the milk 
and child is not of much importiince. A nurse who has but one 
good breast should never be selected, for a babe suckled by one 
breast only is apt to contract the habit of squinting. To avoid 
this, the babe should be nourishedalternately from both breasts. 
Particular regard should be had to the temper and moral habits 
of the nurse. It is hardly necessary to observe that an irritable, 
passionate, and sour-tempered female is but ill-suited for the 
important duty of nursing. 

Artificial Nursing. — Under judicious management, in- 
fants will, in general, experience no inconvenience from a course 
of artificial nursing ; and, as a general rule, this mode of nour- 
ishing children is preferable to the employment of a wet-nurse 
whose competency and fitness for the duty are equivocal. Very 
young, and peculiarly delicate and feeble infants seldom do well 
when raised by hana; and Avhen, upon trial, the slightest kinds 
of artificial aliment are found to disorder the alimentary canal, 
the life of the infant will very probably depend upon a fresh 
and wholesome breast being instantly procured for it. When 
artificial nourishment must be resorted to, a mixture of two 
y)arts of fresh cow's milk, and one part of warm water, with a 
very small portion of sugar, will, in general, answer the purpose 
better than any other kind of food that can be contrived. Thin 
barle3^-water, or a very liquid preparation of arrowroot, will 
sometimes be useful as a change of nourishment, where, from 
acidity in the stomach, the milk curdles and causes griping. 
The sucking-bottle is decidedly the best mode of feeding the 
child, but particular care should de taken to keep it always per- 


fectly clean and sweet. It should be well washed, both inside 
and outside, with hot water every morning and evenhig. 

Children who are entirely nursed by artificial diet should 
be restricted to the use of the milk and water mixture already 
mentioned, until several teeth have made their appearance. 
After the third month, however, the proportion of milk should be 
increased to three parts of milk and one part of Avater. After 
the first teeth appear, grated hard biscuit dissolved in warm 
water, oatmeal gruel, liquid preparations of arrowroot or sago, 
milk thickened with flour, and thin pap, may be allowed in 
moderate quantities. When these preparations do not agree 
with the child's stomach, they should be mixed with an equal 
portion of weak chicken or beef broth, clear and well freed from 
fat. With some children, no form in which cow's milk can be 
given will agree with the stomach. In such cases, farinaceous 
decoctions, mixed with a small portion of cream, are generally 
digested with ease. Thin oatmeal gruel, or rice flour boiled in 
water, with the addition of a teaspoonlul of cream to every gill 
of liquid preparation will answer very well. AH solid animal 
food should be withheld until the dog-teeth have first made 
their appearance. The animal food given to young children 
should be plainly roasted or boiled. Fried and broiled meats, 
and all food heated a second time should be avoided. Those 
children who eat least animal food, Avill, in general, be found the 
most healthy. Soft-boiled eggs form one of the most appropri- 
ate articles of food for children after the first teeth have come 
out. As a general rule, from three to four hours may be re- 
garded as a suitable interval between the meals of the child ; if 
it requires nourishment between the regular meals, small por- 
tions of liquid aliment should be used. When solid animal food 
form a part of the diet of children, it should be taken at noon 
or in the forenoon. Pure water, with or wathout small portions 
of milk, constitutes the best drink for children. The practice 
of allowing them a little wine, spirits, or malt liquors, is decid- 
edly reprehensible. Indulgence in the use of cakes and candies 
is a copious source of disease during childhood. Dried fruits 
preserved with sugar, and fruits preserved with their skins, are 
peculiarly indigestible. Even two or three raisins have been 
known to produce the most serious and protracted disorder of 
the intestinal canal in infants. Apples, peaches, and apricots, 
when perfectly ripe and mellow, may be reasonably allowed to 
children in moderate portions, when the stomach and bowels 
are in good order. Nothing, however, is more prejudicial than 
unripe fruits. Stewed or roasted fruits may be allowed occa- 
sionally, provided that they are not very sour. 


Exercise. — It is of great importance to allow the infant 
the freest possible use of the limbs. Muscular exertion is in- 
dispensable to the preservation of its health and the due de- 
velopment of its powers, and it should be an especial object of 
care to allow it entire freed»m of motion for several hours daily, 
by avoiding all modes of dress and position tending to restrain 
the free use of its limbs. With this view, the infant should 
be taken from its bed, laid upon its back on a soft mattress or 
any other level and slightly resisting surface, and divested of 
everything calculated to restrain the motion of its limbs and 
body. This should be repeated two or three times daily, and 
in warm weather the air should be freely admitted. 

Besides the exercise which infants thus obtain by their own 
muscular efforts, passive exercise should be regularly afforded 
them by carrying in the arms or riding in an easy carriage. 
The use of this kind of motion should be commenced as early as 
the second or third day after birth, provided the infant be not 
unusually feeble. At first, that is, a few days after birth, the 
infant should be taken from its cradle two or three times daily, 
laid on its back upon a pillow, and carried gently about the 
chamber. After the third or fourth week, the child may be 
carried, in a reclining posture, on the arms of a careful nurse, in 
such a way as to afford entire support to the body and head. 
This may be done by reclining the infant upon the forearm, the 
hand embracing the upper and posterior part of its thigh, 
whilst its body and head are supported by resting against the 
breast and arm of the nurse. When held in this way, it may be 
gently moved from side to side, or up and down, Avhile it is 
carefully carried through a well-ventilated room. When the 
child has acquired a sufficient degree of strength to maintain 
itself in a sitting posture — which is seldom before the com})le- 
tion of the third month — it may be carried about in this posture 
for a short time, twice or thrice daily, provided the spine and 
head be supported by the nurse, an aid which can seldom be 
prudently dispensed with before the child is six or seven months 
old. All rapid, whirling, and concussive motions are calculated 
to injure the delicate organization of infants; therefore running 
or jumping with an infant in the arms, descending rapidly a 
flight of stairs, or whirling round, ought to be rigidly forbidden. 
The practice of supporting very young infants in a sitting pos- 
ture on the knee, and jolting them violently, can not be t(jo 
severely censured. These violent agitations ])owerfully affect 
the delicate organization of infants, and may be productive of 
spasms, epilepsy, and apoplectic fits. To gentle rocking of i-i- 


feints in tlie cradle there seems no great objection, but rapid or 
long-continned motion of this kind should be avoided. Riding 
in a carriage, properly constructed, is an excellent mode of af- 
fording suitable exercise to infants. The body of the carriage 
should be long enough to permit the infant to lie down at full 
length, and the sides sufficiently high to prevent it falling or 
rolling out. The wheels should be low, and the carriage should 
be made to move at a moderate and equal pace over smooth 
ground. Very young infants should be laid down in the car- 
riage, on a pillow, or a small and soft mattress, with the head 
slightly elevated, and so confined at the sides as to prevent the 
body rolling Avlien the carriage is put in motion. After the 
child has acquired some degree of strength, it should be placed 
in a semi-recumbent posture, with its head and back well sup- 
ported by pillows. 

When the infant has acquired sufficient strength to support 
itself in the sitting posture, it should be frequently set down on 
a soft carpet, and surrounded with its toys. When left to the 
free use of its limbs, in these circumstances, it will soon learn to 
creep, — an exercise which should always be allowed to it. If 
the weather is serene, and the ground perfectly dry, the child 
may be carried out and placed on a grass-plat, Avhere it can 
range about in all directions. If occasionally supported under 
the arms, it will easily learn to stand erect, but it should never 
be raised up or led, by one arm only. After children have ac- 
quired the use of their legs, walking is decidedly the best exer- 
cise they can take. When the weather is fine, they should be 
taken out daily, and allowed to run freely about on the grass, or 
ground, free from stones. A fall or two will do them little or 
no harm; when such do occur, they should not be soothed by 
expressions of extreme pity and sorrow, for children accustomed 
to excessive commiseration, will, Avhen any little accident hap- 
pens to them, never foil to strain their little lungs to the utmost 
by crying. 

Air^Temperature, and Nurseries. — Pure air is indispens- 
able to the entire Mell being of the human frame, and at no pe- 
riod of life are the effects of confinement in stagnant and impure air 
more obviously and lastingly detrimental than during the feeble 
and susceptible age of childhood. Infants ought to be accustomed 
to the fresh air as soon as they are two weeks old, and should enjoy 
it daily for an hour or two when the weather is clear and mild. 
They should not, however, be carried at once into the external air, 
without having been previously accustomed to the air of a well- 
ventilated chamber. After the child is three or four days old, 


it ought to be conveyed several times daily out of its nursery 
into a room having at first only the window open, and, in four 
or five days afterwards, the doors also. This having been prac- 
ticed for ten or twelve days, the child may then be carried out 
of doors and permitted to enjoy the pure and open air ; but at 
first it should not be kept out more than ten or twelve minutes 
at a time. After a child has acquired the power of walking, it 
should be suftered to spend a great portion of its time in the 
open air, provided the Aveather is temperate and dry ; but while 
children are to be encouraged to take exercise and active 
amusement in the open air, they should not be permitted to lie 
down or sit on the cold and damp ground, or in a strong current 
of air in the shade when they are in a state of perspiration from 
exercise ; nor should they, on any account, be permitted to 
drink cold water when thus heated. 

Nurseries, ought, of course, to be kept clean and well ven- 
tilated. When the atmosphere is mild, the external air ought 
to be freely admitted by keeping a window open during the 
day, and at night the chamber door should be left open. The 
floor should be kept clean and dry ; wet and soiled articles of 
clothing should be instantly removed ; and the temperature 
should never exceed sixty-eight degrees of Fahrenheit. The 
general error here is to keep the apartments of children much 
warmer than is consistent either with their comfort or health. 
Warm rooms principally contribute to the extraordinary mor- 
tality of cliildren, who are carried off b v convulsions in the first 
months of their lives. The nursery ought always to be of ample 
dimensions, and the windows should be provided with iron bars 
to prevent children from falling out, and all superfluous furni- 
ture should be excluded. 

Weaning". — The proper time for weaning is soon after all 
the incision teeth have made their appearance. This varies 
considerably in different cases, but will seldom be delayed be- 
yond the eleventh month, and in tlie majority of instances, will 
occur between the ninth and tenth months. Some infants, in- 
deed, have teeth before the sixth month, and others not sooner 
than the twelfth or sixteenth ; for the first it would be too soon 
to advise weaning, — for the latter, it would be too long to delay 
it. It would be injudicious to attempt weaning when the child s 
health is bad, while it is teething, or while laboring under disease 
of any kind, as the breast is a source of tranquility — a kind of se- 
dative in all the diseases and varieties of temper of infants. 
Weaning ought always to bo accomplished, if possible, in a 
gradual manner; as the period of weaning approaches, small 


portions of bread, bread and milk, milk thickened with rice, 
or flour, or chicken tea, should be allowed the child, twice or 
thrice daily, whilst at the same time the intervals of suckling 
should be more and more prolonged. When the child is gradu- 
ally accustomed to take other food, and very much amused by 
its mother, it will easily be got to forget the breast, and seldom 
require it. 

The process of weaning will be helped by allowing the in- 
fant to drink from a cup, pretty liberally, of milk, with a sixth 
part of tepid water. After the child has been weaned, its prin- 
cipal nourishment ought still to consist of liquid or semi-fluid 
substances — milk, milk boiled with bread or slightly thickened 
with rice or wheat flour, preparations of arrowroot, tapioca, or 
sago, oatmeal gruel, or hard biscuits finely pulverized and dis- 
solved in warm water, with a little milk and sugar, should con- 
stitute the principal nourishment, until the eye-teeth, or fangs, 
have made their appearance. Along with these fluid alimen- 
tary substances small portions of bread and weak broth may be 
occasionally allowed ; but it is particularly important to guard 
against too full and nourishing a diet immediately after weaning. 
In general, weaning may be accomplished with least risk during 
the mild months of April, May, September, and October. Dur- 
ing the warm months of June, July, and August, the transition 
from the maternal milk to an exclusively artificial nourishment 
is more apt to be iiijurious. 

Cleanlineas, Washing, and Bathing. — Cleanliness is a 
most important requisite to a healthy state of the skin. The 
tendency of a foul state of the skin to give rise to various 
chronic cutaneous disorders, of a loathsome and harassing char- 
acter, is well known. The general health, too, is liable to be 
impaired by an habitually unclean state of the surface of the 
body. We have already said that infants ought to be thoroughly 
washed over the whole body at least once a day. After wean- 
ing, it will be sufficient to wash the child once every other day. 
During the first three or four months of the child's existence, 
warm water should be used ; after that period it should be only 
lukewarm, until the first teething is completed, Avhen it ought 
to be still further reduced until it excites a decided sensation of 
coolness when applied to the body. The washing should be 
performed with a soft sponge or a piece of soft linen. While 
the infant is at the breast, the bath, in addition to washing, 
ought to be used every other day, and afterwards at least twice 
every week. Until the end of the third year, the bath ought 
to be tepid; and for feeble and sickly children, tepid water 


must he used till a later period. In using the bath, the child's 
body ought to be immersed up to the shoulders or neck : the 
practice of immersing only the lower half of the body in the 
bath is decidedly objectionable. For the first four or five Aveeks, 
the infant should not be kept beyond two or three minutes in 
the bath; the duration may be gradually prolonged until it ex- 
tends to twelve or fifteen minutes — the period which a child 
may be allowed to spend in the bath after it has attained the 
age of four years. The best time for bathing children is about 
two hours after breakfast or dinner. The bathing ought to be 
conducted in a room moderately warm ; and, on removing the 
child from the bath, it ought to be instantly Aviped perfectly 
dry, and invested in warm and dry linen. Infixnts may then be 
placed in bed, which, in winter, sliouM be previously warmed, 
and they will generally fall into a refreshing sleep. Children 
further advanced in age, who have already been accustomed to 
the cool bath, need not be put to bed, but rather encouraged to 
take exercise in the open air. The temperature of the bath 
ought to be about ninety-eight degrees of Fahrenheit during the 
first ten or twelve days of the child's existence. It should then 
be progressively reduced about one degree every month until 
the end of the first year, and continued at this degree of warmth 
until the completion of the second year. After this period, it is 
to be further reduced, though in a very gradual manner, until, 
about the end of the third rear, it excites a sensation of decided 

Tongue-tie. — It frequently happens that the tongue of an 
infant is so tied down and restrained in its actions, that sucking 
is rendered extremely difficult, and attended witli a peculiar 
" clucking " noise in the fauces. When this is occasioned by 
the proper fleshy frrenum extending to near the extremity of 
the tongue, nothing can with })ropriety be done towards reme- 
dying the evil; but when the part which ties down the tongue 
is not in the proper fr;enum, but a thin transparent member ex- 
tending from it to near the tip of the tongue, it may bo immedi- 
ately divided with a pair of blunt-pointed scissors. 

Inflammation of the Breasts and Navel. — New-liorn 

infjmts are iiable to a singular inflammation and enlargement of 
the breasts, which is often very injuriously treated by squeez- 
ing, sucking, or pressing them, in order that they may be 
"milked out," as the ignorant nurses talk of. In moderate cases 
of this kind, nothing iriore is necessary than to apply a piece of 
linen moistened with a little sweet oil; or a weak solution of 
the muriate of ammonia in vinegar and water, in the proportion 


of a dram of the ammonia to four ounces of vinegar. The sohi- 
tion ought to be applied warm by moistening pieces of h'nen 
with it, and laying them over the affected parts. 

Inflammation and consequent ulceration about the navel is 
a frequent occurrence during the first nine or ten days after 
birth. The most common cause is deficient attention to cleanli- 
ness, particularly in not clearing away the Avhite caseous matter 
from about the umbilicus. A solution of the sulj)hate of cop- 
per, in the proportion of ten grains to an ounce of water, may 
be applied once or twice daily, and the parts afterwards covered 
with lead ointment, where there is superficial ulceration with- 
out much inflammation. Whatever applications are made, the 
parts should be carefully washed with lukewarm water, at least 
twice daily. 

Jaundice of Infants. — In many instances a yellowness of 
the skin comes on within three or four days after birth, but soon 
disappears again, without producing any unpleasant conse- 
quences. When, however, the white of the eye becomes yel- 
low, the bowels get costive, and the stools are whitish or clay- 
colored, and there is an indication to vomit, a suitable course of 
remedial measures should be instantly resorted to. 

Treatment. — Much benefit may often be derived from emetics. 
A few grains of ipecacuanha should be given every fifteen or 
twenty minutes until vomiting is produced; and when the dis- 
ease is obstinate, the emetic may be advantageouly repeated 
every other day until the stools acquire a bilious appearance. 
In all instances of an inflammatory character, however, attended 
with soreness of the region of the liver and stomach, emetics ought 
not to be employed. In these latter cases, the fourth of a grain of 
podophyllin may be given every two hours, until two or three 
grains have been taken. If free purging does not ensue its 
operation must be aided by castor-oil given in teaspoonful doses 
every hour until the effect is obtained. After the bowels have 
been once freely evacuated, they should be kept in a loose state 
by administering one-fourth of a grain of podophyllin every 
morning, noon, and evening, with an occasional teaspoonful of 
castor-oil. In conjunction with these remedies, the daily use of 
the warm bath is beneficial; and gentle friction with the bare 
hand over the region of the liver and stomach, provided there 
be no hepatic inflammation or abdominal tenderness. Where 
infantile jaundice is accompanied with a febrile condition, four 
or five leeches ought to be applied to the right hypochondrium; 
and, in very violent cases, the application of a small blister to 
the region of the liver may do much good. Where there is 


great constipation of the bowels, eight or ten drops of spirits of 
turpentine may be added to the dose of castor-oil. Where 
diarrhoetic S3^mptoms are present, a fourth of a grain of Dover's 
powder, in conjunction with a grain of the bicarbonate of soda, 
may be given every three or four hours. It is hardly necessary 
to add that all severe cases of this disease should be treated by 
a medical man. 

Retention, Suppression, and Difficulty of Voiding 

the Urine. — There may be little or no urine secreted during 
the first fifteen or twenty hours after birth, and yet the infant 
manifest no uneasiness ; but when the inactivity is protracted 
much beyond this period, the consequences may be very seri- 
ous and even fatal. A teaspoonful of weak parsley tea, with two 
drops of sweet spirits of nitre, given every half hour, and the 
employment of the hip-bath, will generally excite the proper 
action of the kidneys. Should these means fail, friction may be 
applied over the loins and hypogastric region, and a drop of 
spirits of turpentine in a teaspoonful of milk, given every 
thirty or forty minutes in conjunction with warm bathing and 

When there is retention of the urine, that is, when the urine 
is regularly secreted and conveyed into tlie bladder, but is not 
discharged, — a fact easily ascertained by the obviously increased 
distress of the child upon pressure -with the hand on the hypo- 
gastric region, — the warm bath is to be employed, with purga- 
tives and gentle friction, with camphorated oil ; but, if the 
symptoms still increase, the bougie and catheter, in a skillful 
hand, must bo immediately resorted to. Great care and deli- 
cacy are requisite in the introduction of such an instrument as 
the catheter into the bladder of an infant. It is also to be re- 
membered that the bladder may continue distending, althougli 
small portions of urine are from time to time evacuated. This oc- 
currence very frequently deceives the nurse, who imagines that 
the infant has obtained the requisite relief, while its sufi"erings 
and danger are momentarily increasing. 

Pain and difficulty in voiding urine is a frequent complaint 
among infants, particularly during teething. When an infant is 
observed to have occasional fits of violent shrieking, this cause 
may bo suspected. To ascertain the cause of the disease, the 
urine must be examined. If it presents a reddish sediment, 
the bowels should be freely evacuated Avith magnesia and rhu- 
barb. Two or throe grains of the subcarbonate of potash may 
be also administered twice or tlirice daily. In cases wliere tlie 
urine deposits a whitish or yellow-white sediment, the bowels 


are to be freely evacuated with rhubarb or castor-oil, and very 
small doses of Dover's powders exhibited. Half a grain of this 
article, with a grain of powered valerian, may be given every six 
hours to a child between two and five years of age. The diet 
should be mild and nutritious. Where there is no morbid con- 
dition of the urine, a weak infusion of parsley-seed mixed with 
an equal portion of flax-seed may be employed. Where there 
is a slightly inflamed state of the extremity or orifice of the 
urethra, — a case almost wholly confined to female children, — the 
applicntion of citrin ointment, mixed with an equal portion of 
lard, Seldom fails to effect a cure. 

Incontinence of Urine. — Incontinence of urine is a 
common affection in children. It is rarely attended with any 
particluar uneasiness. In the majority of protracted cases, it 
is owing mainly to the influence of habit. 

Treatment. — If the urine is affected, the treatment should 
be regulated as indicated above, until it has been brought to a 
healthy or natural state. If this fjiils to overcome the habit, 
tincture of cantharides may be administered in doses of from ten 
to fifteen drops, thrice in the course of twenty-four hours, until 
a burning pain is experienced at the neck of the bladder on 
passing the urine. When this effect is produced, the use of the 
cantharides must be omitted ; if it is too violent, it may be 
moderated by mucilaginous drinks, such as flaxseed-tea, and 
the use also of the Avarm hip-bath. When there is an irritable 
state of the bladder, cooling laxatives and opiates must be em- 
ployed, with a mild diet. The child aflected Avith incontinence 
of the urine should always be made to sleep on its side or belly, 
and should always bo required to empty the bladder just before 
going to bed. 

Teething.- -The progress of teething is usually accompa- 
nied with general irritability of the system; one or both cheeks 
are often flushed, and the infant frequently starts in his sleep. 
This period is upon the whole one of the most perilous stages of 
life, — as many complaints which, at other periods, Avould have ter- 
minated favorably, often acquire a fatal violence from the irrit- 
able and irritative condition of the system. The occurrence of 
convulsions from diflScult dentition is veiy common, and nothing 
tends more to favor their occurrence than improper diet, or 
overloading the stomach. Various eruptions on the skin are 
also frequently attendant on teething. Infants are also liable 
at this period to a peculiar croupy affection, attended with ex- 
tremely difficult respiration. Fever is, upon the whole, the 
most common sympathetic affection of difficult teething. It 
seldom, however, assumes a vehement character. 


During teething the diet should be as mild and simple as 
possible. If the nurse has plenty of milk, nothing but it should 
be allowed until all the incisors at least are protruded. Should 
artificial nourishment be necessary, recourse may be had to the 
simple mixture of milk and water, mentioned in the article on 
" artificial feeding." All solid articles of food ought to be 
rigidly avoided. Regular exercise in the open air is of great 
utility during dentition, where there is no distinct fever. The 
head ought to be kept cool, and, during warm weather, no caps 
ought to be worn. The bowels ought to be kept open by small 
doses of epsom salts dissolved in some bland and slightly mucil- 
aginous fluid. When the stools present a whitish or clayey 
color, one or two grains of podophyllin may be given every 
third or fourth evening, and a moderate dose of castor-oil or 
magnesia on the following morning. 

A moderate diarrhoea need not be checked ; it will rather 
do good within certain limits, by counteracting the febrile dis- 
position of the system. If it appears necessary to moderate it, 
a powder composed of one-fourth of a grain of ipecacuanha, 
one-sixth of a grain of podophyllin, and four or five grains of 
prepared chalk, should be given every three or four hours. By 
giving two or three doses of this powder daily, the diarrhcea 
may generally be kept in a sufficiently moderate state. The 
child's mouth ought to be washed out with fresh Avater every 
morning ; and it should be allowed a smooth coral or an ivory 
ring, to press and rub its gums with. The gums should be 
regularly inspected, and when much inflamed and swollen, should 
be freely divided by a lancet, directly over the point of the ad- 
vancing tooth. The gums must be freely divided down to the 
teeth. This division of the gums is always to be resorted to 
when convulsions occur, if there be any signs of inflammation, 
Wlien there are symptoms of cerebral irritation, — such as groat 
fretfulness, flushing of the cheeks, and unusual sensibility of the 
eyes to the light, — the timely application of blisters behind the 
ears, or on the back of the neck, may do great service. The 
simultaneous application of cold to the head and warmth to the 
feet will also be useful. When the gums become ulcerated 
before the teeth are protudcd, they should bo lanced, and 
touched occasionally with a solution of four grains of sulphate 
of copper, or nitrate of silver, dissolved in an ounce of water, 
and applied Avith a dossil of lint. 

Diabetes. — Diabetic affections are more common among 
children than is usually supposed, but seldom occur after the 
second year. 


Symptoms. — In tlie commencement of the disease the chikl 
becomes hiiiguid and fretful ; in a short time it begins to fall oft' 
in flesh, while the skin becomes dry, hard, and flabby; as the 
disease advances, the bowels get disordered, and the tongue is 
covered with a white fur, or thick transparent mucous; the ab- 
domen also becomes distended and tense, and in the more ad- 
vanced stage of the disease, the brain is generally more or less 
aff'ected. The most remarkable symptom, however, is the inor- 
dinate discharge of urine, with or without sedimentous matter. 

Treatment, — In treating this disease, in cases where the 
urine is clearly saccharine, an animal diet should he substituted 
for the usual farinaceous or milk diet. If febrile symptoms 
are present, give mild aperients, and the occasional use of the 
warm bath. Opiates are often decidedly beneficial. To a child 
between one and two years old, a grain of Dover's powder may 
be given two or three times daily. In cases where the urine is 
not sweet, small doses of the bicarbonate of soda, in union with 
two or three grains of the bicarbonate of iron, may be advan- 
tageously employed. A turpentine plaster laid over the regions 
of the kidneys has been found of service in infantile diabetes. 
Where the digestive powers are good, beef tea, or weak chicken- 
broth, mixed with the usual f^irinaceous substances, or a portion 
of milk, may be given for diet. The state of the gums should 
be particularly attended to while the child is laboring under 
this afl'ection. 

Erysipelas. — Infants are liable to a peculiar erysipelatous 
inflammation within a few days after birth. 

Symptoms. — It generally commences on the lower parts of 
the body, in the form of a small red blotch, which gradually 
spreads over the abdomen and the thighs, presenting a swollen 
dark-red surface. In most cases, soon after inflammation is es- 
tablished, vesicles make their appearance, and the disease soon 
reaches a dangerous condition, the tendency to suppuration and 
gangrene being very great. 

Treatment. — On the first appearance of inflammation, wrap 
up the affected parts witli cloths saturated with a strong solu- 
tion of the sulphate of soda, and cover with oiled silk. The 
mucilage of slippory-elm bark, or grated potatoes, applied will 
check the spreading. If gangrene is indicated, apply a poul- 
tice of indigo-weed, or lotions of the perraangranate of potash. 
In inflammation, give teaspoonful doses of the elixir cinchona 
and iron, in addition to the external application of the sulphite 
of soda. 

Thrush. — This is one of the most common diseases of 


infancy. It is characterized by a peculiar eruption of minute 
pustules, and a Avlutish incrustation of the tongue. 

Symptoms. — There are generally much thirst, restlessness, 
languor, acid and flatulent eructations, loose and griping stools, 
drowsiness, pain, difficulty of sucking, and a copious flow of 
saliva from the mouth. The stomach and bowels are almost 
always prominently disordered, and the infant is apt to vomit 
after taking anything into its stomach. The abdomen is often 
sore to the touch, and great difficulty of swallowing is expe- 
rienced. Feeble and sickly children scarcely ever escape this 
disease ; children, also, who are kept in crowded or ill-ventilated 
apartments are especially liable to it. 

Treatment. — The first object is to restore the healthy con- 
dition of the stomach and bowels, if disordered. Where the 
ejections from the stomach are sour, and the alvine evacuations 
of a grass-green color, from three to four grains of magnesia 
with two grains of rhubarb, and one of powdered valerian, 
should be given every two or three hours until the bowels are 
freely evacuated. If there is much general irritability and 
restlessness, after this the tepid bath, followed by a drop or 
two of laudanum, should be employed. The mucous membrane 
of the intestines is apt to become highly irritated in severe 
cases; the alvine evacuations in such instances are frequent, 
watery, and streaked with blood. When these symptoms are 
present, a large emollient poultice should be applied over the 
abdomen in conjunction with the internal use of minute portions 
of Dover's powder, with a solution of gum arabic as drink. 
Borax is a famiHar remedy with nurses and mothers, as well as 
with the profession. It may be used either in form of powder, 
or in solution. If the former is employed, two or three grains 
of it, mixed with a small portion of pulverized loaf-sugar, must 
be tlirown into the mouth every two or three hours; if the sol- 
ution be used, a dram of the borax should be dissolved in two 
ounces of water, and applied to the mouth with a soft linen rag 
tied to the extremity of a pliable piece of whalebone, or with a 
soft feather. The practice of forcibly rubbing off the eruption 
is extremely reprehensible; for, when rubbed off in this way, 
the crust is soon renewed in an aggravated form. Where the 
mouth is very rod, livid or ulcerated, wo must have recourse to 
a decoction of bark. A half ounce of powdered bark, boiled 
about thirty minutes in half a pint of water, will make a suit- 
able decoction; and of this about the third of a teaspoonful 
may bo put into the child's mouth every hour or two. 

Ulceration of the Mouth. — Children are liable to an 


ulcerative affection of the mouth, wliicli is evidently distinct 
from the ordinary aphthous eruption. It consists in a number 
of small ash-colored and excavated ulcerations, with elevated 
edges situated about the frajnum, and along the inferior margin 
of the tongue and gums and on the cheek. They usually com- 
mence in the form of small, red, slightly elevated points, at- 
tended with slight symptoms of febrile irritation. 

Treatment. — Clean out the bowels with a dose of magnesia 
and rhubarb. A solution often grains of the sulphate of copper 
in about three teaspoonsfuls of water, to which four teaspoonfuls 
of borax must be added, may be applied to the ulcers once or 
twice daily by means of a strong camel's-hair pencil. Solid 
food, especially salted meats, and fish, must be rigidly avoided 
during this complaint. 

Colic — Colic pains occur often, and with great severity, 
during the first five or six months of infancy. In slight attacks 
the infant suddenly becomes fretful, draws up its legs towards 
the abdomen, whines or cries for a few moments, and then re- 
sumes its usual quiet condition. After a very short interval, 
another attack of the same kind occurs, and again soon subsides ; 
and this goes on until a volume of wind breaks from the stomach 
or bowels, or a thin feecal discharge takes place, when relief en- 
sues. In many cases, however, the symptoms are much more 
violent: there is excessive and unappeasable screaming, violent 
kicking, flushing of the face, writhing of the body, and a dis- 
tended and tense state of the abdomen. When the colic pains 
are frequent, the general health of the infant almost always 
suffers obvious derangement; sometimes, however, the appetite 
remains good, and the infant goes on as if it were in every re- 
spect perfectly healthy. These pains are, in many instances, 
the consequences of overloading the delicate stomach of the in- 
fant with artificial food; sometimes they arise from bad milk; 
sometimes from the influence of cold. 

Treatment. — When there is reason for believing that the 
breast-milk is unwholesome, proper dietetic measures are to be 
attended to by the nurse; but if, notwithstanding a regulation 
of her diet, the infant is still harassed by colic attacks, some 
advantage may perhaps be obtained by applying it to the breast 
at long intervals, and substituting small portions of artifical food, 
such as very thin arrowroot, barley-water, or a mixture of cow's 
milk and Avater. Magnesia, by its anti-acid and purgative ef- 
fects, is one of the most useful remedies we possess for the man- 
agement of this complaint. Three grains of magnesia with two 
grains of powdered valerian, may be given twice or thrice daily, 


until all acidity of the stomach is removed. If this do not keep 
up a sufficient action of the bowels, the proportion of magnesia 
should be occasionally increased, or a few grains of rhubarb 
added to the powders. 

As a temporary palliative for lessening the violence and 
duration of tlie attacks, Dr. Eberle recommends the following 
mixture: Dissolve one dram of camphor in an ounce of sulphuric 
ether; take thirty drops of this solution, twenty grains of mag- 
nesia, and six drops ot laudanum, and mix them together with 
an ounce of fennel-seed tea. Of this mixture, a teaspoonful may 
be given to an infant from two to six Aveeks old ; and, if sufficient 
relief be not obtained in half an hour, about half a teaspoonful 
more should be administered. Gentle friction with dry flannel 
over the abdomen is useful in aiding the expulsion of the con- 
fined wind. When this disease recurs periodically, the above 
remedies will seldom be found so powerful as in the common ir- 
regular form of the complaint ; but when employed at all, they 
ought to be given the instant the paroxysm is about to com- 
mence. Viewing it as a periodical complaint, Dr. Dewees has 
administered a decoction of bark, during the intervals of the at- 
tacks, with great success. 

We must here caution mothers and nurses, against the very 
common but very pernicious practice of administering large 
doses of anodynes or carminatives to infants. The habitual use 
of such substances almost always leads to very unfavorable con- 
sequences. Under this treatment, the appetite and digestive 
powers fail; the body becomes emaciated, and the skin sallow 
and shriveled; the countenance acquires an expression of lan- 
guor and suffering; and a general state of apathy, inactivity, 
and indolence ensues, which will probably terminate in convul- 
sions, dropsy of the head, glandular swellings, incurable jaun- 
dice, or fatal exhaustion of the vital energies. All the usual 
soothing mixtures contain more or less opium, and innumerable 
infants have been irretrievably injured by their employment. 

Constipation. — Torpor of the bowels and consequent cos- 
tiveness is of frequent occurence among infants. In some in- 
stances the bowels always require to be excited by artificial 
means. In constitutional costiveness, a period of from two to 
four days may intervene between stools without the child re- 
ceiving any great injury, but it is prudent to watch such symp- 
toms, especially where there is any tendency to convulsive af- 

Treatment. — Manna dissolved in warm water to the consis- 
tency of a thick syrup is a good laxative, in teaspoonful doses. 


Costiveness from accidental causes is a more serious complaint. 
These causes may be a preternatural determination of the blood 
to the head, or an undue exhibition of opiates, or a rice diet, or 
unhealthy milk. Cokl-pressed castor-oil is an excellent laxative 
in ordinary cases of this kind ; if acidity be present, magnesia 
is the appropriate laxative. In moderate cases, the introduc- 
tion of a soap suppository into the anus will be of service. 

Vomiting. — Vomiting occurs more frequently, and, in gen-. 
eral, with much less unpleasant consequences, during early in- 
fancy than at any other period of life. It often happens in robust 
infants who are nourished at exhuberant breasts, immediately 
after they have sucked. This is rather a salutary than a mor- 
bid occurrence, being a simple effort of nature to relieve itself 
of the superabundant nourishment with which the digestive 
organs are overloaded, yet it is always proper to guard against 
such over-repletion of the infant's stomach. With this view, the 
child should be taken from the breast the moment it begins to 
dally with it, or as soon as it ceases to draw as if it were really 
gratifying a necessary and proper appetite. When the infant 
has satisfied its appetite — we here repeat a caution already 
given — it ought not to be instantly jolted and dandled, but suf- 
fered to remain perfectly at rest for at least thirty minutes. 

Treatment. — Vomiting connected with teething must be 
checked by blisters behind the ears, by dividing the gums, by 
purgatives, or by small doses of laudanum, as the case requires. 
In cases of vomiting-excited by acidity of the stomach, repeated 
doses of lime-water and milk will be found serviceable. Wliere 
there is no acid present, and the food, having lain some time in 
the stomach, is suddenly and violently ejected, a drop or two of 
nitric acid in a little sweetened water, may be given. When 
the vomiting is excited by some improper article of food, a mild 
emetic, such as four or five grains of ipecacuanha may be given ; 
or, in some cases, a little Avarm water will serve the purpose. 
If, after the stomach has been freed of its offensive contents, the 
vomiting does not cease, a few drops of laudanum, or of cam- 
phorated spirit in a little milk, will generally prevent its re- 

DiarrhoBa. — Diarrhoea is more common during infancy than 
any other period of life; and it is also more apt to assume an un- 
manageable and dangerous character at this period than at a 
more advanced stage of childhood or adult age. 

Causes. — The exciting causes of this disease are extremely 
various. Irritating, crude, and inappropriate articles of food 
or drink, are a frequent cause of diarrham. Children who are 


entireley nourished at the breast are miicli less liable to this 
complaint than such as are partly nourished by artificial food. 
Some infants are invariably purged when fed with cow's milk, 
even when considei'ably diluted with water; others again are 
purged by arrowroot, although the usual effects of this sub- 
stance are rather of a constipating character. Infants who are 
fed with solid food seldom escape suffering more or less diarr- 
hoea. The practice of allowing them to gorge themselves with 
potatoes, meat, pastry, dried fruit, and other articlec of this 
kind is particularly injurious, and often produces chronic diarr- 
hoea. In some instances the mother's or nurse's milk gives rise 
to vomiting and purging. Cold, by suddenly checking per- 
spiration, and determining the blood to the internal parts, fre- 
quently gives rfse to bowel complaint in infants. Cold bathing, 
or washing; suffering wet diapers, stockings, etc., to remain 
too long on the infant; setting it down on the grass-plots, floors, 
steps, etc. ; passing suddenly from a close and warm room into 
the cold external air; exposure to cold and moist weather with- 
out sufficient clothing, particularly about the abdomen; — these 
are the ordinary wa3^s in which diarrhoea, from the influence of 
cold, is produced in infants ; and cases arising from such causes 
are generally attended with catarrhal symptoms, more especi- 
ally with cough. A high atmospheric temperature is frequently 
concerned in the production of this complaint; the occurrence ' 
of bowel-complaints among children is comparatively more fre- 
quent during the hot months of summer than in the colder sea- 
sons of the year. 

Treatment. — Immediate attention must be paid to the diet. 
Do not give the child any solid food, and especially keep from 
it pastry, sweetmeats, and confectionery. The most appropri- 
ate food will be plain boiled rice and milk ; in many cases simple 
boiled milk will arrest the discharges. Crackers and milk, 
gruel, tapioca, etc., are also useful. At the commencement of 
the attack give a mild purge of castor-oil or syrup of rhubarb, 
and use the warm bath. If the stools are sour, dissolve a tea- 
spoonful of bicarbonate of soda in half a glass of water, and give 
a teaspoonful every hour. An excellent remedy for looseness 
of the bowels is tea made of ground bayberry. Sweeten it well, 
and give a half teacupful once in two hours, until the child is 

Summer Complaint, or Cholera Infantum. — This dis- 
ease is almost peculiar to children of large cities, and is most 
frequent to those who reside in small, crowded, and ill-venti- 
lated apartments. It is rarely seen, except between the agea 


of three and twenty-four months, seldom beginning before or 
after dentition. 

Symptoms. — It usually begins with vomiting and purging 
about the same time, though in some instances, purging may 
take place a day or two before the stomach is materially dis- 
turbed. The tongue, in most instances, is slightly furred at the 
beginning of the disease; but, after a few days, it becomes 
smooth and polished, or dry and brown. The stools are com- 
monly thick, frothy, and fluid, intermixed with little spots of 
green bile ; though, at other times, they are as transparent as 
water, having only some flakes of mucous floating through them. 
After a short time, no bilious matter is to be seen in the dis- 
charges. The patient usually be comes immediately prostrate ; 
and, if not speedily destroyed, it emaciates very rapidly. The 
vomiting and purging are not always constant, but sometimes 
occur in paroxysms, after intervals of a few hours ; and in some 
fortunate cases, after a duration of five or six hours, they sub- 
side entirely. There is evident pain, or great uneasiness in the 
stomach and bowels, especially in the commencement. The 
hands and feet are cold, the skin of the body and head is hot 
and dry, and becomes shriveled or wilted. The eyes lose their 
lustre, the eyelids but half cover them, the nose becomes 
pointed, the skin contracted upon it, while the lips are thin and 
shriveled. In this condition the child lies upon the lap, or 
upon the pillow, apparently exhausted and indisposed to move, 
except when impelled to vomit, or cry for cold water, — the 
only thing which it is Avilling to take, — and this is often either 
thrown up instantly from the stomach, or suddenly passed off 
by the bowels. From this state it frequently sinks into stupor 
and insensibility, and often dies in convulsions. If the disease 
do not thus speedily destroy life, the stools assume a dark, of- 
fensive, and highly irritating character; the mouth becomes 
sore, covered over with white fur or superficial ulcers ; the face 
bloated, the abdomen distended with flatulence, and when the 
system is greatly reduced, the skin is sometimes studded with 
spots of blood effused beneath the cuticle, or there may be some 
watery blisters scattered about the chest and other parts. The 
treatment of this very fatal disease is very complex and diffi- 
cult. Fortunately, it is rare, except in large cities, where medi- 
cal advice is at hand, and yields, or becomes mild, almost im- 
mediately on a removal to a cool country situation. 

Treatment. — On the first appearance of the disease, if pos- 
sible, take the child to the open air of a farm or small village. 
A well-ventilated apartment in the upper story of a house, if 


not too much heated by the roof, will give children a much 
better chance of life, Avith or without treatment, than the ground 
floor. Let the child remain day and night in such a room. 
We have frequently seen the disease in the country, and found 
it very fatal; but only in residences where uncleanly habits 
have produced an artificial hot climate and the foul air natural 
to an alley in the midst of the free atmosphere of healthful 

For the prevention of this disease, we would earnestly press 
upon those mothers who reside in large compact towns, and in 
the lanes and alleys where the atfection most prevails, to keep 
their houses cleaned and well aired; to wash the whole bodies 
of their children daily, or more frequently, with clean, tepid, or 
cool water, changing their dress sufficiently often to keep them 
cleanly clad ; to abstain from the use of unripe or unwholesome 
fruit themselves, and by all means, to prevent their children from 
eating it. Let their infimts be supplied, as far as possible, from 
their own breasts, and if they do not supply sufficient nourish- 
ment, let the balance be made up Avith pure cow's milk, either 
alone or moderately diluted with soft water. When any teeth 
make their appearance, or the gums appear swelled, and the 
child is fretful, let the gums be carefully and freely lanced ; and 
if there be any eruption on the skin or behind the ears, let no 
applications be made to them, except for the simple purpose of 
keeping them clean without suddenly drying them up. If they 
should heal rather suddenly, and the child become restless or 
feverish, let a little blister ointment be rubbed behind the ears, 
till a discharge is produced, carefully keeping the blisters open, 
by dressing them with a little basilicon or savin ointment. 
Let the child wear flannel next its skin, and worsted stockings 
on its feet, even during the summer season; and Avhen it has 
passed beyond its first year, let the diet be regulated strictly on 
the principles laid down under the head of weaning. In ad- 
dition, give it gum-water, or rennet-whey, with a little gum 
arable added to it. Tliese measures, if promptly adopted, will 
often cure the disease without medicines. If vomiting is severe, 
give this mixture: camplior, one dram ; sul[)huric ether, one 
ounce; mix, and give ten drops every half hour. If this fails, 
give the following: — Sugar of lead, 5 grains; vinegar, 6 drops; 
loaf sugar, 3 drams; soft water one ounce. Mix. Dose, a tea- 
spoonful every hour. When the vomiting; has stopf)ed, give 
the compound syrup of rhubarb and potassia, which will usually 
arrest the discharges. If the stools are sour, dark-colored, and 
disagreeable, give the following : — Pulverized charcoal, 1^ drams 

Children and their diseases. 325 

pulverized rhubarb, 2 scruples; pulverized ipecac, 6 grains; 
extract of hyoscyamus, 12 grains. Mix, and divide into twelve 
portions. Dose, one in every three or four hours. 

The following has been found very useful : — Pulverized rhu- 
barb, 1 scruple; leptandrin, 10 grains; calcined magnesia, 2 
scruples; pulverized cinnamon, 10 grains. Mix. Dose, three 
or four grains every third hour, to a child of six months. 

Worms. — Worms often are present in early life, without 
any indication of disease, caused mostly by dietic errors. 

Treatment. — An injection composed of a teaspoonful of 
spirits of turpentine mixed in a gill of milk, is very useful ; or 
give ten grains of powder of pink-root night and morning. 
Flour of sulphur taken in the morning before breakfast has 
been recommended. For further treatment, see article on 
Worms (p. 265.) 

Sore Eyes {Purulent Ophthalmia). — The purulent opthal- 
mia of infants generally commences between the fourth and 
eight day after birth. At first, the eyelids appear glued to- 
gether, and this symptom is attended, in the morning, with 
slight swellings and external redness. As the disease proceeds, 
the swelling of the eyelids increases, and a thick purulent mat- 
ter begins to issue from the eyes ; the child, at the same time, 
becomes very fretful and uneasy, and keeps its eyes constantly 
and firmly closed. When the inflammation is confined to the 
eyelids, the disease seldom occasions any serious injury to the 
eye. The exciting cause of this disease, thus early appearing, 
is, in most cases, some acrid or morbid secretion in the womb 
of the mother which has come in contact with the infant's eyes 
during its passage from the womb into external life. But, it 
may be proper here to caution nurses against the practice — too 
prevalent — of taking the infant as soon as born, before a blazing 
fire, with perhaps a candle at no great distance, and keeping it 
in this position with its tender visual organs exposed to the 
action of so much heat and light. The best way to secure the 
infant's eyes against the effects of any morbific matter which it 
has come in contact with in the womb, is to wash them in the 
most cargful manner after birth. This should be done with 
tepid water, which should be frequently' changed and freely ap- 
plied, so as to insure the entire removal of any irritating mat- 
ter that may adhere to them. In all instances, too, care should 
be taken not to expose the infant's eyes too suddenly and im- 
mediately to any strong light; for, although this may not of 
itself be capable of exciting the disease, yet there can be no 
doubt of its tendency to irritate the eyes. 


Treatment. — Immediate attention must be given to this 
disease. If neglected in its early stages, the eye may be per- 
manently injured, or perhaps destroyed. Keep the eyes clean 
with washes of flaxseed tea or lukewarm water. To prevent 
the eyelids adhering, rub a little glycerine, or rosewater oint- 
ment, along the edge of the lids. If the cornea be implicated 
in the least, drop into the eye a drop or two of this mixture: 
atropia, one grain; tincture of gelsemimum, thirty drops. If 
the child's health bo impaired, it must be sustained by nourish- 
ing diet, cod-liver oil, and salt-water bathing ; and apply friction 
to the skin. The bowels must be kept open with a little mag- 
nesia or castor-oil. 

Croup. — This is an inflammation of the larynx and trachea, 
causing a difliculty of breathing, and a rough hoarse cough, 
with a sonorous inspiration of a very peculiar character, sound- 
ing as if the air was passing through a metallic tube. It most 
usually attacks children of from one to three years of age, to 
whom it sometimes proves fatal; very rarely are adults aflected 
by it. 

Symptoms. — The symptoms are merely those of a common 
cold, or catarrh; then comes on a dry cough, with hoarseness 
and wheezing ; at night there is restlessness and rattling in the 
throat, after which the croupy crow and sound above spoken of 
gives unmistakable warning of the disease, which goes on in- 
creasing in intensity for a day or two, or perhaps several days, 
before there is a really alarming paroxysm, Avhich mostly occurs 
about midnight. The child, after tossing restlessly about, en- 
deavoring in vain to sleep, will start up with a flushed face, 
protruding eyeballs, and a distressing look of terror and 
anxiety; there is a quick vibrating pulse, and agitation of the 
whole frame, which presently becomes covered with a profuse 
perspiration. As the struggle for breath proceeds, there is 
clutching of the throat, as though to force a passage; the arms 
are thrown wildly about, the respiration becomes more labored, 
the rough cough more frequent, and the characteristic croup 
rings out like an alarm. There is expectoration of viscid matter, 
but so difficult is it to be got rid of, that the eflbrts appear to 
threaten strangulation ; gradually the symptoms become weaker, 
and eventually the child falls into the sloop of exhaustion. It 
will probably wake up refreshed, and during the day may appear 
pretty well ; but at night again, probably there will be a recur- 
rence of the attack with aggravated symptoms, convulsions, 
spasms of the glottis, causing the head to be violently thrown 
back, in the effort to obtain a passage for the air through the 


windpipe ; there is a fluttering motion in the nostrils, the face 
is puffed and of a pale leaden hue ; a film comes over the sunken 
eyes, the pulse becomes feeble and irregular; there are more 
gasping convulsive efforts to continue the struggle, but in vain; 
the powers of life at length succumb, and the patient sinks into 
a drowsy stupor, which ends in death. Such is the frequent 
course of this painful disease, and the changes from bad to 
worse are so rapid that there is little time for the operation of 
remedies, that is, when paroxysms have begun. 

Treatment. — Confinement to the house in case of threatened 
croup is always advisable, unless the weather should be very 
warm and open, and then exposure after sundown should be 
avoided; a dose of calomel (about three grains) should be ad- 
ministered, and followed by nauseating doses of tartarized anti- 
mony, of which one grain dissolved in an ounce of warm water, 
and a teaspoonful of the solution given every quarter of an hour, 
until the effect is produced. Should the bowels be confined 
after this, give senna mixture, or scammony powder. Apply 
mustard and bran or flaxseed poultices to the throat. Fill the 
room with the vapor of boiling water, — a large kettle on the 
stove will effect this. Leeches, if the patient is full of habit 
and the breathing is very labored, and a spare diet, are the 
other remedial measures. 

In the paroxysms, the most prompt and vigorous measures 
must be adopted to give any chance of success: bleeding in 
such quantity as to diminish the vascular action on the surface 
of the windpipe, and to relax the muscles; strong emetics to 
cause full vomiting, which often has a most beneficial effect ; 
warm baths, and blisters applied from one ear to the other. 
Calomel combined with ipecacuanha powder, or tartar emetic, 
should be given every four hours or so ; and, if the danger is 
extreme, counter-irritation by means of mustard poultices ap- 
plied to the calves of the legs, &c. In leeching for croup, one 
leech for each year of the child's age is the general rule to be 
observed, and the best part is over the breast-bone, where pres- 
sure can be applied to stop the bleeding, if required ; over the 
leech-bites apply a blister, should one appear necessary. If 
the above powders should cause too violent an action on the 
bowels, add to them a little chalk and opium. Should the child 
appear likely to sink from exhaustion, after vomiting has been 
produced, stay the emetics, and give liquor of acetate of ammo- 
nia twenty drops, with five or ten drops of sal volatile, or the 
same of brandy in a little water, or camphor mixture ; a little 
white-wine whey may also be administered. Of course, the first 


endeavor in an attack of croup should be to obtain medical as- 
sistance ; but if this can not be procured, there must be no tem- 
porizing ; resort at once to the remedies most ready to the hand, 
using them according to the best knowledge and discretion 
available. Let the contagious nature of croup be ever borne in 
mind, and especial care taken to keep apart those affected with 
it from any other children in the family or house. Let it also 
be remembered that the great agents in producing croup are 
cold and moisture ; and the greatest of all the east wind, and 
that those who have once been attacked by it are peculiarly 
liable to a recurrence of such attack. 

Croup is most likely to be fatal when inflammation com- 
mences in the ftmces ; and this, if discovered in time, may be 
stopped by the application of a solution of nitrate of silver to 
the whole surface within sight, and to the larynx. 

Spasm of the Grlottis or Child-Crowing.— This ex- 
hibits much the same symptoms as croup. It is not, however, 
of an inflammatory character, but is symptomatic of some other 
disease commonly coming on as a result of irritation caused by 
hydrocephalus, teething, worms, &g. The medical man only can 
Judge of the probable cause, and he will use such remedies as 
are most applicable to the peculiarity of each case. 

Treatment. — The following mode of treatment recommended 
by Dr. Leman, of Torzan, has, we believe, been found efficacious 
in many cases of croup. It is simple and easy of application. 
We give the details as furnished by Dr. Graves : " A sponge, 
about the size of a large fist, dipped in water as hot as the 
hand can bear, must be gently squeezed half dry, and instantly 
applied under the little sufferer's chin over the larynx and wind- 
pipe ; when the sponge has been thus held for a few minutes in 
contact with the skin, its temperature begins to sink; a second 
sponge, heated in the same way, should be used alternately 
with the first. A perseverance in this plan during ten or twenty 
minutes, produces a vivid redness over the Avhole front of the 
throat, just as if a strong sinapism had been applied; this red- 
ness miist not be attended or followed by vesication. In the 
mean time the whole system feels the influence of the topical 
treatment; a warm perspiration breaks out, which should be 
well encouraged by warm drinks, sucli as whey, weak tea, &c., 
and a notable diminution takes place in the frequency and time 
of the cough, while the hoarseness almost disappears, and the 
rough ringing sound of the voice subsides, along with the diffi- 
culty of l)rea'thing and restlessness; in short, all danger is over, 
and the little patient again falls asleep, and awakes in the morn- 


ing without any appearance of having suffered from so danger- 
ous an attack. I have repeatedly treated the disease on this 
plan, and with the most uniform success. It is, however, only 
applicable to the very onset of the disease ; but it has the ad- 
vantage of being simple, efficient, and easily put in practice, 
and its effects are not productive of the least injury to the con- 

Snuffles, or Cold in the Head.— Children are very liable 
to this distressing complaint, caused by inflammation of the lin- 
ing of the nose. 

Treatment. — Rubbing the nose with goose-grease, lard, or 
tallow, will generally give relief. Keep the bowels open with a 
little castor-oil; and, if the stoppage in the nose is obstinate, 
give warm doses of catnip, penny-royal, or balm tea. 

Hooping-Cough. — Tliis well-known disease is chiefly but 
not wholly confined to the stages of infancy, and it occurs but 
once in a life-time. It may be described as spasmodic catarrh, 
and its severity varies greatly; sometimes being so mild as to 
be scarcely known from a common cough, at others exhibiting 
the most distressing s3'mptoms, and frequently causing death 
by its violent and exhausting paroxysms. 

Symptoms. — The first symptoms of this cough are those of a 
common cold ; there is probably restlessness and slight fever, 
with irritation in the bronchial passages; this goes on gradually 
increasing in intensity for a week or ten days, and then it be- 
gins to assume the spasmodic character. At first the paroxysms 
are slight, and of short duration, with a scarcely perceptible 
"hoop," but soon they become more frequent and severe; a 
succession of violent expulsive coughs is followed by a long-drawn 
inspiration, in the course of which the peculiar sound which 
gives a name to the disease is emitted; again come the coughs, 
and again the inspiration, following each other in quick succes- 
sion, until the sufferer, whose starting eyes, livid face, swollen 
veins, and clutching hands, attest the violence of the struggle 
for breath, is relieved by an expectoration of phlegm resemb- 
ling the white of an egg, or by vomiting. When the paroxysm 
is over, the child generally resumes its play, or other occupation, 
and frequently complains of being hungry. As the disease pro- 
ceeds, the matter expectorated becomes thicker, and is more 
easily got rid of, and this is a sign of favorable progress ; the 
spasmodic paroxysms become less frequent and violent, and 
gradually cease altogether ; but the changes here indicated may 
extend over a month or six months, according to circumstances, 
the season of the year having much influence in hastening or 


retarding them — summer being, of course, the most favorable 
time. It is a common impression that, at whatever time of year 
an attack of hooping-cough commences, it will not end until 
May; this is simply because of the change in the weather which 
generally takes place in or about the course of this month. 
With a strong healthy child (when proper care is taken), there is 
little to apprehend from this disease, provided it be not com- 
plicated with others, such as inflammation of the lungs, or any 
head affection producing convulsions ; it then proves a most 
dangerous malady, and is fatal to many. With children of full 
habit, the fits of coughing often cause bleeding at the nose, but 
this should not be viewed with alarm, as it relieves the vessels 
of the brain, and is likely to prevent worse consequences. 

To weakly children hooping-cough is a very serious malady, 
— to all it is frequently a sore trial, but to them it is especially 
so ; therefore, great care should be taken not to expose them to 
the danger of catching it. That it is contagious there can be 
no doubt; and, although some parents think lightly of it, imag- 
ining that their children must have it one time or another, 
deem that it matters little when, and therefore take no 
pains to protect them against it; yet we Avould impress upon 
all our readers who may have the care of infants, that a heavy 
responsibility lies at their door. It is by no means certain that 
a child will have this disease ; we have known many persons 
Avho have reached a good old age, and never contracted it; and 
it is folly and wickedness needlessly to expose those placed 
under our care to certain danger. 

Like fever, hooping-cough has a course to run, which no 
remedies with wliich we are at present acquainted, will shorten. 
The severity of the symptoms may be somewhat mitigated, and 
we may, by watching the course of the disease, and by use of 
proper means, often prevent those complications which render 
it dangerous; and this brings us to the consideration of the 
proper mode of 

Treatment. — The first efforts should be directed to check 
any tendency to inflammation which may show itself; to palliate 
urgent symptoms, and stop the spasm wliich is the most dis- 
tressing feature of the case. To this end, the diet must be of 
the simplest kind, consisting for the most part of milk and far- 
inaceous puddings; if animal food, it must not be solid, but in 
the form of broth or beef-tea; roasted apples are good; and for 
drinks, milk and water, barley-water, weak tea or whey. Care 
must be taken to keep the bowels open with some gentle aperi- 
ent, such as rhubarb and magnesia. An emetic should be given 


about twice a week to get rid of the phlegm — it may be ipecac- 
uanha wine or tlie powder. To relieve the cough, the following- 
mixture will be found effective : Ipecacuanha, 10 grains ; bicar- 
bonate of potash, 1 dram; liquor of acetate of ammonia, 2 ounces; 
essence of cinnamon, 8 drops ; water, 63 ounces. 

Dose, a tablespoonful about every four hours. Twenty 
drops of laudanum, or one dram of tincture of henbane may b© 
added if the cough is very troublesome, but the former is objec- 
tionable if the brain is at all affected. 

For night restlessness, two or three grains of Dover's pow- 
ders taken at bedtime, is good ; this is a dose for a child of three 
years old. Mustard poultices to the throat, the chest, and be- 
tween the shoulders, are often found beneficial; so is an opiate 
liniment composed of compound camphor and soap liniment, of 
each six drams and four drams of laudanum. " Roche's Embro- 
cation " is a favorite application, and a very good one ; it is com- 
posed as follows: oil of amber, and of cloves, of each one half 
ounce ; oil of olives, one ounce ; a little laudanum is, perhaps, an 
improvement. This may be rubbed on the belly when it is sore 
from coughing. Difiiculty of breathing may be sometimes re- 
lieved by the vapor of ether or turpentine diffused through the 
apartment. In the latter stages of the disease, tonics are gene- 
rally advisable. Steel wine, about thirty drops, with two grains 
of sesquicarbonate of ammonia, and five drops of tincture of 
conium, in a tablespoonful of cinnamon Avater, sweetened with 
syrup, is a good form; but a change of air, with a return to a 
generous diet, are the most effectual means of restoration to 
health and strength. 

Convulsions, Fits and Spasms. — Fits are cerebral, and 
arise from diseases within the head, or from irritation in the 
stomach and bowels, or from exhaustion ; or they are evidence 
of, and depend on, some malformation or disease of the heart. 

Treatment. — Domestic treatment should never be trusted in 
such terrific affections as these. Not a moment should be lost 
in sending for the medical man. 

If anything may be done in the meantime, it is, — first, in 
either of the two former cases, to lance the gums ; second, to 
evacuate the bowels by warm water injection, made more active 
by the addition of brown sugar; third, and to administer the 
warm bath. An important point, never to be forgotten in the 
hurry of these cases, is to reserve the evacuations for inspec- 
tion, otherwise the physician will be deprived of a very import- 
ant source of judgment. 

In cases of fits arising plainly from exliaustion, there need 


be no hesitation in giving five drops of sal volatile in water ; light 
nourishment may be added ; the feet must be fomented, and the 
recumbent posture preserved. In fits arising from an affection 
of the heart, the symptom is urgent difficulty of breathing ; the 
child seems as if it would lose its breath and expire. In such a 
case, to do nothing is the best course ; all self-possession must 
be summoned, and the infant kept perfectly quiet. Every 
change of posture, every effort, is attended with danger. 

In all cases, it is well to clear the bowels by means of the 
slow injection of from a quarter to half a pint of warm water, 
with or without brown sugar; indeed, this is the most generally 
and promptly useful of all our remedies in infantile diseases. 
To this the warm bath may always be added, if administered 
with due caution. It should not be continued so as to induce 
much flushing or paleness of the countenance. 

Measles. — This is a contagious eruption, commonly affect- 
ing children and the same individual but once. 

Symptoms. — The first symptoms of measles are shivering, 
succeeded by heat, thirst, and languor ; then follows running at 
the nose, sneezing, cough; the eyes water and become intolerant 
of light; the pulse quickens, and the face swells; there are suc- 
cessive heats and chills, and all the usual signs of catarrhal 
fever. Sometimes the symptoms are so mild as to be scarcely 
noticeable — sometimes greatly aggravated ; but in any case, at 
the end of the third day, or a little later, an eruption of a dusky 
red color appears — first on the forehead and face, and then 
gradually over the whole body. In the early stage of this 
eruption there is little to characterize it, but after a few hours 
it assumes the peculiar appearance which once seen can never 
be mistaken. The little red spots become grouped, as it were, 
into crescent-shaped patches, which are slightly elevated above 
the surface, the surrounding skin retaining its natural color. On 
the third day of the eruption it begins to fode and disappear, 
being succeeded bya scurfy disorganization of the cuticle, which 
is accompanied by an intolerable itching. The febrile symp- 
toms also abate, and very quickly leave the patient altogether — 
but often in a very weak state, and with a troublesome cough. 
Between exposure to the infection and the breaking out of 
measles, there is usually an interval of fourteen days, which is 
called the period of incubation; so that it is not uncommon, 
where there are several children in a family, for the cases to suc^ 
ceed each other at fortnightly intervals. 

This disease is often rendered dangerous by complications 
with others; so that, although not in itself of a fatal character, 


it frequently leads to fatal results. Where there are the seeds 
of consumption or scrofula in the constitution, they are likely to 
be called into activity during the debility whicli follows an at- 
tack of measles ; dropsy often follows it, as do affections of the 
air passages, chest, and bowels. 

Treatment. — Generally speaking, for simple measles, little 
medicine is required. Give the patient plenty of diluent 
drinks ; let him have a spare diet, and a moderately warm and 
Avell-ventilated room; keep the bowels gently open; if a roasted 
apple, or a little minna in the drink will not do this, give a dose 
of castor-oil. Wliere there is much heat of the skin, sponging 
with tepid vinegar and water will completely relieve it, and also 
the itching. When the eruption has subsided, and the desquama- 
tion of the skin commenced, a tepid bath will materially assist 
this process, and get rid of the dead cuticle. On the third or 
fourth day after the disappearance of the eruption, give a small 
dose of powder of rhubarb, jalap, or scammony. Care should 
be taken to protect the patient against change of weather, and 
to restore the strength by a nourishing diet. Attention should 
be paid to the cough. Give drinks of flaxseed tea or slippery 
elm, made slightly acid. 

Sometimes the eruption of measles disappears suddenly — 
then there is cause for alarm ; the patiently should be directly 
put into a warm bath, and have warm diluent drinks ; if the 
pulse sinks rapidly, and there is great prostration of strength, 
administer wine whey, and the following draughts : 10 drops of 
aromatic spirits of ammonia, or 5 grains of the sesquicarbonate 
in ^ an ounce of camphor mixture, with a drop of laudanum 
every four hours; should the prostration be very great, weak 
brandy and water may be given. The state of the chest, head, 
and bowels should be closely watched for some time after the 
patient is convalescent, as disorders of these organs are very 
likely to occur, in which case it is probable that there may be 
pneumonia, hydrocephalus, or diarrhoea. 

Malignant Measles is a variety which commences with 
the above symptoms in an aggravated form ; the rash quickly 
assumes a livid hue, alternately reviving and disappearing, and 
is mixed up with dark red spots like flea-bites ; in tliis form of 
the disease we have extreme debility, and all the symptoms of 
putrid fever, like which it should be treated. No time should 
be lost in procuring medical aid. 

Herbal or Eclectic Treatment for Ileasles. — A strong tea 
composed of saffron and snake root always proves beneficial. 
Decoctions of licorice, marshmallow roots and sarsaparilla are 


very good, as are infusions of linseed or of the flowers of elder ; 
clarified whey and barley water are all excellent drinks in these 
cases. If the patient is costive, sweeten with a little honey. 

Rickets. — This afiection generally attacks children bet- 
ween the ages nine of months and two years, and is a complaint 
in which the bones have not their allotted earthly matter, and 
therefore are too soft to support the frame and perform the 
functions assigned to them. 

Treatment. — Cod liver oil, good nourishing diet — chiefly 
milk ; change of air and sea-bathing, with the following pow- 
ders : Carbonate of iron, 6 grains ; powdered rhubarb, 4 grains ; 
distilled water, 6 ounces; one powder to be given night and 
morning. If the season be cold, tlie child ought to be kept 
warm ; if the weather is hot, the infant should be kept cool, as 
sweating is apt to cause weakness; and too great a degree of 
cold has the same effect. The limbs should be rubbed fre- 
quently with a warm hand. 



The teacher or director of the school is urged to give im- 
mediate personal attention to any child in the school who may 
appear ill, or who complains of feeling unwell. In such a case 
the teacher should specially note the presence of one or more of 
the following signs: 

1. Increased temperature of the child's body, discovered by 
the teacher placing his hand upon the sick child's skin, particu- 
larly on the chest, armpit, face, or forehead. 

2. Quickening of the pulse, as measured by the aid of a 
watch, togetlicr with hardness of beat. 

3. Shivering. Increased or exaggerated sweating, not be* 
ing the aftcj'-result of exercise, etc. 

4. Great thirst, with loss of appetite. 

5. Tongue more or less white, dry, or red. 

6. A fluslicd or pallid face. 

7. Increased or diminished brilliancy of the eye. 

8. General weariness and indisposition ; sense of fatigue 
with acliing in the loins; licadaclie; drowsiness or excitement; 


The majority of the above-named symptoms will almost in* 
variably indicate the presence of a febrile state. 

Any child kept at home away from school for a week or 
more by its parents should, before returning to its school, 
bring a certificate of health, signed by a duly qualified medical 

Infectious Febrile "DiseSiSes.—Small-jjox is rarely found 
in those schools where vaccination is enforced, as the majority 
of vaccinated children have not yet lost the protective influence 
of primary vaccination. Whenever possible, the teacher should 
have all the children over ten years revaccinated, especially in 
times of epidemic small-pox. The popular assertion, that, dur- 
ing epidemics of small-pox, revaccination tends further to de- 
velop small-pox, is absolutely false. 

Small-pox sets in with fever, vomiting, and pains in the 
loins. After not less than two days, but most frequently on the 
third day of the illness, there appears — commencing on the face 
■ — an eruption of raised spots, more or less numerous, which pass 
later into pimples or pustules, having a depressed or navel-like 
center. These spots terminate in scabs, which should have 
completely disappeared before the child is allowed to return to 
school. Before readmission to the school the child should have 
had two or three baths. 

Chicken-pox is a mild disease, occasionally preceded by fever, 
tt is characterized by successive crops of hlebs, preceded by red- 
colored spots, each new crop being apt to appear toward even- 
ing, and is generally accompanied with some accession of slight 
fever. Chicken-pox is characterized by pea-sized hkhs, or blis- 
ters, filled with a transparent watery liquid, which soon be- 
comes thick, muddy, or bloody, and terminates with scabs. 
Where the spots on the body are neither numerous nor well 
marked, the eruption is invariably observed among the hair of 
the head. 

Measles is ushered in with general indisposition, fever, 
Bneezing, weeping, and red eyes, loud noisy, cough ; occasionally 
there may be bleeding from the nose and passing diarrhoea. 
After three or four days' illness, sometimes sooner, an eruption 
shows itself, first on the chin and face in small, irregular rose- 
red spots, slightly elevated, which soon spread over the surface 
of the body, leaving more or less pale, irregular patches of skin 
unattacked. The complaint is highly contagious. Children 
with measles, when kept at home, and not exposed to the chance 
of catching cold, generally do well. 

Scarlet Fever commences with extreme general indisposition, 


high fever, a dry, burning skin, pains about the throat, and 
vomiting. Generally toward the end of the first day's illness, 
sometimes even at the very outset, a child, but a few minutes 
before in apparent good health, presents itself with a raspberry- 
red blush or rash, which may either cover the body completely 
or else appear here and there in patches. The face, the inter 
ior of the thighs, the groins, and the neighborhood of the joints 
are favored situations for the rash. At first glance the eruption 
looks uniform, but a closer examination discloses innumerable 
round points, some of which are more pointed and higher than 
their neighbors, and often run into minute bladders about the 
size of a pin's-head. 

Sometimes the disease is singularly mild ; sometimes ex- 
ceedingly virulent. Sometimes it is so fugacious that its pres- 
ence is not suspected until the skin begins to peel, a process 
notably observed on the hands and feet. Frequently the joints, 
particularly the wrists, suffer pains analogous to those of 
rheumatism. Scarlet fever is an extremely contagious disease ; 
and while after ten days' isolation and the use of a bath at the 
close, a child convalescent from measles may be allowed to asso- 
ciate with others, not less than six weeks' isolation is required 
to exhaust the communicability of a case of scarlet fever. 

Mumps may come on suddenly, or else be preceded by a 
few days of general indisposition, which now and then amounts 
to high fever. A feeling of stiffness about the jaws is soon fol- 
lowed by swelling, often very bulky and more or less tense. 
Tlie swelling is apt to extend either at the back of the lower jaw 
or underneath it. The swelling contains no fluid; dental pain is 
absent. Generally first one side of the jaw is attacked and then 
the other ; it is rare for both sides to suffer simultaneously. 
Not uncommonly similar swellings burst out in other localities 
of the body, the genital organs being most liable to seizure. 

Ulcerative stomatitis is a contagious disease. Its invasion 
may be preceded by general indisposition, usually unattended 
with fever. Grayish bleeding ulcers, tending to spread in ex- 
tent and depth, attack the edge of the gums, the inner side of 
the cheeks and lips, and the roof of the hard and soft palates, 
accompanied with an extremely fetid breath. 

Diphtheritic Sore Throat or Croup is eminently contagious. 
Its approach is insidious, often commencing with some difficulty 
in swallowing and slight hoarseness. Possibly the glands at the 
back of tlie angle of the jaw swell, which in serious cases ex- 
tends to tlie neighboring structures of the neck. At other 
times these symptoms occur subsequent to a swelling about the 


nostrils, with more or less copious discharge, indicating that the 
nasal membranes have been seized prior to those in the throat. 
Cough, if any, is faint and muffled; the voice is hoarse and 

With a spoon press down the child's tongue, and note if 
there be any appearance about the tonsils and the soft palate of 
a skin or leather-like membrane, which may be grayish or 
whitish, or even blackened by vitiated blood. This false mem- 
brane, which characterizes the disease, is prone to spread over 
the neighboring parts, notably reaching downward into the 
windpipe. This diptheritic croup must not be confounded 
with false or spasmodic croup. 

In false croup the child has generally been perfectly well 
during the day preceding the night on which it suddenly wakes 
up all at once ill with alarming signs of threatening suffocation, 
attended with loud clamorous cougliing and a clear voice. 
Here no false membrane is present in the throat, nor are the 
glands about the jaw swollen. False croup is generally mild, 
and is not contagious. 

Dysentery may be contagious. It is distinguished by a fre- 
quent, sometimes a continual, desire to seek relief in the closet, 
where in spite even of severe straining the child succeeds in 
passing only a little slime or mucous, often colored by small 
quantities of blood. General indisposition and colicky pains in 
the belly soon compel the child with dysentery to leave the school. 
To stop infection, no child suffering with dysentery should be 
allowed to use the general school water or other closet. Dysen- 
tery is not to bo confounded with diarrhoea, where there are 
more or less frequent liquid motions. 

Typhoid Fever is infectious, and is apt to set in or to sneak 
in with ill-defined signs. For some days the child may have 
lost its appetite and its general energy, it is fatigued and " done 
up." Then the fever is next ushered in with great pain, noises 
and confusion in the head; the hearing becomes obtuse; giddi- 
ness occurs, with great difficulty to keep any upright position. 
There is often bleeding from the nose generally followed up by 
colicky pains in and swelling of the belly associated with some 
diarrhoea. The skin is dry, parched and hot; the tongue fouled, 
with red tip and sides. However, the child before this has 
been compelled by its state of indisposition to cease attending 
the school. 

Whooping- Cough is eminently contagious. The child may be 
noticed to have had during one or more weeks occasional but 
violent fits of cougliing, which are most frequent during the 


night. If no complication be present, there is practically no 
cough between these spasmodic attacks. Usually a short feel- 
ing of general indisposition precedes the attack, during which 
the child in vain struggles to suppress the cough about to burst, 
when all at once the trunk and frame are subjected to a violent 
series of successive throbs almost threatening suffocation. At 
this epoch a few deep drawings-in of the breath are followed by 
a whistling and almost convulsive inspiration, which may again 
be succeeded by boisterous coughing. Then in most cases, 
after a brief moment's repose, a second but a less severe and a 
shorter onslaught than the first is noticed. Lastly, the fit is 
terminated by the child's partly spitting and partly swallowing 
some thick mucous, often at the same time vomiting up any mat- 
ter present in the stomach. 

The time occupied by these seizures to their termination 
by expectoration varies irom sixteen seconds to a couple of 

Owing to the grave and fatal complications often associated 
even with apparently mild cases of whooping-cough, most es- 
pecially in very young children, immediate isolation of the suf- 
ferer from its schoolfellows is necessary. 

Ophthalmia. — Both catarrhal and purulent ophthalmia 
are highly contagious at all ages, but especially in very young 
children, and the last-named disease may cause the loss of one 
or both eyes. 

The eyes and their lids become red, swollen, and bathed 
with a discharge often more or loss offensive. 

Contagious Parasitic Diseases. — Itch is characterized 
by the appearance of minute transparent vesicles, which occa- 
sion the most lively itching, yjarticularly at night-time. The 
spaces between the toes and fingers, and the wrists, are most 
liable to invasion. The child's frequent scratching soon con- 
verts the rash into scabs, in which condition the disease will 
frequently first bo noticed by the teacher. 

The itch is caused by an insect {Acarus scdbci or Sarcoptes) 
which is nocturnal in its habits and movements. Though highly 
contagious, the itch can bo cured in a few hours. 

Crusted Ilingiuorm, or I'inea favosa, is caused by a vegetable 
parasite frequenting the scalp, although it may visit other parts 
of the body which are covered with hair or down. The hair 
becomes thin and fragile, with loss of its original color; then 
follow irregular, unequal, puckered, crust-b'ke yellowish scabs, 
which may be single or may cover the entire scalp. The scabby 
flakes in drying and dying crumble to minute fragments, and as 


dust propagate and disseminate the disease. Itching being 
frequent in scalp ringworm, the child's scratching increases 
the destruction and pulverization of the scab, and thus increases 
the chances of contagion to others. 

The heads of such children as suffer from the disease have 
a peculiar f edid odor resembling that of a cat's urine. Till quite 
cured, every child suffering from yizi^Ms should be separated from 
its school-fellows, and only be readmitted on presentmg a proper 
medical certificate. 

Common Jtingtvorm, or Tinea tonsurans, is very contagious, 
making itself manifest by the hair of the head becoming thin- 
ner, more fragile, less colored than the surrounding hairs. The 
affected hairs are apt to turn reddish or ashy-gray; they seem 
as if evenly and artificially clipped off at a distance of say 1-14 
to I of an inch above the level of the outer layer of the skin. 
The surface of the patches is rough, irregular, shaggy, covered 
with a grayish, scurfy powder of a slightly bluish tinge. The 
diseased places may be one or more in number; the form is cir- 
cular, varying in size from that of a silver florin to a crown- 
piece. By the fusing together of several of such parasitically 
affected localities the greater portion of the scalp may become 

Ringicorm ivith Baldness of Scalp {Tinea decalvans). — This 
contagious complaint declares itself by the presence of defined 
patches naked of all traces of hair having a glistening ivory 
whiteness not unlike a scar v/ithout depression. Their sizes 
varies from that of a silver threepenn3^-piece upward. 

Previous to the loss of hair there may have been considera- 
ble itching. The eyelids and other parts of the body covered 
with hair or do^^^l may albo suffer from the vegetable parasite 
causing the dii^caso {Mi scrosporon Atidotdn). In children and 
adults with thick hair this disease may remaia long undetected 



Pneumonia is an acute inflammation of the lung structure 
involving not only the vascular tissues but also the air cells. 

Causes. — The specific cause of pneumonia is not fully 
determined. Taking cold is not regarded as sufficient to pro- 
duce this common and often fatal disease. Whatever debilitates 
the system may act as a predisposing cause. Persons suffering 
from malarial poison, the grip, and acute diseases are liable to 
attacks of pneumonia. Age, intemperance, climatic changes, 
impure air, and other similar factors, may be regarded as agents 
in its production. 

The real cause of this disease is thought by many to be due 
to an altered state of the blood, whereby it contains disease- 
producing elements which depress the vitality of the system by 
their unfavorable action upon the nerve centers. Whether this 
morbid material is due to a specific disease germ has not been 
fully established. 

' Symptoms. — The onset of pneumonia is sudden and the 
first notable symptom is usually a chill perhaps accompanied by 
headache and pain in the back or limbs. In a short time the 
chill is followed by fever, pain in the chest, shallow, rapid, and 
painful breatliing and a short hacking and suppressed cougli. 
If the ear is placed over the chest a crackling sound is heard 
which can be imitated by rolling a hair between the thumb and 
fingers. The portion of lung involved is congested with blood 
in the first stage, which causes a serious obstruction to the circula- 
tion ; the heart is thus embarrassed in doing its work. The 
products of inflammation are pressed out into the air cells. In 
about two days after the onset of the disease, the disabled por- 
tion of the lung solidifies and percussion gives a dull sound. 
The temperature is much elevated, the urine is scanty and high 
colored. The patient wears an expression of anxiety and dis- 



tress. The cough is more painful and brings up a rust colored 
sputa known as the prune juice expectoration. The breathing 
is labored and painful. The respiration, which in health averages 
about seventeen a minute, runs up to forty, or in extreme cases to 
sixty, which indicates that the functions of the lung are greatly 
disturbed. In about five or six days, if the case goes on favorably, 
llie morbid material in the air cells begins to soften and is ab- 
sorbed into the circulation and removed from the system. The 
temperature declines, the fever abates, moisture appears upon 
the surface of the body, the patient feels relievecl and shows 
marked signs of improvement. This is known as the stage of 
resolution and occupies from two to six days. The disease 
does not always follow the ordinary course. The process of 
inflammation may advance from one portion of the lung to 
another, and having traversed one lung may invade the other. 
Where both lungs are involved the case is one of double pneu- 
monia, where a single lobe of one lung is invaded it is called 
lobar pneumonia. 

If the pulse is weak and rapid, above one hundred and 
twenty a minute, and the temperature continues above one hun- 
dred and four degrees, the disease is severe and liable to termi- 
nate unfavorably. When the case is severe, with a brown, dry 
tongue, it is sometimes called typhoid pneumonia. 

If the patient complains of a sharp stitch in the side, the 
complication with pleurisy must be considered. 

Abscess of the lung sometimes follows pneumonia and 
recovery is tedious. 

Treatment. — The treatment must be prompt and meet 
the symptoms as they develop. In the onset a full dose of 
quinine will often reduce the temperature, produce perspiration, 
antagonize the poison deftressing the nerve centers, and afford 
marked relief or even abort the disease. 

A mustard poultice over the chest acts as a powerful stim- 
ulant to the cutaneous nerves, and may help to abort the disease 
if used early. 

In robust persons where there is no weakness and depression, 
Y^^ of a grain of tartarized antimony may be given every two 
hours advantageously, but should only be given in the first 

In the second stage carbonate of ammonia is a remedy of 
great use. It stimulates the lungs, and aids the respiration and 
circulation. Five or ten grains in syrup every two or four 
hours is a proper dose. 


Acetanilid is a valuable remedy to lower the temperature 
in experienced hands. 

A tendency to heart failure must be met by giving digitalis 
and suitable stimulants. These can only be used satisfactorily by 
skilled persons. 

Pneumonia in children above two years of age need not 
often prove fatal. 

Camphor liniment, flaxseed poultices, and the cotton jacket 
padded to oiled silk are well known and serviceable remedies. 
Tincture of aconite in the early febrile stage is serviceable, 
especially in cases of children ; ten drops in one-half tumbler of 
water, and of this mixture give one teaspoonful every half hour 
till it moistens the surface of the skin. 

Demulcent drinks of slippery elm and flaxseed are soothing 
and serviceable. 

Lemonade, in which is dissolved one teaspoonful of cream 
of tartar to a half pint, makes a cooling and refreshing drink ; it 
also favors the secretion of urine and slightly relaxes the bowels. 
The patient should have pure air, the sick room being reasonably 



This is an acute disease prevailing over wide sections of 
country, and attacking a large per cent, of the inhabitants at 
-about the same time. Its chief characteristic is its depressing 
effects upon the vitality. 


Within the space of a few weeks in 1890 this disease pros- 
trated hundreds of thousands in Europe and America, enor- 
mously increasing the death rate, and leaving many of its 
surviving victims in a condition of pronounced debility for 
many months. 

For a time it closed factories and workshops, it checked 
business, and obstructed the prosecution of many enterprises. 
The serious character of this disease was but little regarded, 
until its widespread results began to be estimated, and its fear- 
ful death rate computed. The return of this disease in full 
force in the winter of 1891 and 1892 adds further to the deep 
interest it has awakened, and all classes of the people are ask- 
ing questions concerning its origin, history, and treatment. 

It is not a new disease, for it has swept around the world 
many times, and left behind the records of its occurrence in the 
medical literature of the past centuries. 

The French gave to this epidemic disease the name of " La 
Grippe," in the year 1773, and the Italians two centuries earlier 
called it the " Influenza." There are means of knowing that it 
was prevalent in Europe as far back as the fifth century, and 
its course around the world has always been from east to west. 
It travels with great swiftness, as upon the wings of the 
wind ; it was only six weeks in reaching New York after its 
appearance in Russia. 

There is a striking analogy between this disease and the 
noted epizootic which prevailed among the horses in 1872. So 



widespread was the disease among the equine family, that men 
instead of horses appeared upon the streets drawing wagons 
loaded with merchandise for shipping. 

Cause. — The Italians supposed the disease was caused by 
',\n influence from the stars, and hence they called it influenza. 
Whether we have any better reason to assign, each individual 
reader is allowed to determine. It is believed by many earnest 
workers that the disease is of bacterial origin, and that the 
cause is due to micro-organisms which are carried in the atmos- 
phere and enter the system in the act of respiration. Having 
effected a lodgment in the system, like other specific germs 
they act as a poison upon the nerve centers, and thus depress 
the vitality. 

The claim has recently been made that these microbes 
have been discovered, and that they are the smallest disease 
germs that have so far been recognized. The truth of this claim 
awaits further proof. 

Symptoms. — While this disease powerfully affects the 
nervous system in every case, the symptoms are so numerous 
and varied that the following classification has been made : 
Neurotic, catarrhal, gastric, depending upon the type of the 
disease, and that portion of the body upon which the disease 
appears to concentrate its force. 

I. The Neurotic Type. — The patient is seized with a chill or 
chilly sensations, alternating with hot flashes, and a tendency to 
congestion of the internal organs. A fever condition rapidly 
follows with temperature varying from 101 to 104 degrees. 
With the fever neuralgic pains of severe character appear in 
different regions. There is usually headache, or pain in the 
back of the neck, loins, lower limbs, or throughout the body. 
The patient is restless and complains of aching in every bone, 
the eye balls and scalp feel sore, and the patient declares that 
he feels as though he had been bruised, or pounded all over. 
There may be disturbances of the special senses, as hearing and 
smelling. A well marked rash may appear, though rarely, over 
the surface of the body. In this nervous type there may be 
delirium, and the unpleasant complications of meningitis and 
insanity. > 

II. The Catarrhal Type. — In addition to the chill and pain 
in the limbs, in the catarrhal type of the disease sneezing and 
coughing are marked symptoms. 

The inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose, 
pharynx, larynx, aiad bronchi is well marked. In this form. 


pneumonia is especially likely to intervene. This catarrhal 
inflammation may extend up the eustachian tube from the 
throat to the ear. A well-known specialist says that he has 
had many cases of otitis media to treat as the result of the grip. 
The patient, although with a high temperature, feels chilly 
except in a warm room. 

III. The Gastric Type. — The additional symptoms in this 
form are loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, a coated tongue, 
sometimes resembling that of typhoid fever, also severe pain in 
the region of the stomach, bowels, and liver. In every type of 
the disease there is usually inaction of the liver, constipation of 
the bowels, and the urine is scanty and high colored. There is 
always marked loss of strength and rapid lowering of the 
vitality, the legs feel as though they had not power to sustain 
the weight of the body. Some cases manifest nearly every 
symptom of the three types, and every case conforms more or 
less to the nervous type. 

In some cases the recovery is slow and tedious. Elderly 
people and those suffering from nervous debility are profoundly 
affected by an attack of the grip, and should exercise the 
utmost caution. Children are less liable to contract this dis- 
ease than adults. 

Treatment. — This disease if properly treated at the outset 
can usually be rendered mild in character, and often well-nigh 
aborted, otherwise grave complications are liable to occur, and 
mild cases may become severe and even fatal. For the seveie 
neuralgic pains there is no better remedy than from one-eighth 
to one-fourth grain of morphia hypodermically. It acts as a 
powerful stimulant to the cerebro-spinal system in this depress- 
ing disease. If there is simply headache the bromide of sodium 
in ten-grain doses, dissolved in water, will be sufficient, and 
should be repeated every two hours if needed, till relieved. 
Quinine is as much a specific against the grip germ as against 
the malaria microbe, and a full dose taken early will often 
modify and practically abort the attack. The fever and pain 
can be speedily reduced by acetanilid or phenacetin, but, as 
they are somewhat depressing in their action, much mischief is 
being done by their promiscuous use. They should be used only 
by the skillful in the febrile stage, and in robust persons when 
signs of depression are not marked. The prostration requires 
stimulants. Camphor is highly recommended. Rest should be 
enjoined. A relapse must be carefully avoided. 



Their Cause. How Avoided. Speedy Cure; 

The symptoms of a cold are so well known as to require no 
special reference. 

Causes. — Colds are usually contracted by exposure to 
draughts of air, when the body is heated, and the sudoriferous 
or sweat glands are actively secreting moisture, which reaches 
the surface through the spiral pores which open upon the 
surface of the body. This moisture or perspiration is con- 
stantly secreted by the glands, and brought to the outside 
through the pores, and causes evaporation, which regulates the 
animal heat of the body. When the temperature is raised by 
active exercise or artificial heat, these pores or tubes become 
dilated to allow a freer removal of the increased secretion and 
more extensive evaporation upon the surface; this dilation 
always takes place gradually. In a hot day, or, after violent 
exercise, or when men are handling red hot iron in rolling mills, 
this moisture stands upon the face in large drops which unite 
and course down the body, sometimes making the clothing as 
wet as if dipped in water. These sweat glands and j^ores are 
not able to adapt themselves immediately to a changed condi- 
tion ; as they are opened gradually by the effect of heat, so they 
are closed gradually by exposure to a lower temperature. If 
the changes of temperature are more rapid than the ability of 
nature to e(|ualize the temperature of the body, the system 
ex})eriences a sort of shock, which is succeeded by the symptoms 
of a cold. The tubes bringing this moisture to the exterior of 
the skin are very numerous. There are twenty-eight hundred 
of these tuljal oj)enings on a single scjuare inch of the bodj'-, and 
l)etween two and three millions in all. It is in consequence of 
this evaporating surface that the bodily temperature remains in 
health at ninety-eight and three-fifths the whole year around. 


COLDS. 347 

When the quantity of moisture is not sufficient to notice, the 
process is known as imperceptible perspiration. 

It is this constant evaporation of bodily moisture which 
makes the demand for water so urgent, especially in hot 
weather, and it is this dried moisture which soon soils the 
surface of the body, and the clothing in contact with the 
skin, and renders baths and washing daily necessities. 

If care is not taken in changing the under-garments, and 
washing the skin, these delicate little tubes become obstructed, 
and the clothing and its wearer become offensive to the delicate 
sense of smell ; still more serious are the consequences which 
result: the health is impaired, catarrhal diseases ensue, and con- 
gestion of some internal organ is liable to intervene. When 
the perspiration is unable to escape freely through the skin, it 
is obliged to seek some internal outlet, and extra labor falls 
usually upon the kidneys, and sometimes with unfortunate 
results. The first stage of Bright's disease (acute nephritis) is 
usually induced by contracting a sudden cold, as by going from 
a heated atmosphere, to work in a cellar, ice house, wheel pit, 
or similar place. The one who is overheated must allow him- 
self to cool off slowly, and, if obliged to enter some cold apart- 
ment for labor, should put on extra clothing, and stir about very 
briskly, and thus avoid feeling chilly, and contracting a cold. 
Persons who live in overheated rooms, and who spend a large 
share of time indoors, and who wear chest protectors, and sleep 
under heavy blankets, are much more liable to catch cold than 
those who brave the storms and rigors of winter, and by their 
activity maintain a vigorous and healthy circulation. 

Results of Catching Cold. — A cold may be so slight as to 
occasion but little notice, and so slight as not to prevent attend- 
ing to the accustomed duties ; it may be so severe and serious 
as to awaken diseases which will terminate life. 

The more common diseases which result from catching a 
severe cold are catarrhal affections of the throat, lungs, and nasal 
passages, acute nephritis, or inflammation of the kidneys, pleu- 
risy, croup, bronchitis, catarrhal pneumonia, capillary bronchitis, 
peritonitis, amenorrhcea, and similar affections. A bad cold is 
usually followed by slight malaise., chilly sensations, stuffiness 
of the nose, rendering the act of breathing difficult except 
tlirough the mouth, tightness across the upper part of the chest, 
pain in the back and limbs, and occasionally slight fever. 

The results of a cold are often very serious when a person 
is in a debilitated condition, as for instance when recovering 

348 COLDS. 

from some depressing sickness, or from child birth. In these 
weakened conditions a cold may be more readily contracted, by 
going about too soon, or out of doors in unsuitable weather, and 
the results are usually serious. Many a person has sacrificed 
life by a rash act of exposure, when recovering from sickness. 

Prevention. — If in a debilitated condition, use great cau- 
tion, and more especially if recovering from some acute disease 
or from the depressing effects of child birth. Such persons can 
hardly be too cautious until strength and vigor are regained. 
Avoid wetting, damping, or chilling the feet, keep indoors dur- 
ing unsuitable, rainy, or windy weather. 

If heated from work or active exercise, avoid sudden 
changes of clothing, and a too rapid cooling of the body, which 
is followed, as we have already seen, by a shock to the cuta- 
neous nerves, and a cold. 

Learn how to clothe yourself properly, and the secret of 
taking good care of your health, by every means here recom- 
mended ; in a long life you will be amply repaid. 

A towel bath each morning before dressing and brisk fric- 
tion of the skin with the hand or a suitable flesh brush is exhila- 
rating, and the skin soon acquires a vigorous tone which assists 
in avoiding colds. 

Treatmeyit. — As soon as possible after becoming aware of 
catching a bad cold, soak the feet in hot mustard water, go to 
bed, drink hot composition tea, hot lemonade, and other hot 
drinks till the sweat glands become active. If the limbs ache, 
and the patient is restless and disquieted, give pulverized 
ipecacuanha compound in a five or ten grain dose. Should there 
be indication of high temperature, a red and burning cheek, put 
ten drops of tincture of aconite in half a tumbler of water, and 
of this give one teaspoonful every half hour till perspiration is 
freely induced. If the patient complains of tightness about the 
chest, a poultice containing mustard placed thereon is excellent. 
If the stomach is suffering from hungei^ and a feeling of faint- 
ness, or an all-gone feeling is complained of, a cup of hot gruel 
or beef tea can do no harm. If the nose and eyes run like water, 
give one one-hundredth grain of atropia every six hours ; this 
will bring relief. 

If these means do not cause the breaking up of a cold, it is 
likely to become the forerunner of some acute disease. 



Thkir Causk. How to Curb. 

A cough may be the result of various conditions, but 
one of the most common causes is a severe cold upon the 
lungs. The air passages are lined by a thin, delicate mucous 
membrane which contains secreting glands, which in health 
secrete a small amount of fluid mucus to assist the air in passing 
in and out of the alveoli of the lungs without annoyance or 
friction. If for any reason, as taking a sudden cold, tliis secre- 
tion is checked, the air passages become dry and inflamed, and 
produce a disagreeable sensation which patients sometimes call a 
smarting of the lungs. This state of dryness lasts usually but a 
short time, and is followed by a secretion many times more 
abundant than natural. This increased secretion, owing to 
inflammation of the mucous glands, is catarrhal in cliaracter, and 
acts as a constant irritation. It is often thick, yellowish in color, 
and raised with difficulty. A persistent cough is nature's despe- 
rate remedy to expel the hardened, thick, offending mucus, just 
as if a bread crumb or some other foreign substance was in the 
windpipe. By fits of coughing nature endeavors to obtain 
relief. This offending substance must be removed, and nature 
has only two methods, one to throw it up by coughing, the other 
to absorb it into the circulation ; the former method is much more 
desirable than the latter. When a catarrhal cold is yielding to 
treatment the mucus becomes loose, is easily detached and 
readily expelled, all the symptoms become more favoring, and 
the cough less racking and severe. As the secretion is gradu- 
ally reduced to the normal, the inflammation and irritation sub- 
side, the cough more and more disappears. When the mucous 
secretions are tough and raised with great difficulty, the cough 
is distressing, and loosening remedies or expectorants should be 
administered. The following are serviceable : Syrup of ipecac, 
one teaspoonful as needed, for adult, or syrup of senega, one 


350 COUGHS. 

teaspoonful, or the compound syrup of squill, dose one-fourth 
to one teaspoonful. Of the latter, eight drops are sufficient to 
give an infant ; should these remedies produce vomiting, dimin- 
ish the dose. Great harm may be done by suppressing a cough 
when nature is striving to free the air passages from an over- 
load of mucous secretions. Giving opium or morphine, cough 
drops, troches, or any anodyne remedies to a young child whose 
air passages are loaded with catarrhal debris is bad practice, and 
has cost many a little sufferer his life. In no instance must the 
cough be quieted in an infant suffering from catarrhal diseases, 
no matter how much the mother and others are annoyed by the 
persistent coughing. In capillary bronchitis the cough is the 
child's safety, and must not be suppressed, else the lungs will 
iill up and the child will die. 

Coughs due to irritation and a dry inflammation of the 
bronchi may be safely quieted, and this can be done with posi- 
tive benefit to the patient. An excellent remedy for a dry, 
hard cough without expectoration is muriate of ammonia, one 
dram ; spirits of chloroform, two drams ; syrup of ipecac, one 
ounce; syrup of senega, one ounce; syrup of tolu, one ounce; 
water sufficient to make four ounces. Mix and give one tea- 
spoonful every four hours for an adult, less for children. When 
a remedy is indicated to relieve a dry, irritating cough of a child, 
with no load of mucus upon the chest, chloral is the best remedy 
in small doses. It favors secretion and expectoration, and 
quiets a cough when it is spasmodic or debilitating. It may be 
given in the following prescription to a child two or three years 
old : Chloral hydrate, thirty grains ; syrup of ipecac, half an 
ounce ; syrup of squill compound, two drams ; syrup of tolu, 
two ounces; anise water sufficient to make four ounces. Dose, 
one teas[)Oonful every four hours. For some cases of debility 
and protracted cough in children, cod liver oil is a reliable and 
efficient remedy. Any druggist can provide the pure oil, or 
make a palatable emulsion. It softens the cough, aids nutri- 
tion, and counteracts debility. 

How to Preserve the Teeth. 

SpbciaIv Cark and Rkmedies. 



First Dentition. — During this period the child requires more 
than ordinary watchfuhiess on the part of the mother. Difficulties 
incident to teething, cause a very large per cent, of mortality among 
children, which proper care would prevent. Systemic disturbance 
caused by cutting teeth is very marked, and can be easily seen. 
Symptoms : — Hot and dry mouth, feverishness, redness of one or both 
cheeks, sometimes changing from one to the other, indicating great 
nervous disturbance. Eruptions on the head and face, and sometimes 
on the whole body. Ulcerations may appear on the tongue, gums, lips, 
and inside of the cheeks. Fretfulness when awake, and moaning in 
sleep, nausea, vomiting, high fever, diarrhoea, or severe constipation, 
followed not infrequently by convulsions. 

Treatment. — If there is a tendency to hot and dry skin, let the 
treatment be such as will keep the skin moist, look out for diarrhoea 
or constipation. If the gums are swollen, and indicate a pressure from 
beneath, they should be freely lanced over the erupting teeth ; nervous 
irritation will be controlled by adding a little catnip tea to the milk. 
Watch the food so that digestion may not be impaired. 

If the mother does not nurse the child, or the milk be deficient in 
quantity or quality, be careful to have the right milk for a substitute. 
Never take the milk from a milk cart, for that is a mixed milk of all 
the herd, and not fit to give a young babe. If possible, have the milk 
of a cow whose calf would be the age of the babe to be fed, rich in 
cream, and up to the standard of perfect milk. This milk will be richer 
in casein, butter and phosphates, than human milk, but poorer in sugar ; 
therefore, add one-third water, and a little pure white sugar. Aside 
from the mixed nature of milk sold from the cart, there is a possibility 



that it may have already been watered, and then doctored with foreign 
matter to bring up color and taste. Supposing you take the milk from 
the cart, accepting it for a standard milk, any mother can readily see 
she is surely increasing the danger of fatal trouble during the period of 

Care of the Temporary Teeth. — The temporary teeth are 
designed by nature to remain until the permanent teeth are ready to 
take their places. Children should be taught to keep them clean by 
brushing. If they decay, they should be lilled with some temporary 
filling, for decayed and painful temporary teeth will cause the child to 
avoid using them as much as possible. Food will be swallowed without 
sufficient mastication, the stomach become disordered in attempting to 
do the work designed for the temporary teeth, thus opening the way 
for sickness and suffering. 

Care of the Permanent Teeth. — In all cases of trouble in second 
dentition consult your dentist. A little attention at such times will often 
prevent a long train of evils. The destruction of the teeth from decay, 
in a large degree, is in consequence of the action of chemical acids, 
and low forms of organic life produced through the fermentation and 
putrifaction of food and other substances. If this fermenting, filthy 
compost is allowed to remain on and between the teeth, myriads of 
little creatures grow and thrive in it, boring away at the tooth structure 
until it is gone. The remedy is cleanliness, antiseptic washes, and the 
dentist's skill. Teeth should be brushed thoroughly twice a day, morn- 
ing and night, with a generous brush of medium stiffness, using some 
antiseptic wash in tepid water. Never mind if the gums bleed, it is an 
indication of foreign substance about the necks of the teeth, and inflam- 
mation of the gums. Have the foreign substance removed, and brush 
without regard to bleeding, they will soon become hard and healthy. 

Never use dentifrices made of charcoal, or pumice stone, or any 
other gritty substance — they are too harsh — they injure the delicate 
tissue that surrounds and gives outer nourishment, through the thin 
layer of cementum that covers the roots of the teeth. 

To stop pain in an exposed and inflamed dental pulp, rinse out 
the cavity with a little tepid water, apply cotton saturated in equal parts 
of camphor, chloroform and oil of cloves ; shake before using. To stop 
pain in a dead tooth, apply cotton saturated in equal parts of camphor, 
hydrate of chloral and carbolic acid. Be careful and not have an excess 
of the liquid in the cotton, as it will run over the gums and burn the 


Precipitated Carbonate of Lime, 4 ounces. 

Pulverized Orris Root, 3-4 ounce. 

Pulverized Peruvian Bark, 1-4 ounce. 

Pulverized White Sugar, 1-4 ounce. 

Flavor with that which is most agreeable to the taste. 


Carbolic Acid, 

5 drachms. 


6 ounces. 


4 ounces. 


I ounce. 

Oil of Peppermint, 

4 drops. 

Red Anihne, 

3 drops. 

Table spoonful in wine glass of 

water, use weaker or in greater 

gth as may be most agreeable. 

A good mouth wash in cases of fetid breath or inflamed gums : 

Tincture of Krameria, 3 fluid ounces. 

Eau de Cologne, 6 " " 

Carbolic Acid crystals, 10 drops. 

Oil of Wintergreen, 8 " 

Put two teaspoonfuls of the above mixture to a wine glass of water. 
Use thoroughly three or four times a day. 

eA^" — ^ 





The action of medicine is modified by the condition of the 
individual, by the climate and season. 

In summer certain medicines act more vigorously than in 
winter, and the same person may not bear the same dose in 
July that he could in December. Persons of a phlegmatic tem- 
perament bear stimulants and purgatives better than those of a 
sanguine temperament, therefore the latter require smaller 
doses. Purgatives never act so well upon persons accustomed 
to take them as upon those who are not, and in cases where 
purgatives are necessary to be often used the form and kind 
should be changed occasionally. 

Purgatives should never be given when the bowels are in a 
state of irritation. Stimulants and narcotics never act as 
quickly upon persons accustomed to the use of stimulants. 

Medicine for females should not be so strong as for males. 
Reduce about one-eighth. 

Persons whose general health is good bear stronger doses 
than the debilitated and those who have suffered for a long 

Castor-oil may be taken in milk, coffee, or spirit, such as 
brandy ; but the best method of covering the nauseous flavor 
is to put a tablespoonful of strained orange juice in a wineglass, 
pour the castor-oil into the center of the juice, and then squeeze 
a few drops of lemon juice upon the top of the oil. 

Cod-liver oil may be taken, like castor-oil, in orange juice. 

Peppermint-water almost prevents the nauseous taste of 
Epsom salts. 

A strong solution of extract of licoiice covers the disagree- 
able taste of aloes ; milk that of cinchona bark ; and cloves that 
of senna. 

An excellent way to prevent the taste of medicines is to 
have the medicine in a glass, as usual, and a tumbler of water 
by the side of it. Then take the medicine and retain it in the 


Sow to OlVE MEDICINES. 355 

mouth, which should be kept closed, and if you then coniinence 
drinking the water, the taste of the medicine is washed away. 

It is desirable to render medicines as palatable and pleas- 
ant as possible and to administer them at such times, and with 
such precautions, as shall render their retention and action most 
probable ; for adults, who can swallow pills, this is the easiest 
and best mode of taking such remedies as will go in a small 
compass. For children generally they are unsuitable, and 
draughts or powders must be given to them, unless, as is now 
often the case, medicated cakes or lozenges, containing the reme- 
dies which their cases require, can be procured. 

The best vehicle for children's powders which contain any 
heavy substance is sugar moistened just a little, or honey, or 
molasses, or gum ; it must be some thick substance or the pow- 
der will fall to the bottom, and so not be taken. Powders with 
rhubarb, magnesia, or any light substance may be mixed up 
thin and drank ; a piece of sugar with a few drops of essence of 
peppermint on it, or a strong peppermint lozenge, will get rid of 
the unpleasant taste perhaps sooner than anything else ; those 
who object to this should chew a piece of dried orange peel both 
before and after swallowing the medicine. Aperients are best 
taken on an empty stomach, so are vermifuges ; tonics .should be 
taken an hour or so before meals, except preparations of iron, 
which are best an hour after meals; emetics are commonly 
directed to be taken in the evening, because after their opera- 
tion the patient may rest awhile. Stimulants of course may 
be taken at any time when required ; opiates always at bed- 
time, that their action may not be interrupted ; unless it be a 
case of spasm or violent pain which calls for instant relief. 
Strong purgatives are best taken in the morning; at night they 
would disturb the rest, and cause great inconvenience. Ail 
these, of course, are but general rules, to which there are numer- 
ous exceptions. The discreet mother or nurse will know when 
they are to be strictly followed, and when departed from. 

Condition of the Stomach, — The least active remedies 
operate violently on some persons, owing to a peculiarity of 
stomach or disposition of body unconnected with temperament. 
In giving medicines, the medical man always so regulates the 
intervals between doses that the following dose may be taken 
before the effect produced by the former is altogether effaced. 
By not attending to this rule, the cure is always commencing, 
but never rapidly proceeding — it may, indeed, have no effect at 
all. It is to be borne in mind, at the same time, that some 



medicines, such as mercury, etc., are apt to accumulate in the 
system, and danger may thence arise if the doses be repeated 
too frequently. Aloes and castor-oil acquire greater activity by 
use, so that the dose requires to be diminished. With due 
caution, and a proper attention to the doses ordered, no unto- 
ward circumstance need arise. 

The condition of the mind has a powerful influence upon 
the disorders of the body. The effect of the imagination works 
wonders for or against recovery. Many of the extraordinary 
cures credited to traveling "medicine men," "great remedies," 
etc., are nothing more than the influence of the imagination 
over a disordered body or mind. 

Proper Doses for Different Ages. 


For an Adult 
Under 1 year 
' ' 2 years 

u 3 u 

It 4 u 

" 14 " 

" 20 " 

Above 21 " 

" 65 " 

Proportional Doses. 

Suppose the dose One 
Will require only l-12tli 







The full dose One 
Will require only 3^ths 



1 dram or 60 grains. 

5 grains. 

8 " 
10 " 
16 " 

1 scruple or 20 grains, 
1-2 dram or 30 " 

2 scruples or 40 " 

1 dram. 
46 grains. 

2 scruples or 40 grains. 

In the same manner for fluids divide the quantity suited 
for an adult by the above fractional parts. If for a child under 
one year, the dose will be one-twelfth ; under two years, one- 
eighth ; under three years, one-sixth, and so on. 

Approximate Measures. 
For the convenience of those who have not accurate meas- 
ures at hand, we give the approximate quantities: — 
A teacup contains four fluid ounces, or one gill. 
A wine glass contains two fluid ounces. 
A tablespoon contains one-half fluid ounce. 
A teaspoon contains one-eighth fluid ounce, or one dram. 
Sixteen large tablespoonfuls make half a pint. 
Eight " " " one gill. 

Four " " " half gill. 

Twenty-five drops are equal to one teaspoonful. 


Apothecary's ^A^eight. 

20 grains 


1 scruple 


20 grains. 

60 grains 


1 dram 


3 scruples. 

480 grains 


1 ounce 


8 drams. 

6,760 grains 


1 pound 


12 ounces. 

The scruple and dram are discarded in tlie new weights. 
Measures of capacity are used for liquids in mixing medicines. 
Formerly wine measure was employed, but now it is the im- 
perial. The weight of the imperial minim of water is 91 grains, 
and is multiplied as follows : — 

60 minims = 1 fluid dram = 60 minims. 
480 minims = 1 fluid ounce = 8 fluid drams. 
9,600 minims = 1 pint = 20 fluid ounces. 

76,800 minims = 1 gallon = 8 pints. 

The fluid ounce is the measure of one ounce of water ; the 
pint, li lbs. ; and the gallon, 10 lbs. In prescriptions tlie weights 
and measures are generally expressed by signs or symbols, with 
J^atin numerals afflxed. These signs, with the Latin and English 
words which stand for them, are given below : — 
m Minim, l-60th part of a fluid dram. 
9j Scrupulus, a scruple. 
3j Drachma, a dram, 
f 3 j Fluid Drachma, a measured dram. 

§ j Uncia, an ounce (437.5 grains), 
f g j Fluid uncia, a measured ounce. 
lt»j Libra, a pound (7,000 grains). 
Oj Octarius, a pint, 
gr Granum, a grain. 

ss Semis, half, affixed to any of the above signs. 
The numerals j, ij, iij, iv, v, etc., show tlie number of 
grains, ounces, pounds, etc., to be taken; thus, mix denotes 60 
minims, 3 vii, 7 drams, and | j, 1 ounce. 




In preparing the treatment to a domestic practice, the directions 
should be simple, yet full enough to be understood. This idea has been 
fully carried out, and nothing has been introduced but what has been 
verified by experience, and, therefore, will be fully reliable. Persons 
who cannot get a physician may depend upon the remedies given herein ; 
but be sure that they cover a majority of the symptoms, which will be 
known by comparing the symptoms of the disease with those given un- 
der the remedy. 

Homoeopathic remedies are very active, when properly chosen, and 
will show beneficial results; generally, within a very few hours. In se- 
vere cases, with violent symptoms, they may be given as often as every 
five minutes ; but at the least approach of improvement, lengthen the 
intervals. Ordinarily medicine given every hour is often enough, and 
many times every two or three hour intervals should be imposed, partic- 
ularly with young children. 

Homoeopathic medicines are prepared in the form of liquids and 
powders. Pellets are used as a convenient vehicle, very useful to carry 
about in the pocket. 

Of the attenuations, mentioned in this book, from six to eight 
drops should be added to one-half a glass of water, and of this tea- 
spoonful doses may be given as often as seems necessary. The powders 
may be taken dry on the tongue, or as much as could be placed upon a 
ten cent coin put into one-half a glass of water, and administered as in 
case of the liquid. Four to six pellets are a dose. A child under two 
years of age to receive one-half the amount of an adult. 

Very truly yours, 







The sign with | drawn through it indicates the full strength of the mother 
tincture. The X indicates the strength or attenuation of the medicine prescribed. 
The first attenuation is one-tenth the strength of the mother tincture, the second 
attenuation, one-tenth the strength of the first, and so on, each attenuation being 
just one-tenth the strength of the one preceding. 


TTiefull diagnosis of each disease will be found in the preceding 
pages, arranged in alphabetical order, the pages being indicated by the 
small figures within the (J>arcntheses). 

Abscess. (95) — First stage, before pus has formed, give Bel- 
ladonna, 3 x, and Mercurious Viv, 6 x, in alternation. When pus begins 
to form, give Hepar Sulphuris, 3 x. 

Sulphur, cc, is useful to remove a tendency to abscesses. Poultice 
and open freely as soon as suppuration takes place. After opening, 
wash out the abscess with Tinct. of Calendula, one part to ten of water. 

Abscess, of the Ear. (96) — It is so liable to extend to the 
brain that a surgeon should be called early. The same remedies as 

Apoplexy. (97) — Give Aconite, 3 x, and send for medical as- 
sistance. Principle remedies are Aconite, 3 x. Belladonna, 3 x, Opium, 
30, Arnica, 3 x, and Glonoine, 30. 

Aconite, 3 x, hard wiry pulse ; persons of full habit. 

Bell, 3 x, congestion of the brain ; red swollen face ; throbbing of 
blood vessels ; dilated pupils, convulsive movements of the face and limbs, 
serviceable early in the case. 

Opium, 30, profound stupor ; dusky countenance ; contraction of pu- 
pils ; convulsed ; moans and groans ; cannot be aroused. 

Arnica, 3 x, after active excitement has subsided, to promote re- 
sorption of effusion. 

Nux Vomica, 3 x, is a useful remedy to prevent a predisposition to 
apoplexy. The diet should be plain, avoiding rich food and stimulants. 
Exclude all excitement, over exertion, sudden changes of temperature, 
and excesses of all kinds. 

Asthma. (100) — Arsenicum, 3 x, Euphorbia-Pilulifora, i x, 
Ipecac, I x, Vcratrum Viride, i x. 



Arsenicum, 3 x, hay-fever, watery excoriating discharges from the 
eyes and nose. 

Euphorbia PiL, i x, suffocative cough; considered a specific by 

Ipecac, I X. nausea and vomiting, followed by violent fits of cough- 

Vcratrum Vir., i x, hard, difficult breathing ; tight wheezing cough ; 
full, hard, bounding pulse. 

Back. (102) — Lameness (Lumbago.) i?/z a' j :7^a-, 3 x, for pain- 
ful condition of the muscles from a sprain or wrench. 

For crick of the back, Ferrutn Phosphoricum, 3 x. 

Baldness. (102) — ^To prevent the hair from falling af^er fevers, 
etc., Flouric Acid, 6 x, and Silicea, 30. 

Barber's Itch. (102) — Su/phur Iodide, 3 x, every six hour- and 
apply Blue Ointment. 

Bed Sores. (103) — ^Tincture Arnica and Brandy, equal parts, 
locally, for inflammation. 

After sloughing out, give Arsenicum, 3 x, intenially, and apply po\r- 
dered Boracic Acid, 

Bloody Urine. (103) — Variety of causes. Call your physician. 
As general remedies, Tercbinthina, i ^, and Erigeoon Can., 1 x, Cam- 
phor ^, after a blister of Spanish Flies ( Catitharides') . 

Bleeding from the Nose. (104) — (Epistaxis) Aconite, i x, for 
plethoric persons, with hard, quick, wiry pulse. 

Carbo Veg., 3 x, severe nose-bleed, several times daily, with pale 
face before and after each attack. 

Nitric Acid, 3 x, disposition to nose-bleed. 

Bleeding from the Lungs. (105) — (Harmoptysis.) Hama- 
metis <f>, ten drops, every hour, for dark blood which is profuse or scant. 

Vcratrum Vir., i x, congestion of the lungs, with full, hard, bound- 
ing pulse. 

Phosphorus, 30, disposition to frequent hemorrhages with dry. 
hacking cough. 

Acute Inflammation of the Bowels. (107) — (Enteritis.) 
Aconite, i x, quick, wiry pulse ; dry, hot skin, and very restless. Arseni- 
cum, 3 X, burning pain in bowels j tongue red and dry ; yellow, frequent 
stools ; vomiting ; very weak and debilitated. 

Colocynth, 2 x, violent, griping pain in the bowels. 


Veratrum Alb., i x, cold sweat ; cramps in legs, with vomiting and 

Keep hot packs of alcohol and water over the bowels and call a 

Avoid all animal food. 

Chronic Inflammation of the Bowels. (107) — (Chronic 
Enteritis.) Byronia, 3 x, constant dryness of the lips, pain in the bow- 
els ; one day, diarrhcea, next day, constipation. 

Iris Versicolar, 3 x, grumbHng belly-ache ; stools inclined to be 
loose ; liver out of order. 

Kali Bichroi7iicum, 3 x, chronic inflammation all through the bow- 
els from the stomach to the anus ; mucous discharges which are stringy. 

Lycopodiiim, 30, much wind in the bowels ; inclined to constipation. 

Plumbum Carb., 30, violent long-lasting pain in the bowels ; chron- 
ic diarrhoea. 

Sulphur, 200, constipation or diarrhoea — chronic and persistent, 
even after giving all kinds of remedies. A course of Sulphur, once or 
twice daily for a week, will bring the case under control. 

Milk should be the principal article of diet. All animal food dis- 
carded, excepting, now and then, raw, grated beef. 

Bronchitis. (108) — Aconite, i x^ at commencement, with hot, 
dry skin and quick pulse. 

Bryonia, 3 x, bronchial tubes feel sore ; dry cough, also, at com- 
mencement, may be given alternate with Aconite. 

Sambucus, i x, very useful for young children. 

Verat. Vir., i x, full, bounding pulse ; difficult breathing, also Anti- 
monium Tart., 3 x, Kali Bichromicum, 3 x, and Ipecac, i x. 

Keep the chest wrapped in cotton batting. 

Cancer, (no) — It should be removed, early, by an operation. 
Follow this up by Arsenicum, 3 x, six months, a dose two or three times 

Condurango, i x, is said to relieve the pain of cancer, anything 
short of complete removal, should not be tolerated. 

Canker of the Mouth, (m) — Merc. Cor., 3 x, one of the 
best remedies. 

Catalepsy or Trance. (112) — (See Hysteria.) 

Cataract. (113) — Must be removed by surgical means. 

Cannabis Sativa, 3 x, said to have cured cases of cataract. 


Catarrh. (114) — Aconite, 3 x, acute catarrh, feverish ness ; pain 
in the head, eyes, nose, etc. 

Bryonia, 3 x, in addition to the acute catarrh of the nose, it has a 
dry cough with stitches in the chest. 

Kali Hydroidiaivi, 3 x, sneezing ; watery discharges from the eyes 
and nose which excoriates ; pain in the fore part of the head. 

Chronic Catarrh. (115) — Cak. Carb., -ip, Kali Bichrotnicutn, 
3 X, Sanguinaria, 3 x. Sulphur, cc. 

Chapped or Cracked Lips. (116) — Bryonia, 3 x, dry, chap- 
ped Hps. 

Chilblains. (116) — Agaricus Muse, 3 x, will cure chilblains in 
a few days. 

Chicken Pox. (117) (Varicella.) — ^^r^/z/V^', 3 x, fever ; restless- 
ness, generally all the remedy needed. 

Antimony Tart., 3 x, if the eruption suppurates, this remedy will be 
useful to prevent scars. 

Hepar Sulphur, 3 x, useful for a week or so after any of the erup- 
tion diseases. 

Milk diet the best. 

Asiatic Cholera. (118) — Camphor (f>, great depression; col- 
lapse ; chilly most of the time ; violent vomiting and purging, give early 
in the disease. 

Arsenicum, 3 x, excoriating discharges ; bright red tongue, with 
burning of stomach and bowels ; patient wild and restless, useful in all 
stages of the disease. 

Veratrum Alb., i x, cold sweat ; violent vomiting and purging ; 
cramps of different muscles of the body. 

Cuprum Aceticum, 30, also for cramps with empty retching : also 
to be used as a prophylactic. 

The diet should be milk with a little brandy added. 

Cholera Morbus. (120) — Same remedies as Asiatic cholera, 
adding Colocynth, 2 x, for violent, griping pain in the bowels. 

Colic. (Pain in the abdomen.) — Colocynth, 2 x, the first remedy 
usually thought of, griping, tearing, twisting pain in the bowels ; much 
gas in bowels. 

For Painter's Colic. (122) — Opium must be administered in 
one grain doses, every two hours, until better. 

Kali Hydroidicum, i x, useful to eradicate the lead from the sys- 


Concussion of the Brain. (124) — Keep the patient quiet; 
apply cold cloths to the head and give Arnica, 3 x, every hour or two, 
for a few days. 

Congestion of the Brain. (125) — Belladonna, i x, full, beat- 
ing blood vessels ; full pulse ; red, flushed face ; mild delirium ; dilated 

Bromide of Potash, five grains, every hour, to an adult, until bet- 

Veratrum Vir., i x, full, bounding pulse ; nausea with terrible pain 
in the head. 

Convulsions. (126) (Fits.) — Belladonna, 3 x, flushed face; 
throbbing of the blood vessels going to the head. 

Cicuta Virosa, 6 x, twitching and jerking of the muscles all over 
the body ; movement of the muscles about the mouth causing a chewing 

Gelseminum, i x, violent fever; full .ompressible pulse. The 
whole body is convulsed. 

Hysterical Convulsions. Nux Vomica, 3 x, violent drawing 
backward of the head, and feet toward each other. 

Convulsions from passion, Chamomilla, 30 : injury, Hypericum, i x : 
worms, Cina, 3 x, Cicuta, 6 x : fright, Ignatia, 30. 

Consumption. (128) (Phthisis.) — One-fifth of the population 
die of this disease. The only safeguard against the disease is to keep 
one's weight up to a normal standard. This is to be accomplished by 
any and all means. 

The Compound Syrup of Hypophosphites v?, one of the best reme- 
dies to accomplish this. The remedies are mostly Bryonia, 3 x, Calc. 
Carb., 30, Phos., 30, Pulsatilla, 3 x. Sulphur, 30. (See Cough, for in- 

Costiveness. (131) (Constipation.) — Nux Vomica, 3 x or 30, 
useful after using much cathartic medicine ; persons of sedentary habits, 
no desire for stool, and if there is, it cannot be accomplished. 

Plumbiwi, 30, stools of hard, small balls, frequent attacks of colic. 

Sulphur, cc, remedies do not give desired effect ; piles, with burn- 
ing pain in the rectum. 

Drink a glass of oatmeal water, every morning, on rising. 

Cornea, Ulceration of. (133) — Merc. Cor., 3 x, and Hepar 
Sulph., 3 X. 

Employ an oculist. 


Corpulence. (133) — A dose of Niix Vomica, 3 x, at night, is a 
good remedy. 

Cough. (134) — Aconite, i x, croupy cough ; spasmodic cough. 

Bryo7iia, 3 x, hard, dry cough, with pain in head and chest. 

Belladonna, short, dry, hollow, convulsive cough, worse at night ; 
flushed face and cerebral congestion. 

Hepar Sulph., 3 x, irritating cough ; hoarseness, excited by expos- 
ure to cold. Rattling of mucous in the throat ; croup. 

Kali Bichro., 3 x, cough, with tough, stringy expectoration. 

Phosphorus, 30, dry cough with tickling in the throat. Worse 
from talking or reading aloud. 

Spofigia, I X, dry, hoarse, croupy cough, with pain in the larynx. 
Alternate with Aconite, in croup, every fifteen minutes. 

Castanea Vesica, i x, five drops, every two hours, in whooping-cough. 

Cuprum Aceticufn, 30, also useful in whooping-cough so violent as 
to often throw the patient into convulsions. (See also Asthma.) 

Cramp. (135) — Cuprum Aceticum, 30, a very useful remedy. 

Cramp or Spasm of the Stomach. (135) (Gastralgia.) — Di- 
oscorea, i x, five drops every fifteen minutes. 

Nux Vom., 3 X, and even (^, five drops, three times daily, will gen- 
erally cure the disposition to cramp of the stomach. 

Bryonia, 3 x, useful if the cramp comes on immediately after eat- 

Lactopeptine, ten grains after each meal. 

Deafness, (136) from catarrh, of the middle ear, most often cured 
by Pulsatilla, 3 x. 

If from ear-wax, a few drops of Glycerine dropped in the ear, on 
going to bed, for a few times. 

Defective Appetite. (136) — Bryonia, 3 x, if caused by a tor- 
pid liver, also China, 6 x. 

Nux Vom., I X, from anxiety; overworked nervous systems and 

Apply to a physician to ascertain cause. 

Delirium Tremens. (137) — Hyoscamus Nig., i x, ten drops 
every half hour until better. 

Nux Vom., I X, five drops every three hours for three or four days, 
following the abnormal illusions. Keep the patient under close observa- 
tion and send at once for a physician. 

366 HOmceopathic treatment. 

Diabetes. (138) — Uva Ursa, i x, ten drops every three hours 
in Diabetes Insipidus. 

Diabetes Mellitus. Arsenicum, 3 x, very hungry and thirsty; 
pale skin ; loss of strength ; dryness of mouth and throat ; excessive 
urination ; watery diarrhoea. 

Phosphoric Acid, i x, loss of nerve force, with frequent urination. 

Diet must be free from starch and sugar. Exclusive milk diet of- 
ten benefits. Gluten bread must be substituted for that of wheat flour. 
Avoid vegetables, arrow-root, asparagus, bread, biscuit, beans, beets, 
crackers, carrots, macaroni, oat-meal, pastry, potatoes, peas, rice, sago, 
sugar, tapioca, vermicelli j fruit, apples, grapes, pears, bananas, peaches, 
plums, pine-apples, raspberries and other sweet fruits ; beverages, wine, 
beer, brandy, also cider and all alcoholic and sweet drinks. 

Allowable vegetables, artichokes, cabbage, celery, cresses, cucum- 
bers, olives, greens, lettuce, pickles, mushrooms ; fruits, lemons, sour 
cherries, currants, gooseberries, strawberries and acid fruits, generally; 
meats, beef, mutton, poultry, game, fish, oysters, cheese, eggs, etc. 

Gratify the thirst by an abundance of good water or skim-milk. 
The diabetic should be warmly clad. 

Diarrhoea. (139) — Camphor ^, sudden diarrhoea with chilliness. 

Dulcamara, 3 x, diarrhoea caused from getting wet ; worse at night •; 
bilious stools. 

China, 1 x, painless, summer diarrhoea. 

Chamotnilla, 30, diarrhoea in children, accompanying teething. 

Arsenicum, 3 x, chronic diarrhoea ; red, burning tongue ; vomits — • 
even a small amount of water, in fact, everything taken into the stom- 

Ipecac, I X, diarrhoea and dysentery accompanied by much nausea. 

Veratrum Alb., i x, vomiting and diarrhoea attended with cold 
sweating ; cholera morbus ; cholera infantum. 

Avoid all animal food during an attack of diarrhoea. A little bran- 
dy may be added to milk with benefit. 

Dilation of the Heart. (142) — Digilalifie, 3 x, will strengthen 
a weak heart. 

Phosphorus, 3 x, valuable as a tonic, giving tone to the system. 

Diphtheria. (142) — Call your physician. Apis Mel., 3 x, in 
diphtheria with much swelling of the throat, internally, and a stinging 


Phytolacca Dec, i x, violent fever, with much stiffness of the neck, 
early in the disease. 

Mercurioiis Cor,, 3 x, much swelhng of the throat externally ; the 
membrane is very offensive. 

Kali Bichromicum, 3 x, croupous diphtheria, with tough, stringy 

In connection with the Kali Bich., 3 x, use a spray of a solution oj 
Chloride of Lime and hot water : one part of the solution to ten parts of 
hot water. Use a steam atomizer. 

Diphtheria is easily controlled by proper treatment, but exceedingly 
fatal when mismanaged. Feed the patient well on beef-steak, eggs, milk, 
etc. Stimulants and beef-tea of very little account. Never swab the 
throat, but use gargles of alcohol and water. 

Dizziness. (144) (Vertigo.) — Digitaline, 3 x, for dizziness 
caused by an enfeebled heart which has produced anema of the brain. 

China, i x, caused by loss of blood or severe diarrhoea. 

Many other remedies are indicated from special causes which can 
only be located by a physician. 

Dropsy. (145) — Arse?iicum, 3 x, a very useful remedy in dropsy 
with much debility ; red tongue and much thirst for cold water, but a 
small amount satisfies. 

Digitaline, 3 x, heart dropsy, more particularly, but useful in any 
kind, from whatever cause. 

Helleboriis Nig., 3 x, dropsy of the brain ; after scarlatina, etc. 
Skim-milk diet useful in dropsy from kidney disease. 

Dysentery. (147) — Aconite, i x, very feverish ; quick, wiry pulse 
at the commencement of the trouble ; if the discharges are principally of 
blood, alternate with Merc. Cor., 3 x, every half hour. 

Ipecac, I X, nausea and vomiting, with bloody, greenish stools ; it 
also quiets tenesmus. 

Arnica, 3 x, dysentery, attended by much urging to go to stool. 
Injections of very hot water, after each stool, will relieve. Avoid all an- 
imal food ; cold milk best article of diet. 

Dyspepsia (151) (Indigestion.) — Arsenicum, 3 x, caused by ice- 
cream ; burning in stomach ; red tongue ; thirst ; the least swallow of 
food or drink causes pain. 

Bryonia, 3 x, sense of pressure as from a hard lump in the stom- 
ach ; bitter taste with headache. 

Carbo Veg., 3 x, much gas in stomach. 


Hydrastis, i x, for pain coming in two or three hours after meals. 

Lactopeptine, five to ten grains after each meal, is useful to help the 
stomach until it regains its functions. Eat slowly, masticating the food 
thoroughly. Avoid such articles of food as are known to disagree. 

Ear-ache. (153) (Otalgia.) — Aconite, i x, from cold; patient 
very restless. 

Puis., 3 X, steady pain, but does not drire the patient about as 
Aconite does. 

Aconite, 4>, two or three drops on cotton, in the ear, very useful. 

Tobacco smoke, blown into the ear, will quiet the pain. 

Enlargement of the Uvala. (154) which is relaxed, Hyosca- 
mus, I X, every two hours. A tea of Gold-thread useful as a gargle. 

Epilepsy. (155) (FalHng Fits.) — ^To ward off an attack use 
Nitrate of Amyl, by inhalation. 

Bell., 3 X, holds a high place in chronic epilepsy of young and full 
blooded subjects. 

Ctipriim Acet., 30, violent convulsions ; pale face. 

Nux Vom., 3 X, useful as a tonic to the nervous system. 

Erysipelas. (158) — Aconite, i x, erysipelas of the face, with a 
quick, wiry pulse. 

Belladonna, 3 x, intense redness of the skin ; high fever ; smooth 
surface ; violent headache ; delirium. 

Rhus Tox, 3 X, vesicular, purplish colored skin. Powder with dry 
starch or flour. 

In the phlegmonous variety, call a physician. 

Exhaustion. (161) — If caused by hamorrhage, diarrhoea, etc., 
nothing is better than China, i x. If from non-assimilation of food, 
give Calc. Phos., 3 x. 

Arsenicum, 3 x, useful for indigestion, with burning of the stomach, 
also from the effects of typhoid fever. 

Phosphoric Acid, i x, nervous exhaustion from excesses. Beef-tea 
is useful ; use also milk. 

Eyes. (162) — For simple inflammation of the eyes, the white of 
the eye being red, give Bell., 3 x, every two hours. For hot, scalding, 
watery discharge from the eyes, Kali Hydroidicum, 3 x, A cinder or 
any foreign body in the eye should be early removed. Any trouble 
causing severe pain in the eye is serious, and an oculist or good surgeon 
should be consulted. 


Fainting. (162) (Syncope.) — Aconite, 30, the best remedy to 
prevent its frequent occurrence. Aqua Ammotiia or Spirits of Camphor, 
by inhalation, are restoratives ; also sprinkling water in the face. 

Prolapse of the Rectum. (163) — Nux Vom., 3 x, three times 
daily, will help it, also Podophylhitn, 3 x, in the same way. It is often nec- 
essary to wear an instrument for a time. Go to a surgeon. 

Felons. (164) — Belladonna, 3 x, for redness of the finger, with 
throbbing pains after suppuration has taken place. Hepar Siilph., 3 x, 
will hasten a cure. Have it opened, early ; by so doing you will save 
much suffering, and, possibly, the loss of a finger. 

Fevers, in general. (164) — Aconite, i x, give the remedy when 
you find a quick, firm, hard, wiry pulse. 

Baptisia Tinct., i x, give this for a quick, fine, soft, compressible 
pulse ; typhoid fever ; diarrhoea etc. 

Gflsetninum, i x, give for a full, bounding pulse, that is compres- 
sible and does not resist the finger. 

Veratrum Vir., i x, full, hard, incompressible pulse and resists the 

Fever and Ague. (165) (Intermittent or Malaria.) — China, 
Quinine, in recent ague, never in chronic cases, all the stages are well 
marked, the chill is usually in the morning from nine to ten. 

Arsenicum, 3 x, chronic ague ; one stage runs into another, often 
one stage is left out ; very thirsty ; rapid and excessive prostration ; 
dropsical swellings. 

Eupatorium Per/., i x, thirsty several hours before a chill and con- 
tinues through it ; short chilly stage ; long hot stage and slight sweating. 

Fhos. Acid, i x, very profuse sweat. 

Gels., I X, severe nervous symptoms. 

Natru7n Mur., 30, chronic ague. Arsenicum, 30, Ipecac, 3 x, Ce-- 
dron, 3 x, Sulph., 30, for dumb ague. 

Bilious or Remittent Fever. (167) — Gelseminum, i x, the 
leading remedy for remittent fever ; pain in the head on the left side. 

Bryonia, pain on the right side of the head, extending to its base ; 
yellow coated tongue ; sallow complexion ; constipation or alternate con- 
stipation and diarrhoea. 

Merc. Protoide, 3 x, jaundice during the fever. 

Phosphorus, 3 x, may be given if there is a cough at the same time 
of the jaundice. 

Simple Inflammatory Fever (167) rarely requires anything 
more than Aeon., 3 x. 


Slow or Nervous Fever. (i68) 

Bryonia, 3 x, yellow coating on tongue ; constipation ; pain in the 
right side of the head ; lips dry and cracked. 

Nitric Acid, 3 x, torpid, sluggish liver ; sallow complexion ; acid or 
bitter taste in the mouth, when the fever has continued thirty or thirty- 
five days without recovery. 

Hyoscaimis Nig., i x, for sleeplessness during nervous fever. Bathe 
the patient with a solution of Bicarbonate of Soda and hot water, once 

Typhus Fever. (169) (Ship Fever.) — See Typhoid Fever. 

Typhoid Fever. (171.) — Baptisia, i x, alternating with Gcl- 
sctnin2U}i, i x, will abort a Typhoid Fever, if given soon enough. 

Bry., 3 x, violent headache ; restless sleep ; tongue coated yellow, 
with dry, parched lips ; great thirst for large quantities of water. Shoidd 
not be used after diarrhoea sets in. 

Mercurius, 3 x. Tongue loaded with a thick, moist, creamy coat- 
ing ; painful sensibility of the whole abdomen ; bloody stools ; sweating 
without relief. 

Rhus Tox., 3 X. Temperature high ; tongue dry ; dark coating on 
tongue and teeth ; delirium ; headache ; nose bleed ; debility and pros- 
tration ; pulse weak and slow ; abdomen bloated ; frequent diarrhoea. 

Arseniaun, 3 x, hot, dry skin ; thirst ; red tongue ; yellow diarrhoea ; 
great prostration ; face pale and shrunken ; falling of the lower jaw ; bed 
sores ; picking at the bed clothes ; distended abdomen ; will restore a pa- 
tient, oft times, when considered beyond help. 

Muriatic Acid, i x, extreme prostration ; patient stupid and uncon- 
scious ; sliding down in bed ; low, muttering delirium ; inability to pro- 
trude the tongue ; depression of the lower jaw ; turning up of the eyes ; 
involuntary stool and urine, 

Ilyoscajnus, i x, violent headache ; delirium ; wild, and tries to mi- 
cover himself and get out of bed. 

Give all the milk the patient can drink. Beef-tea is admissable un- 
less there be diarrhoea. No solid food can be allowed. Raw oysters 
may be taken, also ice-cream. 

Yellow Fever. (171) — Camplipr </>, violent chills, with prostra- 

Aeon., I x, fever, burning heat, with quick, wiry jjuIsc ; restlessness 
and great anxiety. 


Bell., 3 X, congestion of the brain ; throbbing of the blood vessels 
in the neck ; red face ; red eyes, which are sparkhng ; dehrium ; pain in 
the stomach, with nausea and vomiting. 

Bryonia, 3 x, spHtting headache ; eyes red ; tongue coated yellow ; 
parched lips ; great irritability and vomiting. 

Arg€7itu7n Nit., 4 x, dark colored vomiting, caused by hamorrhage 
from the mucous membranes of the stomach. 

Arsenicum, 3 x, face yellowish and livid ; eyes dull and sunken ; 
lips and tongue bro\vn or black ; burning pain in the stomach ; suppres- 
sion of urine ; short, anxious breathing ; pulse small and tremulous ; 
cold, clammy perspiration ; great prostration and black vomiting. 

Hyoscamus, i x, Veratrtiyti Alb., i x, Crotalus, 30, Canthari- 
des, 3 X, and Ipecac, i x, may also be called for. 

The diet should consist of milk, beef-tea etc., as in typhoid fever. 
Isolate the patient, and use disinfectants freely. 

Fistula, Rectal. (172) — Go to a good surgeon. Silicea, 30, 
and Hcpar Sulph., 3 x, will assist in the healing. 

Foetid Breath. (172) — Salicylic Acid, 3 x, a powder, three 
times daily, will correct it, when the stomach is at fault. Decayed 
teeth should be filled or removed. 

Gall Stones. (173) — ^AVhere a person is kno^^'Tl to suffer from 
these concretions, give six tablespoonfuls of Olive Oil, at bed-time, re- 
peated in t\vo days, at the same time give China, 6 x, a dose three 
times daily, and it will rarely fail to cure. An anaesthetic will give the 
only relief while they are passing through the gall duct. 

Gangrene, Mortification. (174) — Remove it when possible by 
amputation, if it be of a limb, from injury. A superficial slough can be 
treated by a flax-seed meal poultice, to which add charcoal. A poultice 
made from crushed, boiled carrots, is also a good one. 

Internally, give Arsenicum, 3 x, every two hours, if there is much 
burning about the slough. 

Secale, 3 x, for dry gangrene of the toes. A weak solution of Car- 
bolic Acid, ten drops to one pint of hot water, should be used as a wash. 

Glandula Swellings. (175) — ^^Vhcn as a result of diphtheria, 
put on salt pork, and give Merc. Protoidc, 3 x, internally. When from 
a cold, Ilepar Sulph., 3 x, is generally the remedy. If from scrofula, 
Calc. Phos. 3 X, and Calc. Iodide, 3 x, are the best remedies. 

Gonorrhoea. (175) — Bell., 3 x, if there is much swelling of the 
parts, and at the same time use it by injection. Later on when the dis- 


charge is thick and creamy, give Canabis Sativa, 3 x, every three hours 
and use a solution of Calendula and water one tenth. 

Sulphur, cc, may be needed to cure the case. 

Camphor is very useful for painful night erections. 

Cantharis, 3 x, if the bladder becomes involved. 

Avoid highly spiced food, liquors and cigars. 

Gout. (182) — The leading remedy is Colchicum, i x, five drops 
every three hours ; avoid highly seasoned and animal food, liquors of all 

Gum Boil. (183) — Bell., i x, will often remove the inflamma- 
tion that leads to a gum boil. 

Merc. Viv., 3 x, when caused by a decayed tooth. 

Open as soon as pus forms. 

Falling off of the Hair. (183) — Silicea, 30, will stop the hair 
from falling off after a severe sickness, which has caused debility. At 
the same time a wash of Bay Rum and water, two ounces of each and 
Aqua Ammonia, one drachm, will be found useful. 

Hay Fever. (184) (Asthma.) — Arsenicum, 30, is the chief rem- 
edy. Sanguinaria Nitrate, 3 x, will often help when there is severe 
sneezing and a watery condition of the eyes. 

Headache. (184) — Bilious or sick headache will call for Iris 
Vers., 3 X, or Coculus, 30, at the time of the pain, taking China, 30, or 
Nux Vom., 3 X, twice a day at other times. Congestive headache re- 
quires Bell., 3 X, if without vomiting ; if with vomiting, Veratrum Vir., 
I X, at the time. During the interval, taking Sanguinaria, 30, or Pulsa- 
tilla, 30. 

Rheumatic Headache (187) calls for Bry., 3 x, if worse by 
moving about and better at rest, but if better moving about and worse 
at rest, Rhus Tox., 3 x. 

Salicine, five grains every two hours, may be given with one of the 
other remedies. 

Periodic Headache (187) (Malarial.) may require Quinine to 
break it up : one dose of five, ten or fifteen grains, the night before an 
expected attack, followed by Ars., 30, once daily for a month or so. 
At the time of pain no remedy can equal Gelseminum, i x. 

Headache from a diseased condition of the brain will require Zinc 
Phos., 3 X, and sedatives prescribed by a physician. 

Headache of young persons of sedentary habits, free indulgers at 
the table, can be promptly helped by Nux Vom., 3 x, one dose daily, at 
bed time. Nearly all forms arc ( nrnblL' by liunKeopalhic treatment. 


Diseases of the Heart. (187) — Inflammatory diseases require 
Aeon., I X, for fever ; quick wiry pulse ; pain and anguish, and with this 
may be alternated Bry., 3 x, if caused by rheumatic poison. 

Arsenicum, 30, burning pain, with effusion in the sack ; suffocative 
attacks ; coldness of the surface ; anxious and fears death. 

Cactus, 2 X, a feehng in the heart as though grasped by an iron 

Veratrum Vtr., i x, strong, loud beat of the heart, with difficult 
breathing ; bronchitis. 

For Palpitation. (188) — Mochus, 3 x, to quiet an attack. 

Agaricus, 3 x, if due from excessive use of tobacco. 

China, 3 x, if from tea drinking. 

Neuralgia of the Heart. (188) (Augina Pectoris.) — Inhalation 
of Amyl Nitrate, to stop the spasm, Arsenicum, 3 x, three times a day. 

Hiccough. (189) (Spasm of the Diaphragm.) — A few drops of 
vinegar on sugar will generally control it. Mochus, 3 x, is the homoeo- 
pathic remedy. If occurring during the course of a severe illness, a 
tight bandage across the chest oftentimes prevents its reappearance. 

Hip Joint Disease. (189) (Coxalgia.) — Bell, 3 x, when there 
is soreness about the joint discovered by pressure. 

Calc. Carb., 30, twice daily ; should be given steadily to correct the 
strumous condition. 

Calc. lod., 3 X, and Calc. Phos., 3 x, for the same condition. 

If from an injury, Arnica, 3 x, may be the most useful remedy. 
The joint should be placed at rest by patent splints, and the child placed 
under the care of a reputable surgeon. 

Hoarseness. (190) — Causticum, 30, from singing and over-use 
of the voice. 

Spongia, 3 x, or Kali Bich., 3 x, when caused by croup. 

Phos., 30, from the effects of a cold, always worse in the evening. 

Hydrophobia. (190) (Rabies.) — The paroxysms must be con- 
trolled by anaesthetics, the patient placed in a straight jacket, so that he 
cannot injure himself or others. Medication has little effect. 

Hypochondria. (191) (See Hysteria.) — Nux Vom., 3 x, the 
most useful remedy. 

Incontinence of Urine. (193) — Cina, 30, if the child is 
troubled with worms. 


Eqnisetum Hyetnale, i x, where the child has been in the habit of 
wetting the bed every night. Give a small amount of liquid food to the 
child at supper time. 

Digitaline, 3 x, is often useful in old people. 

Inflammation of the Liver. (194) — Aeon., i x, pain in the 
reigon of the liver, with high fever ; quick, wiry pulse ; restlessness. 

Bryonia, 3 x, pain in the liver, worse upon movement j nausea and 
vomiting ; yellow coating on tongue. 

China, 6 x, one of the most frequent remedies called for in con- 
gestion of the liver. 

Podophyllum, i x, chronic diarrhoea, worse in the morning, caused 
by an inactive liver. 

Mej-c. Prof., 3 x, jaundice ; yellow coated tongue ; nausea, and often 

Phosphorus, 3 x, loathing of food, which, if swallowed, creates dis- 
turbances and is vomited after a few minutes. 

Inflammation of the Spleen. (195) — Quinine, i x, is the 
only remedy usually called for. 

Inflammation of the Stomach. (195) (Gastritis.) — Arseni- 
cum, 3 X or 30, inflammation of the mucous membrane of the stomach, 
known by violently red tongue ; burning pain in the stomach, and vom- 
iting as quickly as any food enters the stomach. 

Argentum Nit., 3 x, inflammation of the stomach, caused by ulcer 
of the stomach. Much gas in the stomach, with violent pain after eat- 
ing. The diet should be of the simplest ; milk, or milk and lime water. 

Inflammation of the Kidneys. (195) — Aeon., i x, feverish; 
quick, wiry pulse ; restlessness. Turpentine, 1 x, high colored urine, 
scanty, sometimes bloody. Pain over reigon of the kidney. 

Aeonite, i x, alternating with Turpentine, i x, are generally all that 
are called for in acute inflammation of the kidneys. 

Inflammation of the Bladder. (196) (Cystitis.) — Aeonite, 
I x, acute pain, with fever, alternating with Cantharides, 3 x, which has 
constant or frequent desire to urinate, followed by severe pain. 

Apis Mel., 3 x, stinging pain, when passing water, in the bladder. 
If tlie inflammation is caused by Spanish-fly blister, with severe strangery, 
give Camphor (j), ten drops, every quarter hour, until better. Hot ap- 
plications over the lower part of the abdomen should be made. 

Inflammation of the Peritoneum. (197) (Peritonitis.) — A 
very dangerous disease ; call your physician early. 


Aconite, i x, from cold febrile symptoms with quick, firm pulse. 
Veratrum Vir., i x, full, hard, bounding pulse ; vomiting and often 

Belladonna, 3 x, sharp, cutting pains in the bowels, which come 
quickly, and dissappear as rapidly as they come. 

Bry,, 3 X, second stage, exudation ; pain in the bowels, aggravated 
from motion ; tongue coated and dry ; great thirst. 

Colocynth, 2 x, severe, griping pain in the bowels. Ars., 3 x, sud- 
den sinking and prostration ; restlessness ; great thirst ; tongue red. 
Keep the patient at rest, and use hot fomentations over the bowels. 

For intense thirst and vomiting, small bits of ice are useful. 

Inflammation of the Eye. (198) (Opthalmia.) — Aeon., i x, 
from cold ; feverishness. 

Bell., 3 X, acute redness of the conjunctiva or white of the eye. 
Keep hot compress on the eye, to which may be added Bell. ^, ten 
drops to a teacupful of hot water ; compress to be wet in this solution. 
Use no eye washes. If not better in a few days, call your physician, 
for if the deeper tissues are affected, you cannot diagnose it. 

Inflammation of the Larynx. (199) (Laryngitis.) — Aconite, 
I X, for fever with croupy cough ; restlessness. 

Kali Bieh., 3 x, if the Aconite does not succeed, this remedy gen- 
erally will. Its use will be needed if there is an expectoration of stringy 
mucous. This is the remedy, par excellence, for membranous croup. 

Spongia, i x, may be given alternately with Aconite at first. 

Hepar Sulph., 3 x, a powder every four hours, very useful when the 
violence of the attack has subsided, leaving a rough, hoarse cough. 

Tracheotomy may be called for where there is fear of suffocation ; 
but when homoeopathic remedies are given this is rarely essential. 
The steam atomizer may be called for also. 

Inflammation of the Tonsils. (199) (Tonsilitis, Quinsy.) 
Bell., I X, the first remedy thought of in quinsy. It may be followed by 
Merc. Frot., 3 x, if the inflammation does not subside in forty-eight 
hours. Should the tonsil suppurate, give Hepar Sulph., 3 x. Gargle 
the throat with hot water frequently. 

Inflammation of the Ear. (200) (Otitis.) — Aeon., i x, fever 
caused by cold. Puis., 3 x, alternately with the Aeon. 

Hepar Sulph., 3 x, should an abscess develop. 

Inflammation of the Tongue. (201) (Glossitis.) — Bell, i x. 
painful swelling of the tongue. 


This should be followed in forty-eight hours by Merc. Viv., 3 x, if 
not better. 

Inflamed or Ulcerated Nose. (201) — Kali Hyd., 3 x, the 
only remedy usually called for. 

Inflammatory Blush. (201) (Erythema.) — BeiL, 3 x, all the 
remedy required generally. 

Itch. (203) (Scabies.) — Sulphur Oinhnent, externally, use a 
week, every night on going to bed, at the same time take Sulphur, cc, 

Irritation of the Skin, Itching. (203) (Prurigo.) — It may 
call for a variety of remedies. Hhus Tox., if it is a burning itching, 
worse in bed. 

Urtica Urens, 3 x, stinging, burning itching, which comes and 
goes frequently ; nettle rash. 

Arseniaim, 3 x, chronic itching of the skin, which is scabby and 
dry. See a physician. 

Influenza. (204) — Aconite, i x, alternating with Eupatorium 
Perfolatum, 3 x, for lameness and stiffness of all the muscles, joints, etc. 

Bry., 3 X, will be called for later, where there is pain in the head ; 
dry cough and pain in the chest. 

Bell., 3 X, violent headache ; red face ; sore throat ; redness of the 
eyes, etc. 

Insanity. (205) — A terrible disease, and you cannot trifle with it. 

Hyoscamus, i x, should be given frequently, until a physician is 
called. About fifty per cent, of cases are cured under homoeopathic 
treatment. Bell., 3 x, Stramonium, 3 x, Cannabis Indica, 3 x, Cimici- 
fuga, 3 X, and many others may be called for. 

Irritation of the Spine. (207) — Unless the result of an injury, 
is generally complicated by some uterine disorder. 

Gels., I X, very useful where the patient is extremely nervous and 
sleepless ; full pulse. 

Nux Vom., 3 X, stiffness and rigidity of the spine ; indigestion ; 
constipation ; pain in the back of the head and neck. Dry cupping and 
wet compresses to the spine are often most useful. Go to your physic- 
ian and find the cause, and treat it from that point. 

Irritation of the Bladder. (207) — Most frequent in women 
who have uterine displacements, and congestion of the neck of the 
womb. This should be corrected before any remedy will help, then give 
Canth., 3 X, for frequent calls to urinate. 


Sepia, 30, pain after urinating, with uterine congestion. Hot vagi- 
nal injections very good. 

Jaundice. (207) — Aconite, i x, feverish and restless. 

Bry., 3 X, congestion of the liver ; yellow, thick coated tongue ; 
thirst and headache. 

China, 6 x, result of gall stones, or a thickened condition of the 
bile ; obstruction of the gall duct, very useful in malarious climates. 

Phos., 3 X, indigestion ; vomiting of food about ten minutes after it 
is taken. 

Merc, 3 X, and Pod., i x, may be called for later, if the trouble 
does not respond to the other remedies. Jaundice is generally caused 
by some organic disease of the liver. 

Lice. (208) — Apply oil of Bergamont to the scalp. 

Lrumbago. (209) — Rhus Tox., 3 x, if from getting wet or a 

Galvanism is very successful and should be used where the disease 
persists any length of time, and applied by an educated physician, and 
not by the usual "electric doctor." 

Lock-jaw. (210) (Tetanus.) — ^The result generally of an injury 
to a nerve. The wound should be opened, and if the nerve can be 
found it should be divided. 

Gels., (f) and Veratrum Vir., </>, sixty drops of each added to two 
glasses each half full of water, and giving a teaspoonful every quarter 
hour, has relaxed the muscles and cured many cases. The disease is 
fatal in a large per cent, of cases. 

Masturbation. (211) (Onanism.) — A moral lecture often the 
best remedy. Allow some judicious and proper person to sleep with the 

Bromide of Camphor, i x, said to overcome the desire. 

Phosphoric Acid, i x, used to overcome the ill effects. 

Mumps. (214) (Parotitis.) — Aeon., i x, Puis., 3 x and Merc, 
3 X, are the remedies. 

Avoid taking cold and other remedies will not be needed. 

Nausea. (214) — Ipecac, i x, is generally all the remedy needed. 
Violent nausea and vomiting, when not controllable by ipecac, may find 
a remedy in Antimony Tart., 3 x. 

Neuralgia. (215) — Aeon., i x, from cold, with fever, in teeth 
and face. 


Bell., 3 X, pain in the teeth and face, more particularly on the right 
side ; red, flushed face. 

Colocynth, 2 x, severe pain on left side of face. 

Ars., 3 X, pain as of hot needles piercing through the skin ; cases 
of a chronic nature. 

Cheledonium Maj., 3 x, pain in right shoulder and side. 

Phos., 3 X, severe, long- continued neuralgia of any part of the body. 
The application of heat is very beneficial. 

Galvanism will often hasten the cure of the remedies. 

Neuralgia of the Heart. (217) (Angina Pectoris.) — Amyl 
Nitrate, by inhalation at time of attack. 

Ars., 3 X, a very useful remedy to prevent the recurrence of an at- 
tack. Smoking should be stopped by those who suffer from the disease. 

Night-Mare. (217) — A dose of Nux Vom., 3 x, at bed-time 
will usually overcome the trouble. 

Nocturnal Emissions. (218) Gels., i x, will generally over- 
come the nervous depression accompanying this trouble. 

Nux Vom., I X, three times daily as a nerve tonic. 

Camphor Bromide, i x, at bed-time, to prevent the dreams leading 
to such a result. The organs should be bathed with cold water at bed- 
time, nightly. 

Noises in the Ear. (218) (Tinnitus Aurium.) — One of the 
best remedies is Puis., 3 x, for this trouble. 

China, i x, for noises in the ear as a result of losing a large 
amount of blood. Ear wax should be removed by putting a few drops 
of glycerine in the ear at night, for two or three times. 

Offensive Breath. (219) — Salycilic Aeid, 3 x, after each meal, 
is the best corrective known. 

Pains in the Side, (219) relieved hy Aeon., i y.,-AXi^ Bryonia, ^y.. 

Palpitation of the Heart. (219) — Aeon., 3 x, when the result 
of fright ; severe and prolonged anxiety. 

Cactus Gratid., 3 x, when due from fatty heart. 

Coffea, 3 X, nervous palpitation. 

Mochus, 3 X, severe and acute attacks. 

Palsy. (220) (Paralysis.) — When acute, following an attack of 
apoplexy, Arnica, 3 x, will hasten the absorption of the blood in the 

Nux Vom., 3 x, and Gels., i x, will restore the nerve stimulus to 
the affected muscles in many cases. Faradization is very useftil. 


Paralysis, Agitans. (220) (Shaking Palsy.) — Should be treated 
by a physician, as well as Paraplegia, (paralysis of the lower extrem- 
ities) , as they are generally caused by some deep seated disease of the 
nerve centers. 

Papulous Scale. (223) (Eczema.) — The remedies most gener- 
ally used are Croton Tig., 30, for ulcerating skin. 

Rhus Tox., 3 X, severe itching, with thickened, red skin. 

Canth., 3 X, vesicular (watery) blisters on the skin. 

Graph., 30, dry, cracked skin. 

Ars., 3 X, old, chronic cases ; dry, fish scaly skin. 

Sulphur, cc, will benefit cases which have become chronic and do 
not respond to the other remedies. Ointments generally aggravate the 

Piles. (223) (Haemorrhoids.) — ALsculus Hip., 3 x, pain in the 
back ; constipation and piles. 

Collinsonia, i x, very useful for piles that protrude, with constipa- 

Hamamelis, i x, bleeding piles, both internal and external. 

Nux Vom., 3 X, and Sulphur, 30, have cured many cases, in alter- 
nation, Sulph. in the morning and Nux. at night. Suppositories made 
from the above remedies are also very useful. 

Pleurisy. (224) (Pleuritis.) — Aconite, i x, and Bry., 3 x, alter- 
nately. Aeon., I x, during the first two or three days, with fever, fol- 
lowed by Bry., 3 x, for four or five days, and later, Sulphur, cc, to fin- 
ish up the case. Hot poultices should be applied to the chest. 

Purulent Opthalmia. (225) — Merc. Sol., 3 x, and Sulph., cc, 
will be all the remedies needed, generally. An eye wash of Nitrate oj 
Silver, one-half grain to the ounce of water, should be used twice daily, 
until better. 

A towel used by a person suffering from this disease should not be 
used by others, as the disease is infectious. 

Quinsy. (226) — (See Tonsilitis.) 

Prickly Heat. (227) (Nettle Rash.) — (Sec Urticaria.) 

Polypus of the Ear, (227) Nose, \Vomb, Etc. — All should 
be removed by a surgical operation. Teucrium, i x, and Sanguinaria 
Nit., 3 x, are the homoeopathic remedies. 

Rheumatism. (228) — Aconite, i x, characteristic fever, caused 
by cold ; pain and restlessness. 

Bry., 3 X, swelling of the joints, which are very painful and worse 
from moving about. 


Merc. Viv., 3 x, obstinate inflammation of single joints, .worse at 
night ; deep pain, as if it were in the bones ; profuse perspiration, but 
not relieved by it. 

Puis., 3 X, sub-acute cases with little fever ; pains shift rapidly from 
one joint to another. 

Rhus Tox., fever ; parts red and swollen ; pains drawing, tearing, 
burning, feels worse when at rest and better from continued motion. 
Worse damp or wet weather. 

Wrapping the swollen joints with cotton batting relieves the pain 
very much. A solution of Bicarbonate of Soda and hot water, for bath- 
ing, is also useful. 

Ring-'Worm. (230) (Herpes Circinatis.) — Sepia, 30, one dose 
daily, for a week, will cure. Cantharidcs (f>, locally, also will cure. 

Nettle Rash. (231) — (See Urticaria.) 

Scarlet Fever or Scarlatina. (232) — Simple scarlet fever 
should be treated by Aeon., i x, if there be much fever, with wiry pulse ; 
restlessness, etc. 

Bel/., 3 x, is almost a specific for this form. It has red face ; sore 
throat ; slight delirium. 

Rhus Tox., 3 X, much itching of the skin in connection with the 
symptoms under Aeon, and Bell. 

Scarlatina Anginosa. (233) — Apis. Mel., 3 x, great swelling of 
the throat, so much so that the blood cannot flow properly to and from 
the brain, which causes a comatose condition. 

Merc. lod., 3 x, great sweUing of the glands about the throat ex- 
ternally ; ulceration of the throat. 

Scarlatina Maligna. (234) — Ailanthus, i x, very malignant 
cases, violent vomiting ; severe headache ; dark, red face ; rapid, small 
pulse ; high temperature ; muttering delirium ; dark, livid, miliary rash. 

Cuprum Acet., 30, sudden retrocession of eruption, followed by 
vomiting ; convulsions ; rolling of eyes ; distortion of face ; stupor and 
delirium ; brain severely affected. 

Muriatic Acid., i x, severe ulceration of the throat. 

For Nephritis and Dropsy, following scarlet fever, Ars., 3 x, Ascle- 
pius Syrica, 3 x, Apis Mel., 3 x, and Terebinth., i x, are the remedies. 

Give all other children in the house Bell., 3 x, who have been ex- 
posed to the disease. The diet should be principally milk. All acids 
should be excluded. Keep a careful watch of the patient for a month or 
more and the child should not be allowed to return to school for, at least, 
six weeks. 


Sciatica. (236) — Aeon., 1 x, fever, with restlessness, caused by 
a cold, 

Bry., 3 X, pain is increased or brought on by movement. 

Cimicifuga, i x, drawing, tearing pain over the course of the sciatic 

Rhus Tox., 3 X, pain is better from warmth and worse during 
stormy and wet weather, better from shifting one's position. 

Bry. and Rhus, are the chief remedies. 

Galvanism should be resorted to if the trouble does not yield read- 
ily to medicine. 

Scrofula. (236) (King's Evil.) — Calc. Card., 30, Cak. lod., 3 x, 
Iodine, 3 x. Kali Hydroid., 3 x. Sulphur, cc. 

Calc. Card., 30, for fair skinned, plump, waxy children ; teeth de- 
layed ; swollen glands ; discharges from eyes, ears, nose, etc. 

Calc. Iodide, 3 x, same as Calc. Carb., when the latter does not 

Iodine, 3 x, glandula enlargements, with wasting of the muscular 
tissue. Child is very thin in flesh. Mcseutiric glands enlarged. 

KaR Hydroid., i x, little nodules under the skin ; lymphatic system 
involved deeply ; disease of the bones, etc. 

Cod-liver oil is often useful in those cases that are especially emaci- 
ated, and who do not seem to assimilate food, yet plenty is taken ; it 
should not be taken if fever is present. 

Scurvy. (239) — Citric Acid, i x, or lemon juice, the best rem- 

Kali Bich., 3 x, salivation with sore gums and haemmorrhage under 
the skin. 

Acid Sulphuric, dilute, five drops every three hours, for hosmmor- 
rhage from mouth, stomach or bowels. The diet should consist of fresh 
meat, vegetables and milk. 

Sea-Sickness. (240) — Cocculus, 30, the great remedy for sea- 
sickness, either from vessel sailing, car or carriage riding. 

Small Pox. (240) (Variola.) — Bell., 3 x, high fever; severe lo- 
cal symptoms ; throbbing of the blood-vessels about the neck and face ; 
red eyes ; sore throat ; severe pain in back ; starting and jumping in 
sleep ; delirium. 

Antimonium Tart, one of the most useful remedies, keeping sup- 
puration from being too severe, corrects disarrangements of the stomach 
and bronchial and lung symptoms. 


Merc. ViV; 3 x, suppurative fever ; moist, swollen tongue ; ulcerated 
throat ; foetid breath ; profuse flow of saliva. Many other remedies are 
used, under the guidance of a physician, such as Baptisia, Verat. Vir., 
Bryonia, Phosphorus, Hepar Sulph., Stramoniutn, Ca?nphora, Su/- 
phiir, etc. 

Allow a liberal liquid diet, and feed as often as every three hours. 
Keep the pustules covered with cosmoline. 

Sore Mouth. (245) (Aphtha.) — Ars., 3 x, and Merc, 3 x, are 
the remedies, internally. Use a wash of Golden Seal, fluid extract, one 
part to ten of water. 

Sore Tongue. (246) — (See Sore Mouth.) 

Diseases of the Spinal Cord. (246) — Seek professional ad- 
vice at once. 

Aeon., I X, for the fever and anxiety. 

Gels., I X, patient is very nervous with convulsions. 

Cicitta Virosa, 6 x, violent convulsions from irritability of the spi- 
nal cord. 

Stiff Neck. (247) — If caused from sitting in a draft, give Aeon., 

I X. 

Rhus Tox., 3 X, from getting wet. 

Lachnanthus, 3 x, stiff neck, following diphtheria. Faradization 
will promptly relieve. 

Sore Throat. (247) — (See Diphtheria.) 

Tonsilitis. (199) — (See Quinsy.) 

Ulcerated Sore Throat. (257) — Aeon., i x, or Bell., 3X, sim- 
ple sore throat from cold. 

Mere., 3 x, and, Ka/i Bieh., 3 x, for inflammation of the follicles of 
the throat, commonly, but very improperly called "diphtheretic sore 

Stitch in the Side. (248) — Aeon., i x, effects of a cold; 
rheumatism of the muscles of the chest. 

Bry., 3 x, dry cough, with stitches in the chest. 

St. Vitus' Dance. (248) (Chorea.) — ^The leading remedies are 
Ignatia, 30, Cimicifuga, 3 x, Arsenieum, 3 x, Ferrum, i x, Cuprum, 
30, Zine, 30. If the result of a fright, give Ignatia, 30 : if from debili- 
ty, Ferrum : if from rheumatism, Cimieif., 3 x : if from brain and spinal 
lesions, Cuprum, 30, and Zinc, 30. 

Galvanism should be used at the same time. 

Styes. (Hordcolem.) — Puis., 3 x, will generally stop them. A 
course of Sulphur, cc, will prevent a recurrence. 


Squinting. (251) — If from brain irritation, Cimic, 3 x, and 
Zinc, 30, will benefit. From contracted muscle, a surgical operation. 

Suppression of Urine. (251) — Apply hot applications over 
the region of the kidneys, and give Aeon., i x, ahd Terebiti., 3 x, alter- 

The hot pack will be useful also. 

Syphilis. (252) — Put yourself under an able surgeon's care. 
The remedies are Nitric Acid, 3 x, Merc, 3 x, Kali lod., i x, Stillingia, 
I X, Thuja Oc, I X. Medicine should be continued from one to two 

Tetter. (255) — (See Urticaria.) 

Toothache. (256) — Aeon., i x, when from cold. 

Beli., I X, with red, flushed face, and pressure of blood to the 

Merc, 3 X, tendency of the tooth root to ulcerate. 

Ulceration of the Bones. (257) — Silicea, 3 x, suppuration 
following an injury, also Calc Fhos., 3 x. When the ulceration is the 
result of syphilis, give Ka/i lod., i x, or Nitric Acid. Dead bone 
should be removed, and the diseased part washed out with a solution of 
Calendula, one part to eight of hot water. A surgeon should have the 
care of the case. 

Ulcers of the Leg. Ars., 3 x, burning pain in the ulcer; low 
state of the blood. 

Silicea, 30, deep, excavating ulceration ; varicose veins. Use a 
wash of Calendula, one part to ten of water, and bandage with rubber. 
After they have healed, wear an elastic stocking. 

Vomiting. (260) — Ipecac, i x, nausea and vomiting; yellow 
coated tongue. 

Arsenicum, 30, red tongue ; everything is vomited as soon as taken ; 
burning pain in stomach ; thirst. 

Antinwny Tart., 6 x, vomiting, caused by irritation at the base of 
the brain. 

Verat. Alb., vomiting, attending diarrhoea. Small pieces of ice held 
in the mouth or swallowed, will often arrest vomiting. A mustard paste 
over the stomach will help. 

\Varts. (261) — Thuja Oc, 3 x, internally, and ^ locally. 

Wasting. (262) (Emaciation, Atrophy.) — Calc. lod., 3 x, where 
the trouble is with the lymphatic system ; scrofulous. 

Calc. Fhos., 3 X, children with large heads, where the bones have 
not properly closed. 


Iodine, 3 x, one of the best remedies in Atrophy. Cod-Hver oil, 
when without fever, the system does not seem to appropriate food taken. 

Water Brash. (262) — Nux Vom., 3 x, will generally remove 
the troublesome symptom. 

Watery Eyes. (263) — After opening the lacrymal ducts, give 
Silicta, 30, twice daily. 

White Swelling. (263) — Give the remedies recommended un 
der Scrofula. An elastic knee cap will help to remove the effusion. 

Running of the Ear. (264) — Apply to a surgeon. 

Merc, 3 X, and Hepar Sulph., 3 x, internally. 

\Vax in the Ear. (264) — A few drops of glycerine dropped 
into the ear for a few nights will soften the wax. Give Stavisagria, 30, 
once daily. 

Worms. (265) — Cina, 30, will remove symptoms occasioned by 

Artemisa Vulgaris, 1 x, convulsive and nervous irritation caused by 

The Diseases Peculiar to Women. (266) — Many of the dis- 
eases peculiar to the sex, are not known until after they have become moth- 
ers. From this, then you will infer, arises many of the ills to which par- 
turient woman is subject. Why should they arise at this time, as child- 
birth, is "a purely physiological process?" In its normal and natural 
condition it is, but too often, that the processes of nature are interfered 
with by wearing corsets, lack of exercise, nerve tire, stimulants, etc. 
These artificial means help to produce a complicated labor, and from 
that we may have ruptures, that in the future (unless repaired by the 
surgeon) will be sure to entail a life-long misery. Too often women 
keep such troubles to themselves, instead of going to a physician and 
seeking his aid. A physician who has had special training in this de- 
partment should be sought, for too often the general practitioners cannot 
make a diagnosis of these cases, and their treatment will be ineffective, 
while the specialist, from special training, rarely fails to find the cause of 
trouble and applies the proper remedy. 

When a woman feels that she is growing more discontented with life, 
that it is a burden, and she is very nervous and irritable, she should con- 
sult her physician, and nine times out of ten the whole trouble will be 
with the womb. It is not necessary that she should have pain in the 
womb or the pelvis, for she rarely will at this point. Nervous headaches, 
sick headaches, neuralgia, etc., as a rule, have their exciting cause in the 


Ruptures of the neck of the womb, during child-birth, and of the 
perineum, are the most frequent causes of ulceration and displacements 
of the womb. The specialist, to-day, is able to cure these cases perma- 
nently, and that without caustics, which too often increase the nervous 
symptoms without giving relief. Do not hesitate to seek the physician, 
and insist upon it that he fully understands your case. He can only be 
versant with it through an examination. What would you think of a 
physician who would treat your throat without looking at it ; do you 
think he would be able to diagnose a case of diphtheria from inflamma- 
tion of the follicles ? No, he could not ; and while one is a very fatal 
disease, the other never is. Shun the physician who will go on, week in 
and week out, without examining your case properly, unless you are sat- 
isfied his prescriptions are having the desired effect. In unmarried 
ladies this is not always necessary, or even in the married, but if the 
case progresses without benefit, a local examination becomes necessary, 
and when such seems justified, do not hesitate to have it done, for many 
a malignant disease could be cured in the beginning, that later becomes 
rooted and cannot be removed. Ladies, beUeve this, and teach it to 
your daughters. Menstruation should be free from pain, and occur 
every twenty-eight days ; any deviation from this is abnormal. 

Delayed Menstruation. (269) — If caused by a cold or wet- 
ting the feet at a previous period, give Aeon., i x, particularly if the pa- 
tient is feverish and has congestion of the head, also in young girls who 
are away from home, at school, etc. 

Fuls., 3 X, will generally restore the menses or bring them on when 

Sanguifiaria, 3 x, when delayed menses are accompanied by a 
cough, neuralgia of the head, bleeding from the nose and cramp in the 
stomach, etc. 

Senecin, 3 x, cough with suppression of the menses. 

Obstructed Menses. (270) — May be malformation and need 
the care of a surgeon. When caused by congestion, Bell., 3 x, is the 
proper remedy. Hot vaginal injections, containing a few drops of Fluid 
Extract of Belladonna, may also be used. 

Painful Menstruation. (271) (Dysmenorrhoea.) — A very com- 
mon trouble in flexions of the womb and disease of itself or its appen- 
dages. If acute and caused by a cold, Aeon., 3 x, will be the remedy. 
Puis., 30, will be found to be an admirable remedy at the time of the 
pain, when ovarian. 


Thuja Oc, I X, once a day during the intervals ; congestion of the 
ovaries ; a flexion should be overcome ; a narrow canal should be en- 

Profuse Menstruation. (2 7 2) (Menorrhagia.) — Calc.Carb.,y>, 
the remedy most useful in the large majority of cases. Never take iron 
in such cases. If the above does not help, go to a physician for exami- 
nation. One of the most frequent symptoms oi polypus, fibroid tumors, 
granular degeneration of the mucous membrane of the womb, and even 
cancer, is the profuse menses. When the flow continues all the time, 
and stops for a day or two and again returns, (Metorrgia.) depend upon 
it, your case needs the attendance of a specially trained physician. 

Cessation of Menses. (272) — At this time women are subject 
to "hot flashes." {Lachesis, 30.) profuse menses from granular trouble 
of the mucous membrane and other troubles. At this time woman 
needs the care of an able physician, and should consult him frequently, 
if everything is not perfectly normal. 

Falling of the Womb. (275) — A result of either a ruptured 
perenium or an increased weight from above, (tumors, enlargement, 
etc.) The treatment is principally mechanical and surgical. 

Lillium Lig., 30, much used in these troubles. 

Inflammation of the Ovaries. (276) (Ovaritis.) — Aeon., i x, 
and Fu/s., 3 x, alternately. Hot apiDlicatir ns externally, and very hot 
vaginal injections. 

Apis Mel., 3 X, if the pain is stinging, worse on the right side. 
Clematis, 30, a deathlike, sickening pain. Lach., 30, left sided pain. 

Inflammation of the Womb. (276) — A doubtful process, 
except in the parturient state ; congestion frequent. 

Aeon., I X, Gels., i x, and Bell., 3 x. Use hot vaginal injections 
freely, medicated with Bell. ^. 

Ulceration of the Womb. (276) — The result, generally, of a 
rupture and should be repaired. Use hot vaginal injections of Calendu- 
la, one part to ten of water. Golden Seal in the place of Calendula is 
often useful. Take same remedies as for congestion. 

Flooding. (See Profuse Menstruation, Menorrhagia, etc.) 

Polypus of the \A(^omb. (277) — Prompt removal. Give Chi- 
na, 3 x, to restore the strength. 

Cancer of the Womb. (277) — A dangerous and too often fatal 
disease. This disease gains a firm hold of a patient, often because she 
will not go to a physician and have an examination. A simple, curable 
ulceration will often become cancerous if allowed to continue. 


A rupture of the uterine neck, which can be repaired as easily as a 
tooth can be filled, will be allowed to go on, and at the change of life a 
cancer may find a resting place in the laceration, which would never have 
occurred, had proper surgical means been employed. 

I have written thus fully, so that you may understand how much 
easier these troubles may be prevented, than cured when once seated. 
When it first commences, it can often be removed, and with proper 
after treatment, under the eye of a surgeon, homoeopathic remedies can 
offer much as preventions and comforting remedies. Cures made by 
any medicine are doubtful. Such remedies as Ars., Condurango and 
Lachesis are useful. 

^A(^hites. (278) (Leucorrhoea.) — This is only a symptom of some 
disease of the womb, and can only be cured by giving such remedies as 
will cure the primary trouble. Ars., 3 x, will be useful if the discharge 
causes a burning in the vagina, is profuse and watery. 

Merc, 3 X, the discharge makes the skin sore, is thick and yellow 
or greenish. 

Kreasotum, 4 x, discharge offensive, of any consistency. 

Nux Vom., 3 X, debility ; menses too soon ; constipation, etc. 

Calc, Card., 30, profuse menses ; yellow, profuse leucorrhoea. 

Sepia, 30. relaxed mucous membrane ; sick and nervous headaches ; 
delaying menses ; chronic uterine troubles. 

Sulphur, cc, useful where any of the other remedies seem to be in- 
dicated but do not help. Calendula solution by injection, also Golden 

Diseases Occurring During Pregnancy. (280) — Morning 
Sickness (Nausea.) This is generally relieved by Nux, 3 x, and to be 
given for faintness and nausea with constipation. 

Bry., 3 x, is also a valuable remedy, where the nausea begins or is 
made worse by moving about ; must lie in bed or she will vomit. This 
is a reflex action of the sympathetic nerves, the real cause being con- 
gestion and often ulceration of the uterine neck. A small amount of 
hot water (one pint) may be used by vaginal injection once daily, to 
which may be added HamameUs or Borax. 

Constipation. (284) — Often a troublesome complaint and gen- 
erally relieved by Nux Vom., 3 x. 

Heartburn, Lactic Acid, cc, is an admirable remedy. 

Irritable Bladder. (284) (Frequent Desire to Make Water.) 
Cantharis, 3 x, will generally relieve. If the pain is stinging, give Apis 
Mel., 3 X. 


Cramp of the Legs. — Relieved by Cuprum Acet, 6 x. 

Varicose Veins. UamcnneUs, i x, internally, a good remedy. 
The extract may also be used externally. 

Pruritus, (285) (Itching.) — Mci-c, Cor., 3 x, internally and ex- 

Mealancholy, Despondency, etc. (285) — Aeon., 30, will 
overcome the fear and consequent nervous depression under which many 
pregnant women labor. 

Inflammation of the Breast, (286) (Mammitis.) — ^This 
should be prevented ; first, by not allowing the patient a liquid diet for 
the first five days. The breasts should not be squeezed or rubbed, but 
the milk should be fully removed by the child or a breast pump. At 
the first indication of inflammation, hot applications should be used and 
Bell., 3 x, give internally. If this is not done and the breasts become 
very hard, beside the hot applications give Pliytolaeea, i x, alternately 
with Bell. Should abscess result, it should be opened early, and Hcpar 
Sulph., 3 X, given internally*. 

Sore Nipples. (288) — Give Silicea, 30, internally, and apply 
Calendula ^, one part to ten of flexible Collodion, over the cracks or 

Milk Fever (288) seldom requires much, but if severe, give 
Aeon., I X. Should the brain suffer and the patient talk in her sleep. 
Bell., 3 X, will be suitable. 

Confinement. (289) — ^At such times a well qualified physician 
should be in attendance. Many, indeed the majority of cases, progress 
without interference, and the wise physician knows when to let well 
enough alone, while the less wise, by unnecessary interference, often 
makes a serious case out of an otherwise simple one. Much can be 
done to regulate the pains, to have the child present properly, and pass 
perfectly through the pelvis, but unless properly applied and at the right 
moment, it best be left to nature. 

Homoeopathic remedies are very efficacious, both during and after 
confinement, and many of the annoyances are passed by their use. 

Abortion or Miscarriage. (292) — Calc. Carl>., 30, will pre- 
vent abortion in many cases, particularly such as have a tendency to 
abort at the sixth or eighth week. Sabina, i x, third month ; i:)ain with 
slight haemorrhage. 

Secale Cor., 3 x, sixth month ; violent contractive pain. Those 
who are subject to abortion or miscarriage, should keep very quiet at 


the monthly nisis, or at such time as the menses would occur had they 

not been checked by pregnancy. 

Anemia. (294) — Ars., 3 x, green sickness, when the result of a 
perverted nervous action. 

China, 3 x, resulting from excessive loss of blood or any debilitat- 
ing discharges. 

Ferrtini, i x, deficiency of red blood globules. A change of cli- 
mate, scene, air, etc., is often very beneficiaL 

Barrenness (295) arises from many different causes and as the 
cause can only be found by a physician, you should seek his advice. 

Hysteria, (296) — ^I'his is a perverted nervous action, generally 
arising from uterine or ovarian disease, and the cause must be found 
and properly treated to lead to a cure. 

Gels., I X, very nervous, with hysterical convulsions. 

Mocht/s, 3 X, useful in many of the symptoms, such as palpitation 
of the heart, cramp of the stomach, neuralgia, etc., of hysterical sub- 

Puerperal Fever, (298) — ^A blood poisoning caused by absorp- 
tion of offensive or putrid material, either by an abrasion of the vaginal 
tract, or through the uterine bood vessels. It should be prevented by 
using a warm vaginal injection, every twelve hours, containing a little 
Calendula, for two weeks. If at any time the lochial discharge becomes 
offensive, use Carbolic. Acid enough to scent the water, and give Krea- 
sotu7n, 4 X, internally. Aeon., i x, Bell., 3 x, Ars., 3 x, Verat. Vir., 
T X, Baptisia <|), or i x, Rhus Tax. and Radicans, 3 x, and many other 
remedies are used, but without the proper cleansing of the vaginal tract, 
they are of little use. 

Puerperal Convulsions. (299) — If caused by uremic poison- 
ing, very dangerous. Bell, 3 x, Helleborous, 3 x, and Cicufe, 6 x, are 
very useful, together with any means to get the patient perspiring. An 
experienced physician should be summoned, and the case given to his 
full charge. Anaesthetics often have to be given and the child delivered 
with instmments. At other times any simple remedy will answer. 

Puerperal Mania. (299) — Cifuic, 3 x, liyoscainus, i x, ZnCf 
30, and Kali Bromide, have all cured this distressing complaint. 

Milk Leg. (299) (Phlegmasia.) — Aco?i., i x, and Bids., 3 x, al- 
ternately, will often cut an attack short at the beginning. Extract of 
Hamamelis is a good application, locally. 

Itching of the Genital Organs. (300) — (See Pniritus.) Ars^ 
3 x. ATcrc, 3 x, Rhus Tax,, 3 x, all good. 


Diseases of Children. (301) — 

Jaundice of Infants. (313) — Aeon., 3 x, will be useful if the 
child is feverish and very restless. 

China, 6 x, constipation, with much bile in the system. 

Merc, 6 x, skin very yellow; stools white (clay color). 

Phos,, 30, one of the best remedies when the child has a hacking 

Retention, Suppression and Difficulty of Voiding the 
Urine. (314) — Apply hot clothes over the kidneys, and give Aeon., 
3 X, every hour. 

Canth., 3 X, will often succeed when Aeon, fails. The case should 
be examined for any malformation. 

Incontinence of Urine. (315) — Wetting the bed is very com- 
mon during childhood. If caused by worms, or intestinal irritation, 
Cina, 30, will benefit. 

Ferrum Aeet., 3 x, in delicate blonde children. 

Equisetum Hyemale, 3 x, is also a useful remedy to break up the 

Teething. (315) — Cale. Carb., 30, will generally advance the 
teeth when they are delayed. 

Kreasotum, 4 x, often relieves the sensitiveness of the gums and 
reflex nervous excitement. 

Chamomilla, 30, child is very nervous and cries often ; colic and 

Diabetes. (316) — Uranium Nitrate, 3 x, and Phosphoric Aeid, 
I X, are the most useful remedies. (See Diabetes Melhtus.) 

Erysipelas. (317) — Bell., 3 x, on the face, worse on right side ; 
an inflamed, even surface. 

Rhus Tox, 3 X, burning pain, with vesicles filled with serum. 

Arniea, 3 x, erysipelas, very painful and sore to touch. 

Apis Mel., 3 X, Canth., 3 x. Aeon., i x, and Ars., 3 x, are also 

Thrush. (317) (Apthae.) — Ars., 30, when it occurs during the 
course of a debilitating disease. 

Mere. Cor., 3 x, occurs suddenly, without previous symptoms. 

Hydrastis, i x, lingers and does not readily disappear ; stomach out 
of order. 

Colic. (319) — Colocynth, 3 x, is generally the first remedy called 


Plumbum Carb., 30, long continued colic with constipation. 

Chamomil/a, 30, colic during dentition. 

Constipation. (320) — Nux Vom., 3 x, where the trouble arises 
from an inaction of the muscular coats of the intestines. 

Opium, 30, stool hard, composed of small hard balls. Bry., 3 x, 
is given for alternate constipation and diarrhoea. If the child is taking 
cow's milk, salt it. Do not give physic ; and if the above remedies do 
not cure, go to a physician. 

Vomiting. (321) — Ipecac, i x, nausea and vomiting. 

Ars., 3 x, red tongue, with vomiting of everything as soon as taken. 
Where it is the result of irritation of the brain, such remedies as Zinc^ 
30, Hellebore, 3 x, and Anti7nony Tart, 3 x, are all useful. 

Diarrhoea. (321) — China ^, summer, painless diarrhoea. 

Ars., 3 x, vomiting and diarrhoea ; red tongue, with burning pain in 
the bowels. 

Coloc, 3 X, diarrhoea with colic. 

Verat Alb., i x, vomiting ana diarrhoea; cold sweats; cramps, 
cholera morbus. 

Bell., 3 x, hot head, burning, red face, with diarrhoea. 

Helleborus, 3 x, tendency to water on the brain, during a diarrhoea ; 
cholera infantum. 

Summer Complaint. (322) (Cholera Infantum.) — (See Diar- 
rhoea.) The diet of the child is generally at fault and should be 
changed or corrected. 

Worms. (325) — Sautonine, i x, for stomach worms. 

Ratanhia, i x, pin worms. 

Sore Eyes. (325) — (See Opthalmia.) 

Croup. (326) — Aeon., i x, and Spongia, 3 x, alternately, for 
spasmodic croup. 

Membranous Croup. Kali Bich., 3 x, the best remedy. A 
Solution of Chloride of Lime, by inhalation. It often becomes neces- 
sary to perform tracheotomy. 

Spasm of the Glottis. (328) — Aeon., i x, is all the remedy 
needed generally. 

Snuffles, or Cold in the Head. (329) — Aeon., 3 x, and Bry., 
3 X, are the remedies most generally useful. Kali lod., 3 x, also an ad- 
mirable remedy. 

^A^hooping Cough. (329) — Bell., 3 x, flushed face, ^vith vio- 
lent spasm. Ipecac, i x, vomiting accompanying the cough. 


Cuprum Acet, 30, violent whooping which is constant. 

Corralmm Rubum, 30, will cure many cases as though by magic. 
Verat. Vir., i x, may be useful if the chest becomes congested. Vio- 
lent attacks of whooping cough can be controlled by Kali Bromidey 
Bell, and Castanea Vesica, and they should be used under the special 
direction of the physician. 

Convulsions, Fits, Spasms. (331) — Send for a physician and 
give Bell., 3 x, every ten minutes if the face is flushed, if not, Gels.^ 
I X, will be a more useful remedy. 

Measles. (332) — Usually a very mild disease; particularly so 
under homoeopathic treatment. 

Aeon., 3 X, during the first two or three days. Sneezing ; hacking 
cough ; fever and restlessness. 

Bell., 3 X, much pressure of blood to the brain ; mild delirium. 

Cupru7n Acet., 30, sudden disappearance of tlie eruption when 
only partially out. 

Puis., 3 X, much running of a watery fluid from the eyes and nose ; 
cough ; diarrhoea, etc., one of the best remedies in this disease. 

Sambucus, i x, if there is much bronchitis, give this remedy. 

Hepar Sulph., 3 x, toward the end of the disease, to prevent 
sequela. The same remedies are used in malignant or Black Measles, 
(333) but a physician should be called, for any remedy may become 
necessary in the Materia Medica. 

Rickets. {t,t,) — Calc. Curb., 30, and Calc. lod., 3 x, Kali lod., 
3 X, Iodine, 3 x, are the principal remedies for this defect of osseus nu- 










Acid, Benzoic, 

Acid Benz., 

Acid, Phosphoric, 

" Phos., 

Acid, Sulphuric, Dilute, 

" Sulph. Dil, 

Aconitum Napellus, 


Wolfs Bane. 

Antimonium Tartaricum, 

Ant. Tart., 

Tartar Emetic. 

Apis Mellifica, 


Poison of Honey Bee. 

Apocynum Cannabicum, 

Apoc. C, 

Indian Hemp. 

Argentum Nitricum, 

Arg. Nit., 

Nitrate of Silver. 

Arnica Montana, 



Arsenicum Album, 


Arsenious Acid. 

Baptisia Tinctora, 


Wild Indigo. 



Deadly Nightshade. 

Bryonia Alba, 


White Bryonia. 

Cactus Grandiflorus, 

Cact. G., 

Night Blooming Cereus. 

Calcarea Carbonica, 

Calc. Carb., 

Carbonate of Lime. 

Calcarea Phosphorica, 

Calc. Phos., 

Phosphate of Lime. 

Calendula Officinalis, 


Common Eng. Marigold 



Laurus Camphor. 



Spanish Fly. 

Carbo Vegetabilis, 

Carbo. Veg., 

Vegetable Charcoal. 

Caulophyllum Thalictroides 

, Caul., 

Blue Cohosh. 



Matricuria Chamomilla. 

China Cinchona, 


Peruvian Bark. 

Coffea Cruda, 


Arabian Coffee. 



Bitter Cucumber. 

Cuprum Aceticum, 

Cup. Acet., 

Acetate of Copper. 

Digitalis Purpurea, 


Purple Foxglove. 




Gelseminum Semperoirens, 


Yellow Jassamine. 




Hamamelis Virginica, 


Witch Hazel. 

Helleborus Niger, 



Christmas Rose. 






Hepar Sulphuris Calcareuni, Hepar Sulph., 

Sulphide of Calcium. 

Hyoscyamus Niger, 



Hypericum Perforatum, 


St. John's Wort. 

Ignatia Amara, 


St. Ignatius' Bean. 



Cephselis Ipecacuanha. 

Kali Bichromicum, 

Kali Bich., 

Bichromate of Potash. 



Creosote. [is. 



Trigonocephalis Laches- 

Lycopodium Clavatum, 


Club Moss. 

Lilium Tigrinum, 

Lil. Tig., 

Tiger Lily. 

Mercurius Vivus, 

Merc. Viv., 

Quicksilver. [cury, 

Mercurious Protoide, 

Merc. Prot., 

Yellow Iodide of Mer- 




Natrum Muriaticum, 

Natr. Mur., 

Chloride of Sodium. 

Nux Vomica, 

Nux v.. 

Strychnos Nux Vomica. 






An Element. 

PodophiUum Peltatum, 



Pulsatilla Nigricans, 


Wind Flower. 


Rumex Crispus. 


Yellow Dock. 

Rhus Toxicodendron, 

Rhus Tox., 

Poison Oak. 



Common Savine. 

Secale Coruntum, 

Secale Cor., 

Smut of Rye. 



Cuttle-Fish Juice. 




Spongia Tosta, 


Toasted Sponge. 



Flowers of Sulphur. 

Thuja Occidentalis. 


Arbor- Vitoe. 

Veratrum Album, 

Verat. Alb., 

White Hellebore. 

Veratrum Viride, 

Verat. Vir., 

Green Hellebore. 








Aconite {Monkshood). Chiefly affects the circulatory system. 
Useful in inflammatory fever, fever heat, with dry skin, and restlessness. 
The pulse is fine, quick and wiry ; dry cough, or croupy cough ; rous- 
ing from sleep ; pleurisy ; spitting of blood and nose-bleed ; neuralgia 
and rheumatism, with stinging pains ; complaints from dry, cold air, and 
fright ; pains aggravated at night, relieved by sitting up. 

Apis Mel. {Poison of the Honey Bee). Shortness of breath 
from dropsy ; dropsical affections ; swellings, especially when attended 
with biting, gnawing, stinging, and itching ; swellings resembling those 
arising from the sting of a bee ; useful in urinary troubles, when the 
urine is scanty and its emissions attended by a scalding, burning sensa- 

Arnica Montana. For complaints of nervous individuals ; full 
plethoric habit ; rheumatic pains ; apoplexy and paralysis ; bloodshot 
spots from bruises ; effects of sprains, strains and contusions ; painful 
and excessive sensitiveness of the whole body ; convulsions and tetanic 
spasms from injuries. 

Arsenicum {Arsenious Acid). Chiefly affects the alimentary 
canal, respitatory organs, and skin. Burning pains in the stomach, 
bowels and elsewhere, relieved by hot applications ; vomiting, cramp in 
the stomach, diarrhoea ; asthma ; scaly eruptions, burning ulcers all worse 
soon after midnight ; great restlessness and prostration ; great thirst, 
with drinking frequently, but little at a time ; complaints from ice cream, 
ice water, tobacco. 

Belladonna {Deadly Nightshade). Chiefly affects the brain, 
nerves and glands. Fever heat with 7noisi skin, drowsy sleep or inabil- 
ity to go to sleep ; starting in sleep ; congestion of blood to head, eyes 
and face ; throbbing headache ; neuralgia of the face ; throbbing tooth- 
ache ; dentition, with jerking in the sleep or convulsions ; sore throat ; 

barking cough : erysipelas. 



Bryonia Alb. {White Bryonia). Chiefly affects the muscles, 
fibrous tissues of joints, lung, hver and respiratory organs. Biliousness, 
with thick white coating of the. tongue; bitter tastes; chilliness; burst- 
ing headache ; stitches in the chest ; dry, painful cough, worse on enter- 
ing a warm room, with stitch-pain, all worse from motion. Pleurisy ; 

Calcarea Carb. {Prepared Oyster Shelf). Ailments connected 
with scrofulous and rickety children, especially when there is a predom- 
inant disposition to fluent coryza, cold and diarrhoea, or it is particu- 
larly adapted to frail individuals being poorly fed, also to such as have 
in their youth a marked disposition for growing fat and stout. It is also 
of benefit in ailments arising from teething, and in slow, protracted denti- 
tion. Sour smelling diarrhoea during dentition. 

Cantharis {Spanish Fly). In affections of the urinary organs, 
as in inflammation of the bladder and kidneys, in retention of urine, also 
where there is strangery and discharge of blood. Vesicular eruptions of 
the skin. 

Carbo Veg. {Charcoal). Ailments arising from abuse of mer- 
cury, as in offensive breath, bleeding of the gums and canker in the 
mouth. Ailments arising from derangements of the digestive organs 
caused by eating fat meats, pork, etc., or in waterbrash, sour eructations, 
raising of air or bitter eructations, also in spasms of the stomach, with 
burning, aching, and contractive pains. 

Chamomilla {Chamomile). Chiefly afiects the stomach and 
the bowels, and is adapted to conditions of irritation and excitability of 
the nervous system. Cross, peevish ; pain makes frantic ; hot sweat 
about the head ; one cheek red, the other pale ; teething, with green 
stools ; the child wants to be carried about ; jerking of limbs ; convul- 
sions ; inflammation of eyes after birth ; colic of infants ; bad effects 
from opium. 

China {Red Cinchona Bark) . Chiefly affects the vital powers 
and nervous system. Irritability and sensitiveness of the whole system ; 
languor ; inertia ; heaviness of the limbs ; weakness from loss of animal 
fluids, and in weakness after severe acute diseases. In dyspepsia, bil- 
ious and gastric affections, when there is impaired appetite with great 
weakness of digestion, flatulency, bitter taste in the mouth and heart- 
bum ; flatulent colic ; atrophy, emaciation, particularly in children ; the 
pains of china are darting and lacerating, or lacerating with pressure and 
are aggravated by contact, also at night. 


Cina (IVormseed). In worm affections, with sleeplessness, di- 
lated pupils ; picking, and disposition to bore in the nose ; stoppage of 
the nose ; paleness of the face ; hollow-eyed, or dark streaks beneath 
the eyes, circumscribed flush of the cheek ; loss of appetite or voracious- 
ness ; nocturnal incontinence of urine, bloated abdomen. 

Cocculus {Indian Cockle) . Chiefly affects tlie brain and spi- 
nal nerves. Gastric and bilious affections ; vomiting and nausea, from 
riding in the cars, carriage or on the sea. Constrictive, spasmodic pains 
in the abdomen, relieved by emission of wind, as in colic and cramps of 
the stomach ; nervous weakness ; fainting fits ; emaciation and general 
weaknesses ; difficult and painful menstruation. 

Coffea i^Coffee). Chiefly affects the nervous system; is useful 
in ailments characterized by excessive nervous excitability as in nervous 
headache, sleeplessness, also sleeplessness of infants ; mental fatigue and 
nervous excitement ; excessive painfulness of the affected part, and great 
irritability of body and mind. 

Colocynthis {\Vild Ciccumber). Chiefly affects the nervous 
system. Neuralgia with crampy pain, nausea and vomiting ; colic with 
violent pains in the the umbilical region, causing the patient to cry out 
and bend double ; the pain comes every few minutes and leaves the ab- 
dominal wafls so sensitive that the pain is felt at every step ; yellow 
diarrhoea, excited by eating or drinking ever so little ; vomiting and 
diarrhoea after a fit of chagrin. 

Drosera {Sundew). Chiefly affects the bronchia. Whooping 
cough ; spasmodic cough. 

Dulcamara {Bitier Sweet). Chiefly affects the skin, mucous 
membrane and glands. Useful in diarrhoea with Coloc. after taking cold ; 
swelling and induration of the glands ; catarrhal ailments ; small, hard, 
dry warts ; suppurating herpes or dry scaly tetter ; cough with expecto- 
ration of tenacious mucous, and stitches in the side of the chest ; also in 
ailments such as diarrhoea, headache, cough, etc., caused by cold, wet 

Glonoine {Nitro Glycerine). Sunstroke, headache, pain as if 
the skull was being pressed asunder ; violent rush of blood to the head ; 
throbbing in the forehead, extending to the nape of the neck ; oppres- 
sion of the chest ; throbbing of the carotids ; pain heat and chills down 
the back ; numbness and weakness in the left arm and leg ; vertigo when 


Graphites {Black Lead). Useful in unhealthy condition of the 
skin, chronic eruptions, ulcers and erysipelas, cracks and excoriations, 
tetter, humid and scaly, eruptions on the head, eruptions around and in 
the ears, discharge of blood or pus from the eac, sore, cracked and ul- 
cerated nostrils, constipation with large and knotty stools, coexisting 
with a dry harsh skin. 

Hepar Sulphur {Sulphide of Calciuni). Chiefly affects the 
glands, mucous membranes, skin and windpipe. Ulcerations and 
suppurations, favoring and promoting the suppurative process, as in ab- 
scess, boils, sty, gumboil and whitlow (felon) , catarrhal affections ; loose 
cough and rattling of mucous ; croup ; also in chronic hoarseness ; ill 
effects of mercury ; dyspepsia and weakness of digestion in persons who 
have taken much mercury. 

Hyoscyamus Niger {Henbane). Useful in convulsions, spas- 
modic affections and other derangements of the nervous system ; sleep- 
lessness, hydrocephalus and other affections of the brain ; headache ; dry 
spasmodic cough, particularly at night, as if occasioned by tickling of 
the throat, especially when lying down, with redness of the face ; diffi- 
culty of breathing ; spasms of the chest ; wild delirium ; insanity. 

Ignatia Amara {St. Ignatius Bean). Chiefly affects the mind, 
brain and nervous system. Useful in hysteric affections, also convulsive 
and spasmodic disorders, especially when occasioned by fright or grief; 
nervous affections of infants ; great excitability of the nervous system, 
pain from the least touch ; headache as if a nail were driven into the 
head, better from eating. Trembling of the body. 

Ipecacuanha. Chiefly affects the mucous membranes ; useful in 
paroxisms of suffocation as in asthma, with feeling of constriction and 
rattling of mucous in the chest ; whooping cough, with bluish face and 
accumulation of phlegm in the chest ; vomiting and diarrhoea, especially 
in summer after unripe fruits or acids ; stools fermented, like yeast, or 
green. Convulsions after eating oranges or raisins, pound cake, etc., 
profuse menstruation with constant nausea. 

Lycopodium {Wolfs Foot). Chiefly affects the digestive or- 
gans and kidneys. All food eaten seems to be transformed into gas, 
which keeps up a rolling and rumbling in the bowels. Sandy, red, brick 
dust deposit in the urine. False membrane on the right side of the 

Mercurius {Quicksilver). Useful in ailments connected with 
the mucous membrane, the glands and the liver ; catarrhal and inflam- 


matory affections of the respiratory organs and the lungs ; sweUing, in- 
flammation and suppuration of the glands ; scrofulous, catarrhal, rheu- 
matic or syphilitic sore eyes ; rheumatic pains in the joints and limbs, 
especially at night ; aching in the bones ; rheumatic headache, tooth- 
ache and neuralgia ; emaciation ; profuse perspiration at night, especially 
in slow fever, without affording relief. 

Nux Vomica. Chiefly affects the cerebral and spinal system. 
BiUous affections ; derangement of the stomach and bowels ; paralytic or 
spasmodic affections from sedentary habits, the abu§e of ardent spirits 
and various forms of dissipation ; gastric derangement during pregnancy, 
and complaints arising from chagrin or anger ; piles ; nervous prostration, 
caused by mental exertion and overwork ; constipation and piles. 

Opium. Chiefly affects the nervous system and greatly stimulates 
the brain. This remedy is frequently suitable to drunkards and old peo- 
ple and to persons on whom other medicines are slow to act. Dreamy, 
stupid, sleeeplessness, consequence of fright; trembling, jerking, convul- 
sions, beginning with rigidity of the whole body ; loud cries ; epilepsy ; 
tetanus ; painter's colic and paralysis ; delirium tremens ; expectoration 
of frothy blood, when coughing ; constipation from torpor of the bowels. 

Phosphorus. Chiefly affects respiratory organs, the bronchia and 
cerebro-spinal system of nerves. Tuberculous affections ; catarrhal diffi- 
culties ; weakness from loss of animal fluids ; want of vital reaction ; 
chronic diarrhoea ; pneumonia and other affections of the throat and 
lungs. Restless, unrefreshing sleep, with frightful dreams ; hectic fever, 
with dry heat, especially toward evening ; night sweats ; violent catarrh, 
with hoarseness, sometimes loss of voice ; cough with rawness, soreness, 
sore and excoriating pain in the chest. 

Pulsatilla (^Pasque Flower). Chiefly acts on the lymphatic 
system and nervous bloodvessels, the mucous membranes, the urinary 
and sexual organs, the eye and skin. Especially adapted to female de- 
rangements, and to persons of gentle disposition, easily inclined to weep, 
with disposition to catarrh, or leucorrhoea ; chronic difficulties, arising 
from abuse of sulphur water, quinine, mercury ; in derangements of the 
stomach, produced by the use of greasy food, fat pork, pastry ; bad ef- 
fects from fright or shame ; measles and their secondary ailments ; lacer- 
ating or beating headache, sometimes with vomiting ; nausea, with dispo- 
sition to vomit ; uterine spasms, resembling labor pains ; derangement 
and irregularity of the nausea, with severe pain, colic, nausea, vomiting 
and headache. 


Rhus Tox {^Poison Oak). Chiefly affects the brain and ner- 
vous system, ligaments, tendons, mucous membranes and the skin. This 
is a great remedy in rheumatic and arthritic affections ; vesicular ery- 
sipelas ; excitability and derangement of the nervous system ; bad conse- 
quences from sprains or bruises, the pain is worse at night in bed, during 
rest, also in cold or damp weather. Typhoid and typhus fever. 

Sepia {Ctifile Fish). Useful in affections of the skin and in 
female complaints ; the pains are relieved by the application of warmth 
and usually disappear during violent exercise. Dry and itch-like erup- 
tions ; ringworm ; headache, as if the eyes would fall out of the head ; 
falling of the womb, with bearing down pain ; acrid leucorrhoea, with 
itching and excoriation ; affections during pregnancy. 

Silicea. Useful in scrofulous affections of the bones, rachitis j 
chronic affections, from abuse of mercury ; ulceration of the bones, swell- 
ing and curvature of the spine ; suppurating sores of various kinds ; felon ; 
gangrenous sores ; fistulas of various kinds, especially when bones are in- 
volved ; glandular swelling ; hard, painful, suppurating ulceration of big 
toes ; suppression of sweat on the feet ; swelling of the knee. 

Spongia {Sponge). Chiefly affects the bronchia, that part known 
as the larynx ; cures croup (in alternation with Aconite) . Goitre, with 
pressure and tingling in the swelling ; hoarseness after singing ; hoarse- 
ness, cough and coryza ; difficult respiration, as if the throat were closed, 
with pain in the throat and chest on coughing. 

Sulphur. Chiefly affects the skin, and to a great extent the whole 
organism, rendering it susceptible to the action of other remedies. Is 
especially indicated if the patient has been troubled with boils or any 
form of suppurative disease. It is the chief remedy for herpes and erup- 
tions of various kinds ; rough and chapped skin ; warts ; hepatic spots ; 
ulcers ; felons ; boils ; intolerable itching ; continually recurring erysipelas ; 
inflammation and swelling of bones ; piles ; dysenteric stools, with violent 
tenesmus ; diarrhoea in the morning ; burning in the stomach, with sour 
eructations ; chronic constipation. 

Tartar Emetic. This is an important remedy in the first stage 
of influenza ; dry cough and affections of the chest, also in bilious affec- 
tions ; small pox ; asphyxia of new born infants. Pustular eruptions on 
the whole or any part of the body ; stupefying headache ; with pressure 
above the eyes ; nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea ; violent oppression of 
the stomach ; suffocative, spasmodic cough ; rattling of mucous, coughing 


and sneezing ; difficulty of breathing, especially at night ; palpitation of 
the heart and oppression of the chest. 

Veratrum Album {Whife Hellebore). Acts chiefly on the 
brain and intestinal canal. Cholera ; cramps in the limbs and bowels ; 
paralytic pain in the Hmbs ; cramps in the calf ; unquenchable thirst; 
sudden prostration of strength, debility and trembling, coldness, numb- 
ness, and formication of the extremities, the coldness being only exter- 
nal, with internal heat and violent desire for water. Cholera morbus, 
violent vomiting, diarrhoea, cramps. 

Veratrum Viride {American Hellebore'). Violent fever with full 
bounding pulse. The first stage of inflammation of the lungs, pereton- 
eum and brain. Severe beating, pressing headache, flushed face, delir- 
ium, even convulsions, with great fullness of the pulse. Typhoid pneu- 


Wtien to Gather ){( tio^w to Use. 


fVERY realm of nature contributes something, fraught with healing 
virtues, to the human race. The root, bark, leaves and flowers of 
plant, shrub and tree, together with the mineral and animal kingdom are 
all utilized in the economy of our Divine Creator, to expel disease, re- 
store health, and prolong life in mankind. This department of "The 
Cottage Physician" affords ready reference to the properties, uses, and 
doses of the remedies now in use by the various schools. The most 
common name is given, followed by the scientific or botanical name in 
(parenthesis), where there are two or more common names, one or more 
will follow the (parenthesis). Some of the more valuable plants are 
faithfully represented by illustrations which were engraved for the work 
from photographs of the actual plants, which will enable the reader to 
recognize them at sight. 

A few words about gathering and preserving medicinal roots, herbs, 
barks, etc., may be useful. 

All Plants (as a rule) whose leaves or stems are to be employed, 
should be gathered when in their fullest vigor, which is about the time 
of flowering. They should be dried in the shade as quickly as possible, 
and kept in a dry place carefully protected from insects. 

Flowers should be collected just before fully expanded. 

Seeds and Fruits when fully ripe. 

Roots of Annual Plants just before they bloom. 

Biennials after their first year's growth has ceased. 

Perennials in the autumn. 

Barks should be gathered either in autumn or early spring, before 
the season's growth has Ixigun. 

Roots and Barks may be dried in the sun without injury. 




Decoctions are made by boiling the medicinal properties in water. 

Infusions by pouring on boiling water and allowed to cool. 
Sometimes, as in case of wild cherry bark, it is necessary to infuse in 
cold water. The average proportion is an ounce of the drug to a pint of 

Tinctures are made by macerating drugs in alcohol. In cases of 
resinous substances, strong alcohol is used, otherwise, dilute with equal 
quantity of water. In many cases good whiskey may be used in place 
of diluted alcohol. In preparing tinctures from dried roots, barks and 
seeds, these should first be reduced to a coarse powder by grinding or 
bruising in a mortar. Fresh drugs generally make the best tinctures. 

Pills are made by accurately weighing the substances to be used, 
and then mixing them with water, alcohol, syrup, bread, molasses or 
some other mild substance. The mass after having been thoroughly 
mixed should be rolled into a long stick and then cut off into equal por- 
tions, according to number of pills required. Each pill should be rolled 
into round shape with thumb and finger. 

Absinthe {^Artemisia Absinthiuni) Wormwood. See illustration, 

Acid, Carbolic. Made from coal tar, the odor and taste resembles 
creosote. Is sometimes given internally, but generally employed exter- 
nally. When diluted with water it forms a splendid application for 
wounds. An excellent disinfectant and aids in healing. Much used in 
skin diseases of a parisitic nature. 

Acid, Carbonic. Dissolved in water forms the so called "plain 
soda," is useful as a refrigerant drink, quieting to an irritated stomach. 

Acid, Citric. Prepared from lemon juice. Often used in the 
treatment of scurvy. 

Acid, Gallic. A powerful astringent. Much used to check pas- 
sive hemorrhages of the nose, lungs, stomach and womb. Dose five to 
twenty grains. 

Acid, Muriatic, {Hydrochloric Acid). Sometimes used as a 
caustic. In dyspepsia characterized by sour stomach, this acid can be 
used with good effect, take ten to fifteen drops in a wineglass full of 
water, after meals. Is also used in \ovf fevers. Dose three to five drops ; 
given in water every two or three hours. 


Acid, Nitric, {Aqua Fortis^. Often used as a caustic, when 
diluted is used for the same purpose as muriatic acid. Has been used 
successfully in diseases of the liver. 

Acid, Oxalic. Seldom used medicinally, closely resembles Epsom 
Salts. Very poisonous. 

Acid, Sulphuric, {Oil of Vitro I) . Sometimes used as a caus- 

Acid, Tannic, {Ta?inin). Obtained from nutgalls. A most 
powerful vegetable astringent. 

Acid, Tartaric. Used in the preparation of Seidlitz powders. 
Also in inflammatory affections, fevers and scurvy. 

Aconite {Aconitum Napellus) Monkshood. See illustration, page 
512. Leaves and root are used. In the formation of acute inflamma- 
tions, such as quinsy, pneumonia, pleurisy, rheumatisjn, erysipelas, acon- 
ite is of great value. A tincture made from the root is the best way to 
prepare for ordinary use. In ordinary cases one or two drops may be 
given every hour or two, until the pulse is lowered and sweating pro- 
duced. This remedy has become very popular and is extensively used 
by all physicians. For breaking up colds and fevers it probably has no 

Agrimony {Agrimonia Eupatoria). Possesses mild, astringent, 
qualities. Both leaves and root are used. A cupful of the decoction 
taken two or three times daily, produces a relaxation of the bowels. 
Useful also as a gargle for sore throat. 

Alcohol {Spirit of Wine). The result of the fermentation of 
many vegetables. A wonderful preservative agent. Used in the prepa- 
ration of tinctures of substances containing a large proportion of resinous 
properties. Good whiskey which contains fifty per cent, alcohol, is often 
used instead of diluted alcohol. 

Ailanthus {Ailanthus Glandulosa) Chinese Tree of Heaven. 
Prepared in decoction, infusion, or tincture. Useful in atonic dyspepsia, 
loss of appetite, etc. 

Alkekenge {Physalis Alkekengi) Winter Cherry, Strawberry 
Tomato. Diuretic and tonic. Useful in jaundice, gravel and dropsy. 

Allspice {Eugenia Fimenta). Aromatic, stimulating, often used 
to relieve flatulence. 

Almond Sweet {Ajnygdala Dulcis). The ptilp is sometimes 
used in place of wheat flour, in the preparation of bread for persons suf- 
fering from diabetes. Bitter almonds are very poisonous. 


A perennial plant, growing- throughout 
the 17. S. and Canada. The root is the me- 
dicinal part. It is a tonic, having especial 
action upon diseased mucous tissues, and is 
particularly beneficial during recovery 
from exhausting diseases. It is used in 
dyspepsia, chronic affections of the ner- 
vous coats of the stomach, erysipelas, and 
remittent, intermittent, and typhoid fevers. 
With geranium or cranebill, it produces 
good results in chronic diarrhcEa and dys- 

Dose. — Of the powder from ten to thirty 
grains; of the tincture, from one to two fluid 





An Indigenous herb. The whole plant 
is used. It is a valuable nervine, tonic, and 
antispasmodic; it gives support to the 
nerves, and imparts strength and quietness 
to the whole system, and does not, like 
some nervines, leave the patient excited 
and irritable. It is used in neuralgia, chor- 
ea, convulsions, lockjaw, and most other 
diseases of the nervous system. 

Dose. — Fluid extract, from half to a 
spoonful; tincture, four ounces to a pint of 
diluted alcohol, one to two teaspoonsfuls. 
infusion, a wineglassful, three times a day' 

■ A 


Yellow Dock is an alterative, tonic and 
detergent, and is very valuable in scorbutic, 
cutaneous, scrofulous and syphilitic affec- 
tions, and all impurities of the blood. The 
root is used. 


The seeds and leaves are used. It is 
anodyne, narcotic, antispasmodic and de- 
obstruent, and is used in chronic rheuma- 
tism, neuralgia, asthma, sypbilcs, &c. 


Aloes {Aioe Vulgaris). An excellent purgative, does not produce 
watery stools, nor create wind in the bowels, rarely disagrees with the 
stomach. In small doses assists digestion. Often used in cases of ha- 
bitual costiveness in connection with indigestion. Aloes act principally 
on the lower intestines and will irritate if given too frequently or in too 
large doses. Should not be used in cases of piles, except in very small 
doses, nor when there is inflammation in the bowels and should be care- 
fully avoided by females who are subject to immoderate flowing of the 
menses, and carefully avoided during pregnancy. 

Alum. Astringent. Useful in checking the flow of blood from 
the nose, gions, after extraction of teeth, slight wounds and sometimes in 
cases oi piles. In nose bleed, powder and blow into the nostrils through 
a quill. A solution of alum is useful in chronic discharges from the nose, 
ear and female genital organs. In these cases use a teaspoonful alum to 
a pint of water, k gargle of alum water is beneficial in many cases of 
sore throat, especially when the parts are relaxed and "palate down." 
Burnt alum will remove proud flesh. Alum is sometimes used inter- 
nally, for diarrhcea and dysentery. Two or three grains dissolved in 
aromatic syrup taken three or four times daily, will often do much good 
in the later stages of whooping cough. Alum is also a splendid emetic in 
spasmodic croup. Dose, teaspoonful of powdered alum mixed with same 
amount of molasses and water, give one-third of this quantity every three 
to five minutes until the desired result is produced. 

Ammonia {Hartshorn) . A gasseous body, soluble in cold water 
forming water ammonia (aqua ammonia). A powerful diffusible stim- 
ulant, often used to restore persons in a fainting condition. Great care 
should be exercised in its use. 

Anise {Pimpinella Anisum). Very stimulating to the stomach 
and relieves pain in the bowels. Much used in flavoring liquids and in 
making cordial, A decoction is very useful, relieving colic pains in 
young children. Dose in powder twenty grains, oil two to four drops. 

Aqua Fortis. See Acid Nitric. 

Areca Nut {Areca Catechu) Betel-nut. Astringent. Principally 
used to expel tapeworms. 

Arnica {Arnica Montana) Leopard's Bane. A European plant. 
The flowers alone are used in this country. Useful in cuts, bruises and 
internal injuries. An infusion or decoction of half ounce of the flower 
in a pint of water is the best preparation for external use. For internal 
injuries the tincture may be given in five or ten drop doses every two 












A biennial plant. The leaves of this, are 
sedative and diuretic, reducing- the pulse, 
and increasing the urine. In large doses, 
they are a narcotic poison. 

Dose. — Of the powdered leaves of fox- 
glove, from one to three prains; of the tinct- 
ure, from eight to twelve drops. 


A perennial herb of the Middle and 
Southern States. The root is stimulant, 
tonic, and diaphoretic. It is used in typhoid 
fevers when the system needs support, but 
cannot bear active stimulation. Combined 
with Peruvian bark, it is also used in inter- 
mittent fevers. An infusion is employed 
in dyspepsia; and as a gargle in malignant 
sore throat. 



This shrub grows in most parts of the 
U. S. The bark of the root is purgative, 
emetic, stimulant, astringent, and antisep- 
tic. It is chiefly used fonts antiseptic prop- 
erties. For external use, it is valuable as 
a wash or gargle for all kinds of sores and 
ulcerations. The decoction is made by put- 
ting one ounce of powdered bark into two 
pints of water and boiling till reduced to 
one pint. 

Dose.— One tablespoonful every two or 
four hours as required. 



The root is the part used, and in decoc- 
tion or tincture is of great utility in dyspep- 
sia, general and local debility, flatulent 
colic, hysteria, etc. It greatly strengthens 
the female generative organs, and affords 
protection against miscarriage. 

Dose. — Of the powdered root, from five to 
ten grains, three times a day; of the satura- 
ted tincture five to fifteen drops. 


Arrow Root {Maranta Arundinaced) . Often used as an article 
of diet for invalids. Take a tablespoonful, add water enough to form a 
paste then gradually add a pint of boiling milk. 

Arsenic (^Arsenious Acid). This is a powerful and poisonous sub- 
stance and should be used only by the skilled physician. 

Assafoetida {Narthex Assafmtidd). A powerful stimulating an- 
tispasmodic. Often used in treating